I predicted the demise of the Republican Party. I pointed out that the greatest crime about QAnon, is, it uses the alleged rape of children for political gain. I asked how many followers of Trump – do not believe the rape of children is true? The next day the sane world is entreated to the most vile testimony imaginable when Greene blames the free press for exploiting raped children – too. Greene admitted 911 was true, after saying it was not, and, the free press is trying to “divide us”. McCarthy accuses the Democrats of adding more fuel to the fire, and not once considers Cortez’s remark that she feared for her life, and her PTSD was activated because she was raped as a child.
According to Tom Snyder, all four Presco Children are victims of incest – and our grandchildren. Snyder says this – for profit – then walks away, he believing there is going to be a movie about the rape of children that will get him more money. Profits from the movie will not go to my two nieces, my late sister’s Heirs.
Above is a photograph of me with Springfield’s elected officials in closed session. In public session I presented my proposal to have Franklin Street renamed, Harry Lane. I know there is a fake WANTED poster put on a fake abuser site, that members of the City Council can find – if they google my name! I know I am a victim of incest and extreme abuse – including slavery! My parents invented demonic ways to torture their children they believed they owned. They took our friends from us and used them sexually. My father would call my lover in the middle of the night and put the make on her. I almost got shot confronting him. He admitted he ended up in bed with my niece because they had been drinking together – and she came on to him. She says he kicked down a door.
On February 1, 2020, I announced I am a Republican Candidate for President. When did Biden choose Harris as his running mate? I ran because I believed that I represented all the major problems in the world and in the Republican party that one writer says is going the way of the Whigg party. I championed the State Department and our relationship with Germany and England – that President Biden restored yesterday!
Today, I am imploring a top rate law firm to champion the plight of REAL ABUSED CHILDREN and bring a lawsuit against the Republican Party – FOR CHILD ABUSE. I have gone to Incest Survivor Meetings and began a self-help book in 1992 where the major theme of this book, is….THE COVER-UP DOES MOST OF THE DAMAGE!
The real handicap I have owned most of my life, is my ability to see into the future. I had a dream about the Oakland fire. I saw into the future when I announced I was a candidate on April 18, 2019. When did Biden announce he was a candidate? Look at all the incredible things that had to happen – to make my visions come true! The next day I ask if evangelicals are false prophets. I predict a two year dark age is coming.
President: Royal Rosamond Press
“Will we allow the media, that is just a guilty as QAnon of presenting truth and lies, to divide us?” Greene said, referring to the conspiracy theory, which posits that Democrats are tied to a global sex trafficking ring that also involves Satanism and cannibalism.
Democrats were expected to move forward later Thursday with the vote to remove her from her committee posts.
House Rules Committee Chairman Jim McGovern said that while Greene expressed regret over her remarks and claimed to have an epiphany that QAnon was false in 2018, many of her comments, including those endorsing violence against House Speaker Nancy Pelosi, were more recent.
“I understand that Marjorie’s comments have caused deep wounds to many and as a result, I offered Majority Leader Hoyer a path to lower the temperature and address these concerns,” McCarthy said. “Instead of coming together to do that, the Democrats are choosing to raise the temperature by taking the unprecedented step to further their partisan power grab regarding the committee assignments of the other party.”
Followers of QAnon could care less about the fake victims they invented. They are about getting more and more attention – by using raped children – that are not being raped. They are intercepting the natural concern for abused children, and applying it to themselves. Mary Broadhurst suggested Alley Valkyrie did this when she went after me – in Belle’s name.
How many members of QAnon – do not believe children are being raped – but go along with this lie in order to get attention for their group – and own more power. This makes them a special breed of pedophile and raper of children. Did Trump use these crazy users of fake victims to start an INSURECTION? Did Trump use children?
WASHINGTON (AP) — A fiercely divided House has tossed Rep. Marjorie Taylor Greene off both her committees, an unprecedented punishment that Democrats said she’d earned by spreading hateful and violent conspiracy theories.
Today, 165 years later – plagued with deep ruptures – it’s possible the Republican Party could dissolve in a decade or two. The critical question: Is Trump adoration by the GOP base akin to the Whig’s splintering over slavery?
WASHINGTON (BLOOMBERG) – US President Joe Biden announced he is halting and reversing Trump administration foreign policy initiatives – including troop drawdowns in Germany and support for a Saudi-led offensive in Yemen that turned into a humanitarian disaster – as he sought to boost morale at the State Department.
Mr Biden said on Thursday (Feb 4) that he is ordering a full Pentagon review of the US military posture worldwide. That includes freezing former president Donald Trump’s plan to withdraw about 9,500 soldiers from Germany – a move that stunned European allies and generated bipartisan protest in Congress.
Mr Biden’s vision for foreign policy stands in stark contrast to Mr Trump’s “America First” approach in which the former president often shunned alliances and resisted acting against adversarial moves taken by Russia and other countries.
n June, Biden reached the required number of delegates to become the nominee. On August 11, Biden announced that Senator Kamala Harris would be his vice presidential running mate. On August 18 and 19, Biden and Harris were officially nominated at the 2020 Democratic National Convention, making Harris the first Asian American and the first female African American to be nominated for vice president on a major party ticket.[
Harris announced she was a candidate for President on January 2019
On April 18, 2019, the day after my grandson, Tyler Hunt’s birthday, I announce I am a Republican Candidate for the Office of the United States, and, I am hereby Acting President. As my followers know, I am a Futurian. I can not say if I won the 2020 Presidential election because that would not be fair to the voters. Due to the extreme crisis King Bobo, Putin, and Sarah Sanders ‘Evangelical She-thug’ have brought into the world, I was elected by the Futurian Committee to serve as acting President.
I am amused at the Time Juggling Thug Wamp, William Barr, is performing with our Justice System. The Law is not a Time Machine. However, Dark Villains have tried to use it as such in order to escape punishment. Thanks to me, King Bobo, and his Thug Wamps, have failed to alter the Mueller report. Something went wrong. It was not supposed to happen this way. The King has no clothing!
In the next two years, I will reveal what was really going on behind the scenes. This will take – real time! Until then, enjoy your shining hour in the sun!
God save the Future America!
Futurian Candidate for President
Most presidential candidates are entitled to receive Secret Service protection from the federal law enforcement agency that also provides security to all U.S. presidents and vice presidents and their families. Serious presidential candidates begin receiving Secret Service protection during the primary campaigns and continue to get coverage through the fall election if they become the nominee. Secret service protection for presidential candidates is provided for in federal law.
The Red Cross had a youth art program in the 50s and early 60s where a hundred works of American art were chosen to tour the world in a international show. I was chosen twice, when I was twelve, and when sixteen. The work I rendered at twelve can be seen in the photo above hanging on the wall. It is a watercolor of a sailboat.
The second work was a watercolor of Oakland’s Produce Market painted from memory. My brother and I worked the summers at our father’s warehouse located at second and Market street near the train tracks in Jack London Square. Acme Produce was located in a Victorian warehouse with a façade like the one on the house I lived in with my wife, the artist, Mary Ann Tharaldsen.
In my painting was a red truck like the Ford the Presco males drove around in, delivering produce as far away as Crockette California. This painting is described in a letter sent to my mother by a official at University High School. After coming home from Europe, the Principle asked if he could hang it in his office for awhile.
I was given a brochure that had the artwork in it that got lose long with both paintings. My uncle Vinnie saved a panting I was honored for when I was in the seventh grade, he finding it on the garage floor. He got it framed and hung to with the seascape I gave him.
Art Education;Nov52, Vol. 5 Issue 5, p8
The article focuses on the American Junior Red Cross International Art Program. The program is a joint sponsorship of the National Art Education Association and the American Junior Red Cross. The program was discussed by a group of teenagers from the Birmingham Schools with art teachers at the Southeastern Arts Association Conference. An eighth grade participant claims that the friendly understanding of their art creates a new feeling in people about children from other countries. A German exchange student at Birmingham says that the first time he saw the exhibit in Hamburg, Germany when he was in high school was a wonderful experience for him.
Work Continued After the War
When the war was over, the Junior Red Cross continued its activities. Beginning in 1923, the Junior Red Cross provided funds to support Indian schools in the American Southwest. During the Great Depression of the 1930s the youth organization assisted in the distribution of surplus wheat and cotton, the collection of clothing and food, and the canning of fruits and vegetables.
And Another War
In the 1940s during World War II the group increased its activities for the war effort. Members produced clothing, toys, furniture and art works. They entertained at military camps and hospitals. They helped collect paper, cloth and scrap metals for use by the military. They volunteered in hospitals and for the first time youth members recruited blood donors for the Red Cross.
Young People and the Red Cross Today
Membership in the Junior Red Cross began to decline after the second world war. Activities by junior members was less visible during the Korean and Vietnam wars. But that doesn’t mean young Iowans aren’t involved in volunteer work. The term “Junior Red Cross” is no longer used to signify the young members. Many young people participate in Red Cross work and projects across the state. The Red Cross Club, American Red Cross Babysitters Training Course, Youth Against HIV/AIDS and Masters of Disaster are Red Cross activities designed for young people.
|The Red Cross introduced an International Student Work-Study Program in 1946 which brought American and foreign secondary and college students together, A “High School Chest Program” was begun in 1947, with each chest containing supplies for 50 school children. They were distributed to children overseas and in the United States where school supplies had been lost in natural disasters. An International School Art Program was introduced which sent student paintings interpreting American life to schools in other lands. Red Cross Leadership Development Centers were created to provide training for junior and senior high school and college students.|
(All Presco Family Photographs are Copyrighted )
My mother was very proud of her four children who were captured and abused by the brutal man she married. Rosemary was our Liberator and Provider. She went to work at the Rucker Company in Emeryville. She was the executive secretary for a man who helped put men in space. Rosemary would tell her grown children how Mr. Rucker chased her around his desk – demanding sex from a mother he paid poorly! How humiliating for her sons! Our mother complained about the men she worked for getting great salaries knowing that Rosemary did much of the work. How – unfair! Everything had to go through Rosemary, who taught herself French while sunning in the backyard at Glendon, so she can translate electrical engineering manuals into English. Thanks to Vicki Presco, our mother is demonized in ‘When You Close Your Eyes’ written by the ghost writer, Vicki and Stacey Pierrot hired. Mark Presco told me on the phone he read the rough draft. I sent a letter to Executor Sydney Morris who belongs to Robert Brevoort Buck’s Law firm;
“You better be prepared to prove Christine Rosamond Benton is a renowned artist recognized as such by renowned art critics. Christine was a popular commercial artist, and she and her mother deserved a simple biography.”
When I looked at the photograph our mother had us pose for, I remember how she wanted to get my painting in the frame. My watercolor of a sail boat was chosen out of a hundred students across America to tour the world in a Red Cross show. I was twelve years of age when I did it, about to turn thirteen. This was quite a Family Achievement! Everyone was proud if me. This was our sojourn into the world. We were not sure how we would fare. We know we are damaged goods. Victor William Presco severely traumatized us. He never paid a penny of child support. We worried about our mother’s state of mind. She would tell us she had a scholarship to Camillio State Hospital. After dropping out as Christine’s No.1 named Executor, Vicki started claiming she was the only sane child. She was working behind the scenes. She blessed Pierrot and Snyder’s biography that demonized me in one of the most cruelest lies that ever exist in the Story of Art and Literature. For two weeks I have been preparing myself to present it to my new therapist. At the same time I will tell her;
“The Sapranos is fiction. The Prescos – are real!”
My little sister was a gangster fraud, and con-artist who worked with her father in his loan shark operation. Vicki told me our brother Mark disappeared himself after saying he would never speak to us again. I heard he had a stroke, but, I threatened to turn him inot the IRS because he never paid taxes, and encouraged Christine to not pay taxes. My brother is a Neo-Nazi. So was my father who died in 1994 six months after the world famous artist who signed her work by her middle name…….’Rosamond’.
In looking for what is, what was, good and pure in me and my family, what was well, what was healthy – and hopeful – I looked are our antique bookcase full of a rare books owned by William Stuttmeister, and then his daughter, Alice. The table we are sitting on, is a antique. There is a antique chair, and carpet. The Stuttmeisters are listed as San Francisco Pioneers. They had a home on McCalister and then Height Street.
We are German Children, a hopeful brood that survived the German colony in Fruit Vale. During world war one, our ancestors were vilified – demonized! They went underground. My father was a only child, and, much was riding on him. Rosemary said he was a ‘Made Man’ he given a SF moving company by his Stuttmeister aunts when he turned twenty-one. Rosemary was impressed. All families – are ambitious! My daughter’s family is – ambitious! Heather Hanson is – ambitious! In looking at these photos of me, I ask myself;
“What do you want John Gregory? I want to meet the most beautiful girl in the world, so I can fall deeply in love with her, so she will inspire me to do great works of art, and write beautiful poems……about her!”
In looking at me, I believe I am fifteen, going on sixteen. Mark is a year older than me, and Christine, a year younger. I believe Vicki is ten. She was twenty when I walked into her appartment with Rena Christensen. Vicki was married to Jim Dundon, and, his brother, Michael Dundon, was having an affair with my sister – who was not a closeted artist. We all gasped when we saw the most beautiful human we ever lay eyes on – in the light! Christine, Vicki, and myself saw her just after I rescued her. She was seventeen. Two days ago, I posed her with us, or, the ghost of Rosemary did.
“There is my handsome sons painting, and, here is his beautiful girlfriend. Come Rena, don’t be shy. You fit with us!”
You are getting a glimpse of how Christine and my biography should have been the one blessed by the Law Firm owned by Bob Brevoort Buck – who had to have approved of THE SALE of our story to an outsider. Buck approved of a movie being made from scripts written by ghost writers – who did not know us. I wanted revenge and restitution. Not able to afford an attorney, this Historian, Genealogist, and Art Teacher, researched the Bob Buck’s family, and struck Pay Dirt!
Rosamond married well when she married a Benton. The Bentons were close with John Jakob Astor who built a library and opera house in New York City. Astor commissioned Washington Irving to write about his adventures in the West. Irving was a close friend of Henry Brevoort, the man who built New York. Then there is Bob Buck who had an office in Eugene Oregon, who exploited our timber. He co-founded Beverly Hills as a Oil Baron. There is a tie to William Ralston ‘The Man Who Built San Francisco’ and William Sharon. I have proven Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor is our cousin. Astor corresponded with Thomas Jefferson about how to secure the West from the British, employing Russians who built Fort Ross. This is the tip of the iceberg! No outsider had a clue this history existed!
Here is my letter to Ed Ray who catered to marching, nameless, protestors of color, they going after the naming of Benton Hall, after my kin, Senator Thomas Hart Benton, who was John Astor’s attorney who helped BRAND John Astor’s MANIFEST DESTINY – with the help of Washington Irving! And so it goes….THE ADVANCEMENT OF WHITE PEOPLE – from Boston to San Francisco where Jessie Benton Fremont held a salon, where Bret Harte, and Mark Twain exchanged literary ideas. By all means, allow Oregon State University to put a stop to this, because, who cares to read about Ichabod Crane, or Rip Van Winkle, anymore!
I put these characters in Benton Tower with the crossed bones of Benton, who is THE BRANDED WHITE MAN, the epitome of what a white man is, according to those who ended up with the short end of the stick. I sent a message to Ed Ray and his gaggle of paid historians, and not one reply did I get, because the verdict was in, and the ideal white man, was made, he, a wimpy degenerate, looking for more victims of his innate racism, his sick need to dominate inferior people with his evil feelings of superiority. What about WHITE WOMEN? They…..are forgiven for the obvious political reason, and, not any literary reason.
The name change was supposed to have been put to the vote, the local citizens did not have a promised voice. No, none of the righteous give me an answer, show me respect, because I was not in their Perpetrator Box. White Men – can’t be victims! I am going to found Benton College, and a fraternity…
Back to Rosmary and her children.
If there was one asset that my grandfather, Royal Rosamond, owned – is that the right word – was the Beautiful Women in his life. The Rosamonds came from Ireland. Growing up, we went and saw Jack Kennedy in a motorcade in downtown Oakland. I saw Bobby Kenney in a Oakland park in 1969. Rosemarys Children were very aware of our Irish President and his family. There was a mother named….Rose! Why not….us? What’s wrong – with us? Thanks to Robert Brevoort Buck, the world did not get to know…us!
Yesterday I made time to call the elections and inquired what it would take to file as a Republican candidate for the office of President of the United States. I told Nina our divided nations needs to understand our history. Almost everyone is qualified to run for office. The story of how I have been disqualified from just about everything, while a rich New Yorker grabs more than his share of our Democracy, is worth a book, because I own the history of New York, and San Francisco.
All the beautiful women! All these Irish Roses!
To discover that Henry Brevoort was married to a cousin of John Astor, and went West looking for pelts as an officer in his company, puts me in a rare league of men, and writers, because Henry discussed Irving with his friend, Sir Walter Scott, who wrote about a Devil-Poltergeist at Woodstock where Fair Rosamond was captured in a Labyrinth. There is a reading at Rosamond’s Well, but no mention of King Henry’s paramour. There is however the character Emily Bronte created, named Rosamond Oliver, who Jane does a portrait of. It gets better. Scott’s story ‘The Headless Horseman’ may have been inspired by Cotton Mather, the grandson of John Cotton, a compatriot of my great grandfather, John Wilson, who fits the discription of Ichabod Crane.
Now add to this. I am a distant kin of Sir Henry Lee, who was a Lee Baroness, as was my Lee kin who is related to General Robert E. Lee, and the actor, Christopher Lee ‘The King of Gothic Actors’ after Vincent Price. Last but not least…enter Edgar Allan Poe the Gothic Science Fiction Writers who reviewed John Astor’s book on his Western Fir Company. Cotton Mather conducted Witch Trials and wrote a book about Witches. Rena admitted to me and her lover engaged in Satanic rituals, and I conclude this is what she believed I wanted her to practice with me, after she read my letter. This letter is what I wanted for this woman who has memorized a million poems. When I began my portrait of her as Fair Rosamond, she came to me. He spirit filled my abode. A chair was yanked away just as my woman friend was about to sit.
Rena was reading Jane Eyre when we met. Our story is a Gothic tale that I titled ‘Capturing Beauty’. We are what is Traditional in America. Millions of evangelicals are enthralled with the dark evil world of Tim LaHaye, who made millions foretelling the coming of the Dark Anti-Christ….and The Rapture that will follow. These are the Witchy Tales that put Donald Trump in the White House. Evangelical readers want him to remain there until………THE END
At 8:45 P.M. I awoke from my Old Man Nap – with a start! I was about to be caught. I was in a strange house doing a healing, when a car drove up in the driveway. It was not a new car. I was young. I was asked what my novels are about, after being told I died and went all the way.
“I write spiritual comedies. I use humor so I don’t scare people!”
“Your book are being dictated by a powerful entity that roams the universe coming to the aid of planets in dire distress!” said the head guide.
Rena looked deep into many people at the Venice Pier. Ten hours later, she spotted me, leaving my body as I looked in the sea. At a early age I learned to hypnotize myself – in order to escape the pain – and leave my body. I believe Rena does the same. I may be a Walk-on. I have wondered if Rena is a Walk-on. Those who were accused, and executed as witches, may have been Walk-ons…..Spirits trying to Save America from the European Invasion. Rena and I spent fifty days living in a tent. We could have done another fifty.
Consider Astor’s exchange of letters with Thomas Jefferson about the fate of the West. I have titled Rena the Angel of Manifest Destiny, and the personification of Britania. Sir Walter Scott lifted the poltergeist tale of Jane Gilbert, and summoned the Lee family to the scene in order to create a best seller? This is – my bloodline! I am the Champion of Rosamond Clifford – who is also my kindred! I am the Phantom of this American Melodrama. I was so close to filing, so near to registering my name, so that I can take on, and soundly defeat that charlatan, who stole my theme song!
Henry Brevoort held the first masque ball in New York City. Here is my outrage at the Queen for allowing the Trumpmeister in the ancestral home of Princess Diana, the mother of William and Harry, and, the recorded mother-in-law of Meghan Markle…who may not have understood she was at a Masquerade Ball, where at stake…..is half of Human History!
I just spotted the Clifford Coat of Arms at Blenheim. This is huge! There is a Rose Theme and a Labyrinth of Love, that a palace…enshrines!
She has brought me here, my Tarzanria, my Bondish Creation, my beloved bodyguard, Miriam Starfish Christling, kin to her boss, Victoria Bond, through the Cliffords and the Greystokes! For I am kin to the author, Ian Fleming, via Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor….born of The Labyrinth – all! Born again this day via my two Dragons, my beloved Muses who have accompanied me these last two years, along with the two cats that walked with me, that made my unkind neighbors wonder, what is going on in my mind.
For a little while, Starfish, tried to act normal. She wore a disguise at the marshmallow and weenie roast. She had fake friends, then, who knew Miriam was a fake, too. And together they had one hell of a fraudulent good time!
Jon Gregory Presco
President: Royal Rosamond Press Co.
I have every intention of dethroning George Martin, grabbing his Emmy from his hand, melting it down to make a sword, and drive it into to cold green heart of his fictional dragon: For, he dips his pin into the Rosy Book and Blood of my ancestors, and makes money on our struggles and sorrows.
The Clifford family bonded with the Greystokes, who appear to vanish into thin air, giving rise to the legend of Tarzan. Consider Miriam Starfish.
As a spirit, I will enter Skipton Castle and haunt this place where my ancestors did tread. If I were my daughter, I would put an end to her, and everyone’s Cat and Mouse Game, and take all that lured this minor child away form her father – to court! Too many mouse holes does a dull daughter, make. Be the Dragon Born, or the Dragon Gates will be closed to you……..forever!
Grasp the little meese by their tails, and put them outside the gate, and the rosy world will be yours.
John Rosamond Kane
“The translation of a few pages of German occupied an hour; then I got my palette and pencils, and fell to the more soothing, because easier occupation, of completing Rosamond Oliver’s miniature. The head was finished already: there was but the background to tint and the drapery to shade off; a touch of carmine, too, to add to the ripe lips — a soft curl here and there to the tresses — a deeper tinge to the shadow of the lash under the azured eyelid. I was absorbed in the execution of these nice details, when, after one rapid tap, my door unclosed, admitting St. John Rivers.”
There were several branches of the Lee family of Buckinghamshire all descended from Anthony Lee’s great-grandfather Bennet, who had come from Cheshire to establish himself at Quarrendon. The main line was represented two generations later by ‘Sir Robert Lee, courtier, sheepfarmer and enclosing landlord who added four manors to the Quarrendon estate. He may have sat as a knight of the shire in the early Parliaments of Henry VIII, for which the names are lost, and his name occurs with that of Sir Francis Bryan* on Cromwell’s list of 1533 thought to cantain suggestions for filling vacancies in the House of Commons.3‘
Most of the evangelical voters are down South, in the Red States. I am calling for the resignation of the President of the United States for the good of our UNITED Nation!
Robert descends from the Lees of Hartwell House.
Thomas Lee, of Hartwell, Bart., K.B. MP
Hartwell, Northamptonshire, England
|Immediate Family:||Son of Thomas Lee, of Hartwell and Elizabeth Ingoldsby|
Husband of Anne Lee
Father of Elizabeth Beke; Jane Lee and Sir Thomas Lee, 2nd Baronet
Half brother of Jane Ingoldsby and Richard Ingoldsby
|Added by:||Kevin Brees on September 10, 2008|
|Managed by:||Jimmy Dale Rosamond and 5 others|
|Curated by:||Erica Howton|
Hartwell House, Buckinghamshire
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hartwell House is a country house in the village of Hartwell in Buckinghamshire, southern England. The house is owned by the Ernest Cook Trust, has been a Historic House Hotel since 1989, and in 2008 was leased to The National Trust. The Grade I listed house is Jacobean with a Georgian front and Rococo interiors, set in a picturesque landscaped park, and is most famous as the home of exiled French king Louis XVIII in the early 19th century.
Known as the ‘Ditchley Portrait’, this painting was produced for Sir Henry Lee who had been the Queen’s Champion from 1559-90. It probably commemorates an elaborate symbolic entertainment which Lee organised for the Queen in September 1592, and which may have been held in the grounds of Lee’s house at Ditchley, near Oxford, or at the nearby palace at Woodstock.. After his retirement in 1590 Lee lived at Ditchley with his mistress Anne Vavasour. The entertainment marked the Queen’s forgiveness of Lee for becoming a ‘stranger lady’s thrall’. The portrait shows Elizabeth standing on the globe of the world, with her feet on Oxfordshire. The stormy sky, the clouds parting to reveal sunshine, and the inscriptions on the painting, make it plain that the portrait’s symbolic theme is forgiveness. The three fragmentary Latin inscriptions can be interpreted as: (left) ‘She gives and does not expect’; (right) ‘She can but does not take revenge’, and (bottom right) ‘In giving back she increases (?)’. The sonnet (right), perhaps composed by Lee, though fragmentary, can mostly be reconstructed. Its subject is the sun, symbol of the monarch.
“I am to understand language so misterious.”
Alice, to prevent his increasing the restrained anger of her father, compelled herself to answer, though it was with difficulty, “We are expelled from the Lodge by soldiers.”
“Expelled—by soldiers!” exclaimed Everard, in surprise—”there is no legal warrant for this.”
“None at all,” answered the knight, in the same tone of cutting irony which he had all along used, “and yet as lawful a warrant, as for aught that has been wrought in England this twelvemonth and more. You are, I think, or were, an Inns-of-Court-man—marry, sir, your enjoyment of your profession is like that lease which a prodigal wishes to have of a wealthy widow. You have already survived the law which you studied, and its expiry doubtless has not been without a legacy—some decent pickings, some merciful increases, as the phrase goes. You have deserved it two ways—you wore buff and bandalier, as well as wielded pen and ink—I have not heard if you held forth too.”
“Think of me and speak of me as harshly as you will, sir,” said Everard, submissively. “I have but in this evil time, guided myself by my conscience, and my father’s commands.”
“O, and you talk of conscience,” said the old knight, “I must have mine eye upon you, as Hamlet says. Never yet did Puritan cheat so grossly as when he was appealing to his conscience; and as for thy father“—
He was about to proceed in a tone of the same invective, when the young man interrupted him, by saying, in a firm tone, “Sir Henry Lee, you have ever been thought noble—Say of me what you will, but speak not of my father what the ear of a son should not endure, and which yet his arm cannot resent. To do me such wrong is to insult an unarmed man, or to beat a captive.”
Sir Henry paused, as if struck by the remark. “Thou hast spoken truth in that, Mark, wert thou the blackest Puritan whom hell ever vomited, to distract an unhappy country.”
“Be that as you will to think it,” replied Everard; “but let me not leave you to the shelter of this wretched hovel. The night is drawing to storm—let me but conduct you to the Lodge, and expel those intruders, who can, as yet at least, have no warrant for what they do. I will not linger a moment behind them, save just to deliver my father’s message.—Grant me but this much, for the love you once bore me!”
In 1834,Henry Brevoort built a mansion at 24 5thAvenue, at the northwest corner of 9th Street. Mr. Brevoort was descended from Dutch settlers and since 1701, his earlier ancestors had retained their farm, stretching from 5th Avenue to the Bowery and extending north of 14th Street. He was a lifelong friend of Washington Irving, with whom he corresponded by letters for over 50 years. His son, James Carson Brevoort, was a world famous collector of rare books and coins and was very involved with the Astor Library.J. Carson Brevoort also studied with his uncle, James Renwick. Mr. Renwick built the house at 21 5th Avenue, which would become the home of Mark Twain. According to Nathan Silver’s book Lost New York, the Brevoort House was probably designed by the firm of Ithiel Town and A.J. Davis. Its classic Greek Revivalelements made it a model for later homes in the City.
In 1845,directly across the street from the Brevoort House, a large, stately hotel was erected by the family, stretching the Avenue between 8th and 9th Streets.Called the Hotel Brevoort, it kept alive the family’s name after the mansion was torn down in 1925 to make way for another hotel.
In 1902, restaurateur Raymond Orteig purchased the Hotel Brevoort along with the nearby Hotel Lafayette, located at University Place and 9th Street. A native of France, Mr. Orteigmodeled both hotels on French precedents. The Café Brevoort, which he opened on the ground floor and basement of the hotel, served up haute French cuisine to notables of the day including Mark Twain, Edna St. Vincent Millay, Eugene O’Neill and George F. Baker. It included a Parisian sidewalk café, a new feature for the time. A deep interest in aviation had led Orteig to donate the $25,000 prize which inspired Lindbergh’s historic transatlantic flight, another venture that made him an international figure.Charles Lindbergh collected his prize at the Brevoort Hotel. Raymond Orteig would run the hotel until 1933 when it was taken over by the Knott Management Corporation.
From 1901-1938 Henri Grechen operated a barber shop out of the hotel where, according to the Times, he “cut the hair and shaved the beards of many famous persons.” This included Mark Twain, who used Mr. Grechen’s services for the 4 and ½ years that he lived nearby at 21 5thAvenue.
The Hotel Brevoort was extremely popular for the European elite and royalty. Congressmen, Senators, Mexican and Turkish heads of state, past U.S. presidents, army generals, and even Prince Arthur all frequented the hotel. It was a popular spot for book readings, luncheons for nearby churches, dinners for the likes of Gertrude Whitney, and big fundraisers for institutions like St. Vincent’s. On January 18, 1916, the day before she was tried in Federal Court for sending her articles on birth control through the mail, Margaret Sanger gave a rousing speech at the hotel during a dinner held to support her. The New York Times captured the event saying it had, “the flavor of Bohemia and Greenwich Village.”
In 1954 the hotel was demolished to make way for a large apartment building. Built by architects Corbet and MacMurray and completed in 1956, this 19-story building has 296 apartments that were converted to co-ops in 1981. It features a limestone and polished brick façade, interior courtyard garden, and lobby complete with murals painted by Paul Sample. One of the building’s earliest residents was Buddy Holly and, interestingly, Judge Judith Scheindlin lived there before she became television’s Judge Judy. The building was named the Brevoort, a lasting reminder of this prominent Dutch family and the hotel that anchored the Village.
Irving returned from Europe in early 1806, certain of two things: that he didn’t want to be a lawyer, and that he did want to be a writer … if he only knew how. Until then, the law remained his only viable form of employment, and he applied himself to passing the bar exam—which he did, albeit just barely.
That same year, Irving fell in with a group of moderately successful young men—including Gouverneur Kemble, New York blueblood Henry Brevoort, and James Kirke Paulding— who dubbed themselves the roguish “Lads of Kilkenny.” The Lads spent most of their time socializing, eating late dinners and staggering home drunk. But when pressed by Irving, they could also be remarkably productive—and in January 1807, Irving, Paulding, and Irving’s oldest brother William published the first installment of the satiric magazine Salmagundi.
Poking fun at the politics, social scene, and mores of the time, Salmagundi was the equivalent of Mad magazine to New Yorkers of 1807. A popular success even beyond New York, snooty critics accused its creators of “immoral influence.” Irving was delighted with such notoriety. Twenty issues would be published before squabbles with their publisher brought the magazine to an end.
Salmagundi cancelled, Irving found another topic ripe for satire—a recently-published travelogue called Picture of New York. Progress was slow, however, for he had fallen in love with Judge Hoffman’s 17-year-old daughter, Matilda. For nearly a year, Irving and Matilda carried on their romance, until the spring of 1809, when Matilda died of tuberculosis. Devastated, Irving retreated to a friend’s home in Kinderhook where, ironically, he would complete his finest burlesque while digging his way out of a black depression.
A dashing and romantic Irving in 1809 — the same year he rocketed to fame with A History of New York.
Scrapping his initial idea to parody the travelogue, Irving instead compressed the reams of notes and random scribblings into something new. The resulting book, A History of New York, was no mere parody, but a rollicking, satirical history of the Dutch conquest, establishment, and eventual loss of his home town. In December 1809, Irving published his book under a new pseudonym, Diedrich Knickerbocker, a wry, crusty Dutch historian. An immediate bestseller, Knickerbocker soon became the personification of All Things New York. Even today, it appears across the front of New York’s NBA team, although in its more well-known abbreviated form, reading simply “Knicks.”
Despite his success as Knickerbocker, Irving remained uncertain of his abilities—and for the next few years he cast about trying to determine if he could earn a living as a writer or whether, out of necessity, he would have to find a real job. He eventually landed a post as editor of a new magazine, the Analectic, where, as the War of 1812 raged around him, he patriotically cranked out biographies of America’s naval war heroes. Itching for military glory himself, Irving was delighted to receive a commission to serve as a colonel in the New York State Militia. To his great disappointment, he saw no action.
With the failure of the Analectic in 1814, and the war over, a bored Irving sailed for Liverpool in 1815 to visit his brother, Peter, who was overseeing the family’s shipping business in England—a business, Irving soon learned, that was on the brink of collapse. Irving spent the next two years trying unsuccessfully to dig out the firm, eventually declaring bankruptcy—a humiliating process that would haunt Irving for the rest of his life.
The Lost Brevoort Mansion — 5th Ave. and 9th Street
|Shortly after this photograph was taken in 1925 the Brevoort mansion would be demolished — NYPL Collection|
In 1828 George Rogers began construction of his country home on the northern edge of what would soon become Washington Square. An unpaved road named Fifth Avenue stretched north of the square through the farmland of Henry Brevoort—a wealthy landowner so influential that when the City Fathers planned the extension of Broadway they were forced to swerve it to the west at East 10th Street rather than demolish his orchard.
Brevoort’s son, also named Henry, was born in September 1782. In 1817 he married Laura Carson of South Carolina. Brevoort was what The Evening World would later call a “gentleman of great wealth and unlimited leisure.”
He was a patron of literature and arts and became close friends with Washington Irving and Sir Walter Scott. The World said “Himself a writer of no mean skill, Brevoort stood always ready to aid those who found writing, in a day when writing won little material reward, a gateway to financial embarrassment. To him Irving owed much of his fame and happiness.”
In the first years of the 1830s the younger Henry began plans for a new mansion and looked towards the Bond Street neighborhood, then among the most exclusive residential areas in New York. But his feisty father had other ideas. Almost a century later a relative would recall, “I remember hearing the family tell how great-grandfather wanted to build his home on Second Avenue, which was then the fashionable section, but his father, who owned all of the Brevoort farm, running back to where Grace Church now stands and taking up considerable space along Fifth Avenue, greatly objected to giving him land on Second Avenue. ‘No, sir, go further back on the farm; go back to Fifth Avenue, for things are going to move that way,’” he reportedly directed.
Henry, “feeling very much in the woods and quite out of it,” therefore constructed the first house on Fifth Avenue. His mansion would set the tone of the street for a more than a century to come.
Brevoort commissioned Ithiel Town and Alexander Jackson Davis to design his new townhouse. The pair was among the most highly respected architects in the country and they produced an imposing Greek Revival home surrounded by gardens. Completed in 1834, it broke ground with several architectural innovations—a sectioned Greek key pediment and a “paneled” front façade accomplished by slightly recessing the two outer bays, for instance.
|The house in 1900 — from the collection of the Museum of the City of New York|
The house was designed as much for entertaining as for living. There was a billiard room, a library and two large parlors separated by the entrance hall. William Cullen Bryant would call it “a kind of palace in a Garden.” Upstairs were seven large bedrooms on the second floor and nine servants’ rooms on the third..
The sophisticated Brevoorts stepped out of the box, once again, in 1840 when they planned the first grand entertainment New York society had seen. Until now, entertaining was relatively understated. Yet in Europe extravagant fetes were not only commonplace, they were expected. Invitations went out in February 1840 for a bal costume, so popular in European society. It would set the pace for social events of high society for the rest of the century.
Anticipation among wealthy New Yorkers was fevered. Philip Hone, former mayor and family friend, wrote a few days before the event, “Nothing else is talked about; the ladies’ heads are turned nearly off their shoulders, the whiskers of the dandies assume a more ferocious curl in anticipation of the effect they are to produce, and even my peaceable domicile is turned topsy turvy by the note of preparation which is heard.”
The Herald noted that people were “moving heaven and earth to get an introduction to this highly respectable Dutch family, and hence an invitation.” The final guest list included old New York names, foreigners including the Swiss and Neapolitan consuls, literary figures, and relatively new names in society like John Jacob Astor and August Belmont.
On the evening of the ball, Philip Hone threw a “preparatory gathering” of friends so they could see his family’s impressive costumes. Philip dressed as Cardinal Woolsey in a scarlet merino robe and ermine cape. His three daughters came as Day and Night and as a character from “The Legend of Montrose.”
Between five and six hundred of New York’s wealthiest citizens filed into the Brevoort house for the ball. Socialites and moguls appeared as historic and literary characters such as Joan of Arc, Queen Esther and Diana. Mrs. Jonathan Ogden dressed as Queen Catharine of Arragon; author Charles A. Davis was a Quaker; Mrs. Robert Gracie came as Portia; Delancy Kane as a goldfinch and her sister Lydia was a sorceress; Bache McEvers dressed as William Penn; Mrs. Rufus Prime was Esmeralda; close family friend Henry C. De Rham, Jr. was “a Greek;” and Nicholas Schermerhorn most assuredly raised eyebrows when he arrived as “a Dutch girl.”
Philip Hone was rightfully impressed. He wrote in his diary “The mansion of our entertainers, Mr. and Mrs. Brevoort, is better calculated for such display than any other in the city. Mrs. Brevoort, in particular, by her kind and courteous deportment, threw a charm over the splendid pageant, which would have been incomplete without it. Never before has New York witnessed a fancy ball so splendidly gotten up, in better taste, or more successfully carried through.”
The glamorous party, however, resulted in scandal and public outrage.
The scandal involved Matilda Barclay, the daughter of British Consul George Barclay. Mr. and Mrs. Barclay came to the party dressed as a fox hunter and a peasant woman. Matilda came as Lalla-Rookh in a costume made by Madame Harche that reportedly cost $300—about $8,000 today. The Herald snidely reported it was “a thin slice from the fortune of $150,000 which, with her excellent heart and beautiful self, she intends to bestow on one of the gallant young gentlemen whom she meets at the ball.”
Matilda had no intentions of bestowing her fortune or heart on any gallant young gentleman, however. Also attending was the dashing T. Pollock Burgwyne of South Carolina, dressed as Feramors, a character in the same poem as Lalla Rookh. When the evening was over and the Barclays prepared to leave, their daughter was nowhere to be found. She had slipped out with the Southerner and married him.
The Herald gleefully reported that the newlyweds were seen at the Astor House the following day where Matilda was “playing the fancy dress character of a married lady.” The elopement caused a righteous backlash and, as The Evening World later reported “As a result masked balls were made taboo, and a fine of $1,000 was imposed on any one who should give one—unless the giver told on himself, in which event the fine was reduced one-half.”
|A tintype captured the Brevoort doorway which would have been described when the house was built as “pure Greek.” from the collection of the Museum of the City of New York|
James Gordon Bennett took advantage of the affair to sell papers. His Herald fueled an uproar among the working class when, on March 2, he devoted his entire front page to the Brevoort ball. He countered his description of the extravagant ball and over-the-top expenditures with the suffering of the laborers. The article added the floor plans of the house for good measure.
Philip Hone was outraged at Bennett’s meddling. “This kind of surveillance is getting to be intolerable and nothing but the force of public opinion will correct the insolence.” He gathered support from wealthy merchants, financiers and politicians in an effort to urge “respectable people [to] withdraw their support from the vile sheet.”
For a while The Herald lost advertisers and it was boycotted by clubs, fashionable hotels and homes.
Henry Brevoort died in 1848 and two years later Laura sold the house to Henry De Rham for $57,000 (over $1 million today). Henry was a dry goods merchant and banker and the De Rhams were not only close friends of the Brevoorts, they were distant relatives.
The De Rham family remained in the house through the First World War as the lower Fifth Avenue neighborhood changed from one of mansions and carriages to businesses. Little changed to the great house, including the name—New Yorkers continued to refer to it as the Brevoort Mansion, despite the De Rhams living here four times as long as the original owners. The New York Times later suggested that “The house, however, has always retained the name of its original owners, partly, perhaps, in view of the prominence of the family and partly because of the unusual magnificence of the house in its early days.”
|In the summer of 1903 the De Rhams had the shutters tightly closed against the heat. The Brevoort carriage house can be seen behind on 9th Street — from the collection of the Museum of the City of New York|
In July 1919 the house was finally sold, and again it went to a distant relative. The New York Times reported that “it was bought by George F. Baker, Jr., whose wife is the great-granddaughter of the builder of the house.” The fabulously wealthy Bakers lived on Madison Avenue and toyed with the idea of restoring the old mansion for their personal use.
“The return of the venerable house to a twentieth century descendant of the original Brevoort farm owners is an interesting incident in the vagaries of real estate changes on Manhattan Island,” said The Times. “It is now assessed at $205,000.”
Edith Kane Baker told The Evening World in October of the following year, “Yes, I intend to entertain quite a lot when I move into this ancestral home.” She added that the purchase was “of a sentimental nature. I greatly appreciate Mr. Baker’s thoughtfulness and desire to have our children live in a home which their great-great-grandfather built so many years ago.”
“Mr. and Mrs. Baker will have a great deal of remodeling and altering to make their new, old-fashioned homestead as modern and as comfortable as their present home at No. 260 Madison Avenue,” said the article. “The house has no way of heating besides an old-fashioned furnace and grates; parquet flooring is only laid upon the first floor, while the upper floors bore traces of carpets and the kitchen is still in the basement.”
Renovations, however, did not come to be. In November 1920 Baker leased the mansion to the Red Cross for $1 a month. By April 1925 nothing had been done to the old house and, in fact, the Bakers were eying another mansion far uptown at 93rd Street and Park Avenue.
On April 4 of that year The Times reported with regret “To the residents of [Washington Square] and to every lover of old New York there will come a feeling of personal and civic loss when the stately Brevoort mansion [is] leveled to the ground.” George Baker had sold the property for the erection of an apartment house.
In an earlier article in 1919 the newspaper said “Few residences on Manhattan Island have such an interesting history as the old Brevoort mansion on lower Fifth Avenue. Situated on the northwest corner of that thoroughfare and Ninth Street, it suggests, as it did more than three-quarters of a century ago, the quiet dignity and social elegance of New York aristocratic life long ago.”
|A view up the Avenue on May 26, 1912 shows still-extant mansions. In the distance is the tower of First Presbyterian Church — photo from the collection of the Museum of the City of New York|
The Outlook perhaps captured the mood of New Yorkers best. On April 8, 1925 it wrote “But the old Brevoort mansion is to be destroyed, to make way for another apartment-house and the modernization of that section of the avenue will be practically complete—and wholly depressing to those who love some flavor of the past.”
Broken Records: The Final Days of Bleecker Bob’s Golden Oldies
It was an institution, a rite of passage, a historical landmark, and a great place to kill time at 2 a.m. on a weekend before you passed out on the couch. Bleecker Bob’s helped start one of New York’s greatest bands, was America’s No. 1 punk outpost, and was on the receiving end of solicitous phone calls from Madonna. KORY GROW goes behind the counter of a record shop for the ages, and gets the real story on why the beloved joint had to close its doors.
What was once the booming beatnik stomping ground that served as home to Bob Dylan and Jimi Hendrix, and then about a decade later, the Ramones and Blondie, now offers more and more of the amenities available at most Midwestern malls. To residents and tourists alike, the closing of Bleecker Bob’s is another high-points blow in the assassination attempt on the neighborhood’s character.
Early in my reporting for this story, the friendly, bearded man who ran the poster section in the back of the shop and who went merely by “Bill,” uttered six words that resonated deeply with me during the month and a half that I spent at the store: “This is a landlord’s town now.” It’s a sentiment echoed by the neighboring businesses and customers of Bleecker Bob’s. A few days before the shop closed, I phoned Lewis Rosenthal, the property’s landlord (according to New York City records), but despite the power he holds in the situation, he declined to comment for the story. Nevertheless, the cast of characters willing to talk, including the store’s employees, its neighbors, customers and competitors, as well as Bob himself, took the time to share their memories — good and bad — of the New York institution as it played out its final days.
The roots of the store date to September 1967, when a lawyer named Robert Plotnik (born in Baltimore in 1942) who was working for the New York district attorney, teamed up with a record-collector friend named Al Trommers, who went by the moniker “Broadway Al,” to open a shop called Village Oldies at 149 Bleecker Street. The pair had connected over their love of doo-wop and vocal-harmony groups, respectively. “I said, ‘Bob, we’ve got to get a nickname for you,’” Trommers recalls in the 2012 documentary, For the Records. “‘Robert Plotnik’ does not sound like a hip name for a hip record store. I said, ‘I’ve got a good idea. Since we’re on Bleecker Street, why don’t we call you ‘Bleecker Bob?’ And it stuck.” The duo moved locations twice before Trommers tired of what he describes as Plotnik’s increasingly difficult disposition and decided not to sign another lease in the mid-’70s, making way for the opening of Bleecker Bob’s proper and its move in 1981 to West Third Street.
Since then, the shop has resided in the same location as what was once a narrowly designed music venue called the Night Owl Cafe. In the mid-’60s, acts like the Lovin’ Spoonful, James Taylor, and Tim Buckley used its stage (where the CD racks used to live) to win over freewheelin’ folk fans, seated in and around church pews. Some of the store’s older employees guess that the shop’s dirty, rough-hewn wooden floors date back to the Night Owl days.
- By far the oldest and most fashionable hotel on lower Fifth Avenue, the Brevoort stood here at the northeast corner of 8th Street for a century—from 1854 to 1954. In the 1920s its French-born owner Raymond Orteig offered a prize of $25,000 to the first pilot to fly non-stop from New York to Paris. On June 27, 1927 the prize was awarded at the Brevoort to Charles A. Lindbergh. The present apartment building at 11 Fifth Avenue takes its name from the hotel. The rock star Buddy Holly lived here in 1958.
A recent report by Crain’s New York that a number of hotels were opening in and around the Union Square area had us thinking here at Off the Grid about some historic Village hotels.
The Hotel Brevoort was built in 1845 by the Brevoort family, owners of a large tract of land stretching from 5th Avenue to the Bowery and extending north of 14th Street. The hotel was demolished in 1954 and a new residential building, aptly named the Brevoort, still stands today. The hotel, and its later café, were frequented by heads of state as well as Village artists and writers.
James Carson Brevoort (New York City 10 July 1818 – Brooklyn, New York 7 December 1887) was a United States collector of rare books and coins. He served as superintendent of the Astor Library for two years, also serving as trustee.
He received his early education at home, in France, and at Hofwyl, near Berne, Switzerland. He then studied at the École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures in Paris, and was graduated with the diploma of a civil engineer.
On returning to the United States, he accompanied his uncle, James Renwick, one of the commissioners on the northeastern boundary survey. In 1838 he went abroad as private secretary to Washington Irving, U. S. Minister to Spain. After serving a year in this capacity, he spent several years in European travel, and returned home in 1843. Two years later he married the daughter of Judge Leffert Lefferts, of Brooklyn, where he afterward resided, serving on the board of education, and as one of the constructing board of water commissioners.
He became a regent of the University of New York in 1861, and the same year received the degree of LL.D. from Williams College. For ten years, beginning in 1863, he was president of the Long Island Historical Society. In 1868, he was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society. For two years, March 1876 to February 1878, he was superintendent of the Astor Library in New York City, of which he had been a trustee since 1852. He oversaw the beginning of a card catalog for the Astor collection. He resigned as a trustee in September 1878. He was a member of the New York Historical Society, the Academy of Natural Sciences, the American Geographical Society, the Massachusetts Historical Society, the Pennsylvania Historical Society, and numerous other scientific, literary, and artistic associations, in which he was always actively involved.
He was a collector of rare books and coins. From his father, Henry Brevoort, he inherited about 6,000 volumes, mostly Americana, which were collected in Europe during the turbulent years from 1810 until 1832. To this library, Brevoort made large additions, until in 1875 it comprised about 10,000 volumes, many of them very rare and costly. He also collected medals and manuscripts. About 1875 he began to bestow many of his treasures upon various institutions. His collections also embraced entomology and ichthyology (books and specimens).
He contributed to the American Journal of Numismatics a series of illustrated papers on “Early Spanish and Portuguese Coinage in America.” In the Historical Magazine he published a paper on the discovery of the remains of Columbus, and in 1874 prepared a volume, printed privately, entitled Verrazano the Navigator, or Notes on Giovanni de Verrazano, and on a Planisphere of 1529, illustrating his American Voyage in 1524, this being a revision and expansion of a paper read before the American Geographical Society, 28 November 1871.
His father, Henry Brevoort (born in 1791; died in Rye, New York, 11 April 1874), was descended from the old Holland Dutch stock, and inherited a large landed estate on Manhattan Island, which became extremely valuable as the city increased in population. He was a gentleman of literary taste and the lifelong friend of Washington Irving, with whom he traveled in Europe and corresponded for half a century.
Brevoort married Elizabeth Dorothea Lefferts in 1845, and they had one child, Henry L. Brevoort (1849-1895).
One of his sisters, Margaret Claudia Brevoort, called Meta Brevoort, was one of the most famous and talented mountaineers of her time. Another sister, Laura (1823-1860), married Charles Astor Bristed.
The university logo, the upheld torch, is derived from the Statue of Liberty, signifying NYU’s service to New York City. The torch is depicted on both the NYU seal and the more abstract NYU logo, designed in 1965 by renowned graphic designer Tom Geismar of the branding and design firm Chermayeff & Geismar. There are at least two versions of the possible origin of the university color, violet. Some believe that it may have been chosen because violets are said to have grown abundantly in Washington Square and around the buttresses of the Old University Building. Others argue that the color may have been adopted because the violet was the flower associated with Athens, the center of learning in ancient Greece.
Washington Square and Greenwich Village have been hubs of cultural life in New York City since the early 19th century. Much of this culture has intersected with NYU at various points in its history. Artists of the Hudson River School, the United States’ first prominent school of painters, settled around Washington Square. Samuel F.B. Morse, a noted artist who also pioneered the telegraph and created the Morse Code, served as the first chair of Painting and Sculpture. He and Daniel Huntington were early tenants of the Old University Building in the mid-19th century. (The University rented out studio space and residential apartments within the “academic” building.) As a result, they had notable interaction with the cultural and academic life of the university.
In the 1870s, sculptors Augustus Saint-Gaudens and Daniel Chester French lived and worked near the Square. By the 1920s, Washington Square Park was nationally recognized as a focal point for artistic and moral rebellion. As such, the Washington Square campus became more diverse and bustled with urban energy, contributing to academic change at NYU. Famed residents of this time include Eugene O’Neill, John Sloan, and Maurice Prendergast. In the 1930s, the abstract expressionists Jackson Pollock and Willem de Kooning, and the realists Edward Hopper and Thomas Hart Benton had studios around Washington Square. In the 1960s the area became one of the centers of the beat and folk generation, when Allen Ginsberg and Bob Dylan settled there. This led to tension with the university, which at the time was in the midst of an aggressive facilities expansion phase. In 1975, the university opened The Grey Art Gallery at 100 Washington Square East, housing the NYU art collection and featuring museum quality exhibitions.
The Astor Library was a free public library in the East Village, Manhattan, developed primarily through the collaboration of New York City merchant John Jacob Astor and New England educator and bibliographer Joseph Cogswell. It was primarily meant as a research library, and its books did not circulate. It opened to the public in 1854, and in 1895 consolidated with the Lenox Library and the Tilden Foundation to become the New York Public Library (NYPL). During this time, its building was expanded twice, in 1859 and 1881.
During 1879 the Japanese government presented a representation of their national literature, embracing the standard works of poetry, fiction, geography, history, religion, philology, together with an assortment of ornamental designs;
The Astor Library suffered from its name. There was actually no proprietorship, and no question of family fiefdom. It was a free public library. But the public, though free to criticize, was reluctant to contribute towards its support. That was left to the Astors.
Later building use
The NYPL abandoned the building in 1911, and the books were moved to the NYPL’s newly constructed building by Bryant Park. In 1920, the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society purchased it. By 1965 it was in disuse and faced demolition. The Public Theater (then the New York Shakespeare Festival) persuaded the city to purchase it for use as a theater. It was converted for theater use by Giorgio Cavaglieri. The building is a New York City Landmark, designated in 1965.
The Public is headquartered at 425 Lafayette Street in the former Astor Library in Lower Manhattan. The building holds five theater spaces and Joe’s Pub, a cabaret-style venue used for new work, musical performances, spoken-word artists and soloists. The Public also operates the Delacorte Theater in Central Park, where it presents Shakespeare in the Park, one of New York City’s most beloved summer traditions. New York natives and visitors alike have been enjoying free Shakespeare in Central Park since performances began in 1954.
The street originated as a real estate speculation by John Jacob Astor, who had bought a large market garden in 1804, for $45,000, and leased part of the site to a Frenchman named Joseph Delacroix, who erected a popular resort and called it “Vauxhall Gardens” after the famous resort on the edge of London. When the lease expired in 1825, Astor cut a new street through, a 100-foot wide three-block boulevard with no cross streets, which began at Astor Place and ended at Great Jones Street which he named Lafayette Place to commemorate the Revolutionary war hero, who had returned to a rapturous reception in America the previous year. Lots along both sides of the new street sold briskly, earning Astor many times what he had paid for the land two decades before. The grandest was the terrace of matching marble-fronted Greek Revival houses on the west side of the street, called La Grange Terrace when it was built in 1833, but known to New Yorkers as “Colonnade Row” for the two-story order of Corinthian columns that unified its fronts; the nine residences each sold for as much as $30,000; four that remain are the only survivors of the first fashionable residential phase of Lafayette Street, which gained its new name when the city extended the street south in the early 1900s. At that time its route was carved from the former Elm Street, Marion Street, and Lafayette Place and connected to Centre Street at the Municipal Building.
The Astor Opera House, also known as the Astor Place Opera House and later the Astor Place Theatre, was an opera house in Manhattan, New York City, located on Lafayette Street between Astor Place and East 8th Street. Designed by Isaiah Rogers, the theater was conceived by impresario Edward Fry, the brother of composer William Henry Fry, who managed the opera house during its entire history.