The Cultural And Religious History of Springfield

The Radio Church of God and Radio London – Remembered

Posted on August 18, 2018 by Royal Rosamond Press

I talked to the people inside the building that replaced KORE about doing a mural on this wall. I collected some earth in remembrance of Ben Toney. I have to put the video on youtube. I put five scoops of dirt in bag that had these words printed on it:

I felt like Ben Toney was my brother. Our mutual interest in genealogies that we shared on facebook, made us like family. Alas, after his death, I am able to go to Ben’s facebook, without smoke getting in my eyes. Being the ‘Family Genealogist’ can be the loneliest title known to man. In one post Ben says “I just can’t stop”. I concur. For this reason I am going to ask Raquel Toney if she will take a DNA test because I just discovered I descend from the de Toney and de Clifford family.

I posted this weeks before Ben Toney died. I wanted him to get a glimpse of how he was going to be remembered. I had come to realize I was involved in a real James Bond assignment which is to save the alliance between and the United States and Great Britain. I threw Holland into the mix, to only learn two days ago the Dutch had their pirate ship.

Radio Bands Across The Water

I just salvaged more Springfield Oregon History from Zillow. Here are some rare photographs from inside KORE Radio that WAS located at 2080 Laura Street. If I’m elected the Mayor of Springfield I will set up a committee to salvage and preserve all the information it can about the connection of Herbert Armstrong and Radio London. I am going to work on a musical called


RBAW is about the alliance early Christian Radio had with early British Rock and Roll, that was titled ‘The British Invasion’ in regards to British Bands and their music coming to America. I thank my late friend, Ben Toney, for his wonderful archive and work in launching a Revolution that brought down the Iron Curtain, and……caused the fall of Soviet Union.

John Presco

President: Royal Rosamond Press & Radio Bands Across The Water

Copyright 2022

Church, State and the Pirate Ship Saga (

A number of celebrities were in attandance at Norman’s party, including John Lennon and George Harrison. There was also Sir Joseph Lockwood, managing director of EMI. Almost to the minute we arrived, John Lennon cornered me and we went with George into a small sitting-room by ourselves. John and I sat down in the middle of the floor, Indian style, and he lead off with, “Ben, what the hell are you doing playing my father’s record?” I explained that I played the record mainly because of the human interest value as opposed to the record’s quality.

To explain the scenario that lead to this discussion, some record producer had found Freddie Lennon washing dishes in a London hotel. He got Freddie to record ‘That’s My Life (My Love And My Home)’ an old Walter Brennan-type record in which he talked over music. The words explained how Freddie had gone to sea and had left his young son John, and had never returned. A real ‘sob’ story, it was released on the PYE label. Don Agnes had given me the record and said that he realised that it was not all that great, but since it was John Lennon’s father, it might be worth a play or two.

John told me that his father had left him with his aunt when he was three years old. He said he walked out of the door and never returned. I said, “John, it looks to me that your father might be really sorry that he walked out on you.’ He replied, “If he were really sorry, he would have been back before now. He just wants to make same money riding on my shirt tail.” I could see that John was really incensed over this matter, so I told him that the next time I went out to the ship, I would take the disc off the air.

Ben Toney and The Kings of Jerusalem | Rosamond Press

The Royal Plantagenets by Ben Toney | Rosamond Press

Ben Toney | Rosamond Press

Hollis and John Founded Homeless Church | Rosamond Press

What are Radio Frequency bands and its uses? – RF Page

 He also stated that “I had an uncle – Albert Kendall – who was a lot of fun, and when I came to write ‘Uncle Albert’/‘Admiral Halsey’ it was loosely about addressing that older generation, half thinking, What would they think of the way my generation does things? That’s why I wrote the line ‘We’re so sorry, Uncle Albert.’”[9] Paul also told an American journalist, “As for Admiral Halsey, he’s one of yours, an American admiral”, referring to Fleet AdmiralWilliam “Bull” Halsey (1882–1959).[8] Paul has described the “Uncle Albert” section of the song as an apology from his generation to the older generation, and Admiral Halsey as an authoritarian figure who ought to be ignored.[9][10]

What are Radio Frequency bands and its uses?

Last Modified: July 31, 2022 by Rajiv 9 Comments


What is Radio Frequency?

RF is the lowest portion in the electromagnetic spectrum familiar as a medium of analog and modern digital wireless communication systems. It spreads in the range between 3 kHz and 300 GHz. All known transmission systems work in the RF spectrum range including analog radio, aircraft navigation, marine radio, amateur radio, TV broadcasting, mobile networks, and satellite systems. Let’s take a look at each of the RF sub-bands and the areas of RF spectrum uses.

Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey – Wikipedia

London Pirate Radio | Maunsell Sea Forts | dpr-barcelona (

Radio London – Ben Toney Memoirs P7

Radio London – Ben Toney Memoirs P1

Radio London – Ben Toney Memoirs P4

Radio London – Ben Toney Memoirs P1

2080 Laura St, Springfield, OR 97477 | Zillow

2080 Laura St, Springfield, OR 97477 |®

Hollis and John Founded Homeless Church

Posted on September 6, 2018 by Royal Rosamond Press

I now understand why Neil Laudati did not respond to purchasing KORE. He was afraid I would open the flood gates to the homeless of Springfield, and a Tent City would gather around the old radio tower where broadcast The Word of God, that was relayed across the Atlantic, to Radio London. Below is my letter to ex-Mayor, Kitty Percy, who was a friend of Hollis.

What I was poised to do, was have The Homeless – OWN A CHURCH! No longer would they be -mere guests! All the tithe of The Homeless Church, would go directly to them. The middle man would be cut out. The Church has long USED THE POOR AND HOMELESS to get monies for the poor – and then they build cathedrals! Here is te first Poor Altar that was erected by God in a building slated to be torn down.  The owner demanded it be removed.

“The last will later be first!”

God has given me a message to give unto you………..Heaven is now close to everyone but the homeless. Only they will be taken up when they die – until further notice!

Hollis took me to the home of a Kesey whose name I forgot. He had stayed here for a couple of month. It is a Christian half-way house. It was Halloween night. My homeless friend wanted to give me a gift. He wanted me to talk to the Christians here, and convert to Christianity. No one has offered me a more precious gift.

I told H that Jesus already came into my life, and he and God bid me to be a Nazarite.

“I seperated and consecrated myself – directly to God! I await His instructions. I am forbidden to boast about my seeing and hearing Jesus – directly!”

Hollis was amused, in his cute way. Hollis’ father didn’t want anything to do with him after he got out of the Army. His mother had died, and he had remarried. H was an orphan in the world who claimed he was kin to Elvis Presley.  Born in Kentucky, H loved the South. At the end of his memorial we stood for – The King. When the homeless own churches all over the world, there will never be another Homeless Orphan. The church has been turned upside down! Say hallelujah!

Make it so!

John ‘The Prophet’


Wonderful Radio London – Wikipedia

Don Pierson – Wikipedia

The cost of the station was covered by local and national advertising and the half-hour religious commentary, The World Tomorrow, presented by Herbert W. Armstrong or his son, Garner Ted Armstrong. The Armstrongs’ Worldwide Church of God sponsored the station with £50,000 a year. The World Tomorrow aired at 7pm, outside prime hours.[1]

Off Market: $21,793 (– beds, 1 bath, 2,300 Square Feet)

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Off Market: $21,793 (– beds, 1 bath, 2,300 Square Feet)

I own so much of Springfield’s history, culture, and religious roots. A huge part of the last Cold War was waged from KORE located on Laura Street.

John Presco

Finally, in 1965, a door opened for the broadcast to go out daily, at a good time slot and on a radio channel easily accessible by most of the country. Mr. Armstrong called it “the biggest news that ever happened in the history of this work.” The broadcast went out on Radio London, a “pirate” radio station off the coast of southeast England. Soon, more of these “pirate” stations were added. Mr. Armstrong estimated that 7 to 8 million people were listening to the program via these stations.

The college helped the work expand to Europe. During the 1960s, offices opened in several countries including Germany, France and Switzerland, with staff largely made up of Bricket Wood graduates. Advertising campaigns were conducted across Europe.

But Mr. Armstrong’s time on daily radio was short-lived, lasting only 2½ years. In 1967 the British Parliament outlawed these “pirate” radio stations, and the World Tomorrow broadcast stopped.

In July 1971, the wcg began the newsstand program. Plain Truth magazines were distributed on stands for people to pick up and read, first in England and then across the world. By the summer of 1972, 70,000 copies of the Plain Truth were going out each month on newsstands. By 1973, more than 400,000 people in the UK were receiving the Plain Truth.

Due to costs and other considerations, however, the Bricket Wood college campus had to be closed. The last-ever Bricket Wood class graduated in May 1974. The newsstand program across Britain and Europe was canceled. The sudden disappearance of the Plain Truth from newsstands across the country was so dramatic that the British press wrote about it.

Seeds of a National Work

           It was also during this particular time in 1941 that Herbert Armstrong began to expand his horizons in considering what further work God may have wanted him to do:

The realization flashed to my mind with terrific impact that in world war II—already then under way—America being then drawn closer to participation—that I could see this “sword” of WAR coming [Ezekiel 3:17–21; 33:1–19]! I looked around. No one had ever sounded this warning! No one was then sounding it! I saw numerous prophecies showing how terribly God is going to punish America and the British Commonwealth people for our apostasy from Him. I saw our sins, individually and nationally, fast increasing!

The conviction came. IF God opened doors for the mass-proclamation of His Gospel, and of this warning, nationwide, I would walk through those doors and proclaim God’s Message faithfully, as long as He gave me guidance, power, and the means.

I had no illusions that I was chosen to be the “modern Ezekiel” to proclaim this message. But I did know that no one was sounding this alarm. . . .

Of course I had been sounding this warning all along—but only in the Pacific Northwest. Now I began to see that God intended to send it to all Israel. And He had revealed to me that that meant, today, the United States, the British Commonwealth, and the nations of northwestern Europe. The idea of my being used, personally, in reaching Britain and these other countries did not yet take sharp focus in my mind. But I did, now, for the first time, begin to think actively and definitely about this work expanding to the entire United States! (The Plain Truth, January 1962, Autobiography, p. 13)

           The bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, provided the means for Herbert Armstrong to really begin to exploit “a niche” not being filled by anyone else on the radio:

. . . A number of nationally famous news commentators and analysts gained the public spotlight—such men as Elmer Davis, H. V. Kaltenborn, Raymond Gram Swing—and some still in the public eye, Ed Murrow, Eric Severeid, and others—just to name a few.

But these men knew nothing of Biblical prophecy. Not knowing the real purpose being worked out here below, they did not grasp the true significance on the world of the future, of the news they were analyzing. They did not know where it was leading.

       Mr. Armstrong was not capable of sustaining a nightly program in Hollywood for more than a few weeks. But the experience had shown the fruits that were borne with such exposure. Likewise, pulling back to one day a week broadcasts allowed him finally to contract with WHO radio in Des Moines, Iowa:

Station WHO was, at the time, probably the very most valuable single radio station we could have hoped to use. It was a 50,000-watt top-ranking station. It was one of only eight, of all radio stations in America, that still had an absolutely exclusive channel. . . .

Of course, in 1941, this giant WHO was still completely beyond our reach. But by early 1942, with our income doubled, and with the very low rate offered by the manager of WHO, I felt ready to take this leap.

On Sunday night, August 30, 1942, for the first time in my life I was speaking , from the studios of WHOto a nationwide audience! (The Plain Truth, March 1962, Autobiography, pp. 19–20).

           This was only the beginning of Herbert Armstrong’s national exposure as The World Tomorrow program began to be heard in every state. Contracts with specific stations would come and go, but increasingly that voice could be heard regularly from anywhere across the continental USA.

Roy and I had a lot in common. He was born in a small town in West Texas called Wink – about sixty miles south of my birthplace. We were both natives of the Llano Estacado Staccato or ‘Staked Plains’ of Texas and New Mexico. Roy and I had attended North Texas State College (now the University of North Texas) at the same time, but neither of us remembered seeing the other at college. Roy and I did have two mutual friends in college, Dick Penner and Wade Moore. They wrote a ridiculously stupid song called ‘Ooby Dooby’ which launched Roy into his singing career. Of course, being the 

Transportation Dept District 5

2080 Laura StSpringfieldOR97477

P21188 – Laura Street – City of Springfield Oregon (

P21188 – Laura Street

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Project Status:

Design is scheduled to begin in 2022.

Project Description:

This project will bring the Laura Street, a major collector, up to urban standards which will include travel lanes, bike lanes, gutters, curbs, landscaping, streetlights, and sidewalks. The project will fill in the missing sidewalk gaps and create a continuous walking and biking route on each side of the street.

Portions of Laura Street between the Monte Loma Park and Oregon Neurology are in Lane County’s jurisdiction and the County has a project planned for design in 2022 and construction in 2024 to make improvements to the street. The City of Springfield received regional transportation grant funding to partner with Lane County on the design phase of this project. The benefits of partnering with the county on design include reducing costs, more efficient processes, and serving the community’s needs while requiring less City staff time to achieve the same result.

Coordinating the design phase of the project also sets it up to make joint construction possible starting in 2024 if the City is able to identify additional funding. Constructing the project at one time reduces disruption for neighbors and street users, and ensures a continuous transportation resource instead of perpetuating the existing missing network gaps.

Staff of ship-based pirate radio station Radio London arrive at Felixstowe after the British government passed the Marine Broadcasting Offences Act, forcing the station to close, 14th August 1967. Left to right: Mike Lennox, Pete Drummond, John Peel (1939 - 2004), Michel Philistin, Willy Walker, Paul Kay (lighting cigarette), Chuck Blair, Mark Roman and Tony Brandon (reaching).
Image caption,The Marine Broadcasting Offences Act saw the closure of Radio London, which on 14 August 1967 arrived at the Port of Felixstowe in Suffolk. The DJs, Mike Lennox, Pete Drummond, John Peel, Michel Philistin, Willy Walker, Paul Kay, Chuck Blair, Mark Roman and Tony Brandon, were greeted by fans of the station.
Radio London
Image caption,Radio London had been broadcasting three and a half miles off Frinton-on-Sea, Essex, since December 1964.
Disc jockeys Johnnie Walker (left) and Robbie Dale, of ship-based pirate radio station Radio Caroline South, at Felixstowe after the British government outlawed the station under the Marine Broadcasting Offences Act, 14 August 1967.
Image caption,Radio Caroline was founded in 1964 to play pop music all day, at a time when broadcasting was dominated by the BBC and pop was played for an hour a week. Disc jockeys Johnnie Walker (left) and Robbie Dale were DJs for the station, which continued to broadcast after the act passed.
Radio Caroline's pirate radio ship 'MV Mi Amigo' runs aground at Frinton-on-Sea on the Essex coast during a storm, 20th January 1966.
Image caption,Radio Caroline’s pirate radio ship ‘MV Mi Amigo’ ran aground at Frinton-on-Sea during a storm on 20 January 1966. The station continued to broadcast intermittently, in various incarnations, until the Ross Revenge ran aground off the Kent coast in 1991.
20th January 1966: The disc jockeys of seagoing pirate radio station, Radio Caroline at Walton police station in Essex after their ship ran aground in bad weather. The DJ's, including Dave Lee Travis (in hat) and Tony Blackburn
Image caption,The Radio Caroline DJs, including David Lee Travis and Tony Blackburn, were photographed at Walton police station in Essex after their ship ran aground in 1966.
Keith Skues
Image caption,Keith Skues, who worked for both Radio London and Radio Caroline before joining the BBC, said: “Radio London was twice the size of Caroline. It was also the first to broadcast jingles. We never had them before, now everyone has them.” He said Radio London had the Fab Forty list, “which was two to three weeks ahead of the national charts.”
Wonderful Radio London (aka 'Big L' or 'Radio London') DJ 'Marshall' Mike Lennox is greeted by fans when arriving at Liverpool Street Station
Image caption,Fans angry about the station’s closure met Radio London DJs – including ‘Marshall’ Mike Lennox (centre) – off the Harwich train at London’s Liverpool Street Station in 1967, where there were said to be scuffles with police.
Fans of the pirate radio station, Radio London at Liverpool Street Station, London to meet the DJ after they travelled down from Felixstowe. Throughout the day, the station's disc jockeys, including 'Big L', had asked fans to meet them at Liverpool Street after Radio London closed down.
Image caption,Skues, who had left the radio station about two weeks previously, went to meet his colleagues at the station. “There were thousands of fans. It was mob hysteria,” he said.
Picture shows - Mr Robin Scott, Controller of the Light Programme, who will be in charge of Radio One and Radio Two, to be inaugurated on September 30th 1967, standing behind disc jockeys (DJs) who will feature in his programme. Disc Jockeys photographed outside All Souls Church, Langham Place, as BBC Radio 1 (Radio One) and Radio 2 (Radio Two) networks announce their line-ups near BBC Broadcasting House, September 4th 1967. Photographed Front Row (l-r) : Pete Murray, Ed Stewart, Pete Drummond, Mike Raven, Mike Ahern and John Peel. Middle Row : Bob Holness, Terry Wogan, Barry Alldis, Mike Lennox, Keith Skues, Chris Denning, Johnny Moran and Peter Myers. Back Row : Tony Blackburn, Jimmy Young, Kenny Everett, Duncan Johnson, Robin Scott, David Ryder, Dave Cash, Pete Brady and David Symonds.
Image caption,Many of the former pirates, including Skues, Peel and Blackburn, went on to DJ at BBC Radio 1 and 2, which started broadcasting the same year the Marine Broadcasting Offences Act was passed. “The BBC auditioned 100 DJs and 12 of us were selected. Tony Blackburn opened the station and I was the second DJ presenting Saturday Club,” Skues said.

Church, State and the Pirate Ship Saga

By Neil Earle

Radio Caroline was the first of the offshore “pirate ships” beaming into Britain, though the idea had been tried off California and elsewhere in the 1930’s.

(Jingle) “Radio London reminds you: Go to the Church of your choice.”


(Announce, loudly): “THE WORLD TOMORROW! Garner Ted Armstrong brings you the plain truth about today’s world news with the prophecies of the World Tomorrow!

(GTA): “And greetings friends, this is Garner Ted Armstrong with the good news of the World Tomorrow. World leaders admit that they are frightened, that they are engaged in a fantastic nightmare. They’re scared. They don’t know what to do. They’re wondering what is going to happen in the future and none of them really know.”

This was a typical opener for a “World Tomorrow” radio show beaming down on millions of Englishman in the Greater London area between late 1964 and August 15, 1967. This period is now somewhat notable in British broadcasting circles as the heyday of the Pirate Ships. A fascinating tale, this, of how the Armstrongs, Herbert and Garner Ted (successful radio evangelists based in America) ended up in a curious roundelay involving Her Majesty’s government in London, the BBC, some of Britain’s elite publications and a host of over-the-top radio personalities – some of whom ended up as legends of British popular culture.

The genius behind the pirate ship idea was the offshore positioning of creaky vessels and the occupation of abandoned World War Two-era sea forts as staging platforms to beam in the music millions in “swinging England” craved. As covered earlier, Radio Luxembourg had represented the first crack in the British Broadcasting Corporation’s (BBC) exclusive monopoly over radio broadcasting in Britain. But on March 28, 1964, from a 763-ton vessel propelled by a 1,000 h.p. diesel engine off England’s southeast coast came the jived up sounds of Radio Caroline, broadcasting on 199 metres. Radio Caroline was the first of the offshore “pirate ships” beaming into Britain, though the idea had been tried off California and elsewhere in the 1930’s. 1

This British version of “offshore radio” was the brainchild of Irish entrepreneur Rohan O’Rahilly. O’Rahilly soon had competition from another swashbuckling entrepreneur named Alan Crawford. Both men came to the same conclusion about radio at the same time. An arrangement was made whereby Radio Caroline, now called Radio Caroline North, steamed to a position five miles off the Isle of Man in the Irish Sea while Crawford’s 470-ton Mi Amigo became Radio Caroline South, perched off the Essex coast. A Texas businessman named Don Pierson soon got into the act and set up Wonderful Radio London that Christmas, 1964.2

The assault was on. What tart British journalist Christopher Booker dubbed as “the farce of the pirate radio stations” had begun.3

Farcial only because of the nearly three year battle that soon ensued between the British Government and the “pirate ships,” as they were soon dubbed. Though the official term was “offshore broadcasting” there was just enough “nuts to the Establishment” tone embedded in the talented tonsils of deejays Simon Dee, Robbie Dale, Kenny Everett, and others to bother Harold Wilson’s Labour Government no end. “Some tastes are worse than wild” Lord Sorenson complained in the House of Lords. The House of Lords no less! Pop music and trendy D.J. patter in a pseudo-American style wafted onto an island population seeking relief from some of the BBC’s stuffier productions. “I can’t understand the Government’s attitude over the pirates,” Beatle George Harrison declaimed in an interview. ”Why don’t they make the BBC illegal as well. It doesn’t give the public the service it wants, otherwise the pirates wouldn’t be here to fill the gap.”4

Politics and Religion

Perhaps the “quiet Beatle” had missed the point. Not only had American religious broadcasters rushed in with their programming – from The Lutheran Hour to the Seventh day Adventist’s Voice of Prophecy – but concerns were being raised in parliament about the political nature of the matters being discussed along the blue yonder.5 Though there was never direct evidence in Hansard, the official record of British Parliamentary Debates, the indirect evidence is compelling that Garner Ted Armstrong may have been a particular thorn in the flesh. A December, 1966 Good News article by Charles Hunting, then Business Manager for the RCG’s United Kingdom operation, reported on the tug of war between the pirate ships and Her Majesty’s government, with “The World Tomorrow” often caught in the middle. “The Last Battle for Britain” was the hyperbolic, but not unreasonable in terms of broadcasting, title. Charles Hunting’s centerpiece was a quote from an editorial appearing in The Guardian, one of Britain’s most prestigious dailies. The writer may have got to the nub of the issue:

One reason why the Government got shifting over radio pirates was the threat of new pirate stations pouring out political polemic instead of perpetual pop. That seems to have been forestalled, but MPs are starting to take an interest in the pronouncements of one Garner Ted Armstrong, an American evangelist… who brings “news of the World Tomorrow.” News mostly about fundamentalist religion, but news too of political trends. One recent broadcast said that Britain was about to scuttle out of Gibraltar as a result of American pressure.6

Ouch! Ted was never averse to treading on Whitehall’s toes. In some ways as a red-blooded banjo-playing American he reveled in twisting the lion’s tail. Slightly up-tight Britain was never his favorite place to visit, though he admired the stalwart British character. So it came to pass that he was pleasantly surprised and bemused to hear his own voice coming out of several car radios one evening in the middle of Picadilly Circus. Interestingly, Dr. Scott Lupo, presenting on the Armstrongs at academic conferences in England in the 1990’s, found former British listeners turned academics remembering The Plain Truth’s dire warnings against the Common Market evolving into a future danger for Britain.7 Diverse audiences decode diversely. Broadcast scholar Eric Gilder even suggests on his web site that the Armstrongs received funding from the CIA in order to keep Britain out of Europe and safely pro-American. This is certainly untrue but…in popular culture decodings take place on multiple levels.8 In the event, typical British suspicion of Americans definitely affected the way GTA’s message was being received.

Ted’s days as “Captain Outrageous” in well-targeted Britain would be numbered but not before substantial inroads had been made into British thinking-man’s culture. The faceless bureaucrats across the Channel did make a tempting target for red-blooded Brits fearful of becoming perpetual Little Englanders in Europe’s shadow. The result? Guardian editors in sympathy with an irritating American orator – good heavens!

Thus tweaked, the British lion turned this challenge from the ether into a minor comic opera of sorts. The BBC’s supporters in parliament tried to turn the screws:

April 27, 1967: M.P Mr. Faulds asked the Secretary of State: “Will he amend the ‘Representation of the People Acts’ to give him power to proceed against persons who broadcast political propaganda from illegal radio stations.” Answer: “The Postmaster General has already done so.”

May 11, 1967: Faulds was back: “This is the first time that this country has been subjected to a stream of misleading propaganda from outside our territorial waters. I do not think that this is a matter for jokes.”

June 1, 1967: Sir C. Osborne counters: “Why should pirate radio stations be denied free speech on political matters?”9

Official harassment began. The Government Post Office (GPO) cut off Caroline’s ship-to-shore telephone. The Foreign Office lodged a protest with the government of Panama, where the Caroline was registered. The Times was suitably indignant. M.P.s fulminated. British audiences, however, were distinctly unamused. They rallied to the pirates from the beginning, especially the youth. “Within weeks,” wrote Booker, “a Gallup Poll provided the evidence – the Caroline was already rivaling Radio Luxembourg in popularity with around 7 million radio listeners.” Radio Caroline spawned a host of imitators – Radio 270, Radio Scotland, Radio 370, and five others. Roger Lippross, now a California resident after serving as the church’s publishing representative, was enchanted. He had remembered the distinctive Armstrong voice from Radio Luxemburg in the 1950’s when his father had forced him to burn RCG (Radio Church of God) booklets and other “American propaganda.” Now Radio Caroline North beamed into his home between Blackpool and Liverpool and the young pre-press expert was hooked.

Today he looks back and reminds us: “It was actually illegal to be listening to pirate radio!”

Tuned-in Britain

The struggling Radio Church of God in Britain was quick to eye this strategic opportunity. With the appearance of off-shore radio, Ambassador College executives in England could dream of saturating the British Isles with “The World Tomorrow.” A fascinating spin-off is the fact that for all the Armstrong media dominance in the United States and Canada, some of the most insightful appraisals as to their impact on 1960’s culture would come from irreligious, slightly-jaded Great Britain. Great Britain – where radio broadcasting was state-controlled even down to the 1980’s.

How did it happen?

Charles Hunting’s article traced it to the chance meeting of two old friends on a London street in late 1964. One of them was the advertising representative for “The World Tomorrow” in England. His friend was selling radio time on a new radio station due to soon start broadcasting off shore. The Good News reported:

A hurried conference was arranged with the station manager and Mr. Herbert Armstrong flew in from the United States. It was a difficult and tense situation! Although The World Tomorrow was one of the world’s largest buyers of radio time…a very sensitive situation developed. The station wanted to get away from the staid, rather dreary broadcasting format that was the normal bill of fare for British listeners. They wanted to project a new radio image – alive, fast-moving, totally musical-type programming. Talking programs were “out!” Educational-type programs were “out!” Religious programs were totally unacceptable!10

But HWA with his blood well up was hard to refuse, as Charles Hunting reported. “After two conferences with Mr. Herbert W. Armstrong and four-and-a-half hours of conversation, they were ‘in’ and probably the most costly single commercial radio contract in history was signed. Now, all stations have accepted The World Tomorrow program.” This was not an exaggeration. Robert Chapman and other sources mention “The World Tomorrow” and “Herbert W. Armstrong’s Radio Church of God” as the largest advertiser on the pirate ships.11 Edward Smith’s detailed notes of Bricket Wood Bible Studies and Church Services are eloquent on that score. Church leaders of that era were worried about cost overruns, as much of the money was coming from the United States churches.12 The Pirate Ship venture was proving expensive but, just as in America, the radio broadcast was a tremendous boon to the Work in Britain. Charles Hunting measured the sweep of that dramatic surge. “Just twenty short months ago [writing in 1966] there was no broadcasting of the World Tomorrow in England, and no possible hope of any,” he intoned,” Today, with the exception of a very few areas, the entire nation has access to the program.”

Access indeed!

Throughout 1965 and 1966 responses to the pirate ships dramatically pushed the WCG’s work ahead in Britain. The Bricket Wood office received about 135,000 letters in 1965 alone. This meant the addition of some 53,000 people to The Plain Truth mailing list – the church’s life blood. The 1966 Envoy reported that British Mail staggered away with sixty-five tons of PT subscriptions! By the end of 1965 there had emerged a total of nine WCG churches across the British Isles, servicing some 900 people. Festival attendance figures were always a primary index of church growth. It was thus exhilarating to report that Britain’s festival attendance zoomed from 1532 in 1965 to 3350 in 1972. As early as the June, 1965 Plain Truth editor Herman Hoeh was suitably ecstatic if a little hyperbolic about potential audience:

From the estuary of the Thames River “The World Tomorrow” can now be heard on Radio London by millions all over southern England at 8 o’clock in the evening. It booms in over London as a local station. And from the Irish Sea, Radio Caroline North beams the gospel over the British Isles daily at the same time – 8 p.m. Never in all history has there been anything like it. The potential listening audience of these two superpower stations broadcasting from ships at sea, is a condensed, concentrated 55 million people! The British Isles are, in area, only about the size of the southern half of California…yet more than 55,000,000 people are condensed in that little area.13

“Rare Sincerity”

By 1967, the growth of the British churches, fueled by the phenomenon of nationwide broadcasting, was impressive. Even more encouraging was the obvious impact of the radio program on the British Isles as a whole. Even faster than in the United States, Garner Ted Armstrong became virtually a household name almost overnight. Charles Hunting’s December, 1966 Good News report recorded a high-profile evaluation of “The World Tomorrow” from a leading medical journal. A letter to the editor penned in elegant style the listener’s pique at the seemingly indecent haste of the British Postmaster General (PMG) to ban the pirate ships:

The sudden urgency on the part of the PMG to ban “pirate” radio stations interests me. Is it because of the threat of an extra recruit allegedly about to broadcast political propaganda?…A type of propaganda is already being broadcast from private radios. Every day a remarkably attractive and compelling American orator, one Garner Ted Armstrong, puts over some extraordinarily healthy views to millions of listeners. His “plain truth” doctrine, under the generic title The World Tomorrow, always delivered with rare humor and sincerity, contains material which may well vex certain MPs [Members of Parliament] of all parties.

“Rare humor and sincerity” – a telling phrase. Garner Ted’s dramatic flair and yen for rhetorical “cut and thrust” could be quite appealing to the British temperament, American accent and all! “Heavy irony is always appreciated more in England than America,” says Roger Lippross “and Ted was almost fatally addicted to good sarcasm.” Some of his irreverent one-liners – “You could get yourself killed in a peace march,” “We can destroy the world fifty times over when once would be quite enough,” “What’s Lent? Something that sticks in your navel?” – took on legs. More highbrow listeners enjoyed the RCG’s tweaking of the accepted liberal myths of the 1960’s. That was one level. On another, worried Anglican parishioners could enjoy Ted’s witty sallies against evolution. Scoffing at evolution was particularly controversial in England, the home of Charles Darwin. Ted’s verbal Molotov cocktails were embedded even in the booklet titles he advertised over the air – the irresistible “A Theory for the Birds,” “Some Fishy Stories.” Then he would pause dramatically as a staged afterthought: “I think they call it evil-ution in England.” Or he might ask coyly: “Is it significant that the most popular idea for the origin of the universe is described as a huge cloud of gas?”

Rare humor had always been a Ted Armstrong stock in trade. But what were those “extraordinarily healthy views”? This phrase underscores just how much of a “broad text” of the popular culture the Armstrong radio insurgency had become. The upscale British listener continued his analysis:

For example, he advocates proper and reasonable discipline for children; deplores the “new morality;” is saddened by Britain’s decline as a world power; does not care for “weirdoes;” assaults sentimental Christianity as being against Bible teaching; is horrified by Britain’s obsession with gambling; considers that granting independence to unready countries is a mistake – and so on. Is this the real reason for the new drive to stop that voice as well as less attractive sounds?14

There was even subdued comedy “in house.” Herbert Armstrong with his dander up was often entertaining to watch, especially if you were well out of range. He decoded the controversy in an altogether different way. His Midwestern law and order proclivities were outraged at the mention of the phrase “pirate ships.” Pirate ships? “Pirate ships?” HWA was always ready to fulminate on the subject even years later: “They were not pirate ships!” he would protest to no-one in particular. Years later in the USBC booklet he was still settling scores. “They were not illegal! They violated no law of man,” he wrote. “But the British authorities called them ‘pirate’ ships. They were not pirates. They were not marauders…They harmed no one. But most governments of man would like to control what their people hear or do not hear.” As was not unusual, HWA’s hearers would glance down politely at the floor to hide slightly concealed smiles. In some ways this predictable Amstrong pique at Whitehall and its ways would be a rhetorical dress rehearsal for the far greater strife with the state of California in the next decade. In 1967, however, the British government was indeed able to bring pressure to bear to squelch the offshore broadcasting in the form of the Marine Broadcasting Offenses Act, to go into effect August 14, 1967. This was not, it turned out, a happy moment for the British churches. But for a while the Armstrong radio onslaught had thrown sedate Britain for a loop.

A Frenetic Summer

The implementation of the Marine Offenses Bill effectively ended the Worldwide Church of God’s radio insurgency in the British Isles. Bricket Wood Bible Studies and Sabbath services were replete with updates on this last-ditch “Battle for Britain” as the intensely mission-driven WCG put it. Elder Ed Smith’s detailed notes from the messages delivered to the headquarters congregation give some of the flavor of that frenetic summer with Pirate Ships, the Six Day War, WCG expansion into the Middle East and “end-time fever” all jumping around in the hopper:

May 5, 1967 – Good comments about HWA’s broadcast about sex. Many letters from teenagers. John Butterfield (head of Ambassador College Press) visited a printing seminar and spoke to groups of young people who had heard “The World Tomorrow” broadcast. An amendment is under way in parliament to suspend the Marine Offences Bill until BBC offers some suitable replacement. Radio Caroline vows to carry on regardless (Charles Hunting).

May 6, 1967 – Our new office being furnished in Jerusalem. The Marine Offences Bill to be raised in the House of Lords on Monday for its third reading before it goes back to the House of Commons to become law (Ronald Dart).

May 12, 1967 – Last night the first “World Tomorrow” television program broadcasted since 1955 – in USA on Channel 22; meanwhile new mail from radio ships up to 892 letters this week – third highest total ever. Radio London has the best reception; Radio Scotland heard in Glasgow… and coming through loud and clear (Charles Hunting).

May 20, 1967 – John Jewell, Mail Receiving Department head, will be going to Nicosia to assist in establishing a new office in Cyprus (Raymond McNair).

May 26, 1967 – Now nearly six weeks since Mrs. Armstrong died. New mail from radio ships now reached 897 letters this week. Only Radio 390 broadcasts once a day – all other ships twice daily (Raymond McNair).

May 27, 1967 – Middle East situation could blow up very soon, foul up God’s Work there. Remember Radio 390 and the ship situation in prayers (Raymond McNair).

June 2, 1967 – This week in U.K. the new mail from radio ships was above 1000 letters – the second highest response. Breakdown was: Radio London, 253 letters; Radio Caroline, 225; Radio 355, 190; Radio 390, 189, etc. There are only a few years left. Time has come for Israelis to take over the Temple site (Raymond McNair).

June 3, 1967 – Exciting news: entire Bricket Wood Chorale (the college choir) to be sent to Pasadena next January. Troubled situation in the Middle East – our advertising man, Milt Scott, has backed out; Stanley Rader also. We have perhaps four and a half years to go (before January, 1972); this world reeling in its corruption won’t be here in ten years; London won’t be here unless saved by God’s mercy (Herbert Armstrong).

June 10, 1967 – HWA has received many letters about Mrs. Loma Armstrong’s good example; Israelis will be building a temple very soon; perhaps only four more Ambassador graduations to go (Hebert Armstrong).

June 16, 1967 – Ship stations being allowed to carry on until BBC introduces a replacement; God had TV, radio and the press invented for the use of his church and no other purpose; God has warned the people through HWA and GTA (Hebert Armstrong).

June 23, 1967 – GTA in Texas; wife Shirley just had a still birth with normal labor but lost this little girl at five and a half months; they had hoped for a little daughter. HWA conferred today with Jordanian government representative Adli Muhktadi – “World Tomorrow” will now begin on Amman radio on July 1 (short wave and medium wave); HWA fells sympathy for King Hussein and the Jordanians; every penny they receive (from WCG) will be allocated to help Palestinian refugees; Jordanians look with favor on the Work of God (Herbert Armstrong).

July 1, 1967 – Pray for situation in Palestine; our broadcast due today on radio Amman; don’t get careless because of the Postmaster General’s latest dictum – a reprieve from banning the ship stations till September (Raymond McNair).

July 7, 1967 – The WCG’s broadcast named in the Sunday Sun newspaper; the article suggested that religion could save the North Sea radio pirates since their people could survive on “Church of God” revenues; “The World Tomorrow” has been the big financial backing behind these ships (John Portune).

July 15, 1967 – The ship stations due to be thrown off the air on August 15; all expect to end their transmissions by midnight, August 14. God can continue to hear our prayers and keep these stations open. Two new offices now established (Cyprus and Jerusalem); pray for safety of Mr. and Mrs. Raymond Dick and family; new office opening in Mexico City.

July 22, 1967 – Mr. Robert Boraker (Letter Answering Department, U.K.) back from seven months in Pasadena; speaks on crisis of Mrs. Armstrong’s sickness yet Mr. Armstrong very concerned about Mrs. Boraker’s health battles; Mr. Armstrong very lonesome in the evenings without his wife; a call for a further church day of fasting (re. pirate ship legislation) this week (Robert Boraker).

July 28, 1967 – Radio 390 off the air for good; their last message goes out tonight at 5:10 PM, closing with the national anthem; Radio London is also through; Radio Caroline will be on until August 15; feel a sense of loss as a part of the Work is shut down (Charles Hunting).15

A Bang Not a Whimper

The WCG’s pirate ship venture expired in fighting style. Edward Smith was in Belfast for the Sabbath of August 5, 1967 to hear local pastor James Wells report that Radio Manx on the Isle of Man will keep broadcasting. The next week, in Glasgow church, pastor Colin Adair passed on the news that the previous week was a record week for mail in the WCG’s British operation. People sough frantically to receive a Plain Truth subscription before the doors closed and 1119 of them wrote to the Bricket Wood office. The official tally went as follows:

Radio 355 – 367 letters

Radio London – 282 letters

Radio Caroline – 271 letters

Radio Scotland – 97 letters

Radio 270 – 63 letters

Radio 390 – 32 letters

Radio Manx – 6 letters

“People are hoping for an alternative to the pirate ships,“ Colin Adair commented to his congregation. “They will feel lost without the broadcast. People are very sorry at the loss of the stations. They are pleading for us to stay on.” The next week at the weekly Bricket Wood Bible Study, Raymond McNair cited a London Daily Mail headline, “Ban Silences Radio God,” a direct slap at “The World Tomorrow.” This echoed the previous week’s article in the London Observer referencing the “Pirate Radio Church of God.” As had and would occur in the United States, Herbert Armstrong’s media efforts were often underscored in counterpoint. Nevertheless, the Daily Mail and the Observer were respected British institutions. In their apparent glee at the Armstrong’s demise they were perhaps pointing up the impact the church was having in those tumultuous years. Meanwhile, one Letter to the Editor in the Daily Mail, lamenting the broadcast’s disappearance was headlined: “Final Link With Sanity Has Been Broken.”

Echoes of the pirate ship insurgency did remain, even four decades later. On September 28, 2003, a tongue-in-cheek obituary in the London Sunday Times satirized a BBC Radio 4 report announcing the passing of “one of religion’s best-known and best-loved voices.” Writer Paul Donovan asked: “What? Was Radio 4 going to say something nice about Garner Ted Armstrong, the American evangelist who believed Anglo-Saxons were one of the lost tribes of Israel and whose apocalyptic sermons on ‘The World Tomorrow’ went out for years on the North Sea pirate ships and another 300 stations worldwide?” The answer was, as expected, in the negative but a reflection, nevertheless, of one writer’s cultural memory. The February 5, 2005 Liverpool Echo Flashback, taking a look back at popular radio’s history of abundant variety, opined: “Religion was not forgotten either. At 11:30 P.M. each night the strident voice of American evangelist Garner Ted Armstrong would ring out telling us he was ‘bringing Christ to the nations.’”

Popular culture artifacts sometimes achieve a kind of lasting notoriety, as the fascination over Elvis Presley attests. As broadcasters, the Armstrongs were, in their way, unforgettable. The pirate ship era is remembered in WCG (now GCI) folk memory as one of the seminal periods of church growth in Great Britain. The ghost of the pirate ships themselves still haunt the air waves through the continuing adventures of Radio Caroline and the teasing suggestion on pirate web sites that the Labour Party’s defeat in the 1970 U.K. election could be traced to the loss of precious 18-year-old votes. These new teen voters chose to protest their government’s shut-down of one of the symbols of the Swinging Sixties. “God moves in mysterious ways” the British poet Edward Cowper had written. Thus, even in 1967, Charles Hunting could be philosophical about it all. As the WCG (U.K.) CFO he mentioned in the August 25 Bricket Wood Bible Study that the bill for the radio broadcasts in just one month came in at $65,000 – “a considerable sum: in Edward Smith’s phrase for the Britain of 1967. But one the church was more than willing to pay at the time.

(ED. – Excerpted from an unpublished manuscript “Blow the Dust Off Your Bible: Herbert Armstrong and American Popular Religion” by Neil Earle.)

1 “Radio Caroline,” (5/3/2007)

2 “Wonderful Radio London,” (5/4/2007)

3 Christopher Booker, The Neophiliacs, page 236.

4 George Harrison quoted in “Disc” magazine, Ray Coleman interview, August 6, 1966.

5 Robert Chapman, Selling the sixties: the pirates and pop music radio (London: Routledge, 1992), page 189.

6 Charles F. Hunting, “The Last Battle for Britain,” The Good News (December, 1966), pages 8, 21.

7 Scott Lupow, personal communication, January, 2006. The teaching of a United Europe as allegedly foreshadowed in Revelation 17 and becoming the instrument of Britain’s demise was an Armstrong standard.

8 Eugene Michel, the WCG’s “Mr. Accounting” for many years, cheerfully dismisses this suggestion as he does the theories of support from Howard Hughes or H.L. Hunt (personal interview, May 8, 2007).

9 Hansard, General Index, Sessions 1966-67 (April 18, 1966-October 27, 1967).

10 Charles Hunting, The Good News (December, 1966), pages 8, 21. Most WCG details flow from this article.

11 Robert Chapman, Selling the sixties, page 188; “The Pirate Radio Hall of Fame,” (5/3/2007).

12 Edward Smith, private communication, October 26, 2006.

13 Herman L. Hoeh, “And Now ‘The World Tomorrow’ Broadcast Blankets British Isles,” The Plain Truth (June, 1965), page 23.

14 Charles Hunting, page 21.

15 Edward Smith, personal communication, October 26, 2006. WCG (U.K.) quotes that follow from here.

Joaquin Miller – Friend of The Rossetti Family

Posted on May 5, 2022 by Royal Rosamond Press

A statue dedicated to Joaquin Miller in Hoo Hoo Park in McCloud, California

Songs of the sun-lands.: By Joaquin Miller. (;view=image


I can not tell you enough how important the friendship of Joaquin Miller, and the Rossetti family, is, to the history and future of Oregon and California. Miller grew up ten miles from Springfield Oregon. He would travel to Britain and have dinner with the Pre-Raphaelites. He had Japanese Poets living on his Bohemian Mecca in Oakland. Takeshi Kanno was a guest. He was on a cultural mission of the Emperor of Japan. There is talk about Russia and Japan having another war. Today, Japan and Britain signed a pact that resembles the one that Chruchill instigated. Everything has come – to fruition!

All my hard work – is not it vain. I am going to approach Disney about making a trilogy about Joaquin Miller, who was a flawed white man – of Tomorrowland. Many Americans are asking why we are over there again – helping Ukraine fight a war with Russia. Millions of black people want the money spent on war – spent at home. Today, we have allies that we fought against in World War Two. All Americans need and deserve an explanation, a presentation of our Mutual Cultural Ambitions. Hollywood has helped define Who We Are – in the past!

Who are we?

John Presco

Candidate for Governor of Oregon

KYIV Radio – Alaska

Posted on April 16, 2022 by Royal Rosamond Press


Population: 142,122,776

When I awoke yesterday, the first thing I was going to do was e-mail Senator Wyden, and suggest the U.S. Government fund KYIV. Then I got distracted by Betsy Johnson. When I went shopping – I was attacked by a witch. I conclude – real evil is about the world! Good people must stay focused!

Johnny Radio

Hollis and John Founded Homeless Church | Rosamond Press

Dr. Senator; Two days ago I read an article about ‘Putin’s Brain’. Alexander Dugin has been called Putin’s Rasputin. I listened to a video of him talking about how Russia is entitled to rule the world, and invade the Ukraine, because they are a physically BIG nation. Because we are a SMALLER nation, we should back off and let Russia does what it wants. I googled the size of Alaska, Canada, and the United States and WE are just as big. There has been talk about Russia getting Alaska back, because we OWE them. What I want the U.S. Government to do, is fund my idea for a radio station – stationed in Alaska, that is close to his royal bigness, and, taunt Putin’s Giant Brain. We need to open a Western Front. I tried to save Armstrong’s KORE radio station. How about….KYIV Radio?

Thank You

Thank you for contacting my office.

‘A New Iron Curtain’: Why Finland, Sweden Joining NATO Matters (

Ben Toney and Augustus John

Posted on August 20, 2018 by Royal Rosamond Press

When I learned Ben was seriously ill and in the hospital, I knew he was going to die. I wanted to get a message to him before he left. This is in May. I only learned about the KORE connection, four days ago.

Chas Cunningham smeared and tried to destroy Gully Jimson’s mural that was inspired by the character and world of Augustus John, the close kin of Ian Fleming. Little people with little minds are always trying to do harm to the creative ones. This is why we dress, and act like fools. Perhaps they will leave us alone. Maybe, they will not go into a jealous rage?

ben got to know some very famous people, and just met quite a few. He told me he had drinks with Peter Sellers after a show, and I was jealous of Ben, for the only time. I have a Seller’s character in my Bond book based upon this – work of art!

My Friend Ben Toney

Posted on May 5, 2018by Royal Rosamond Press

Ben Toney had a fall a month ago, and his health has declined. He is in the hospital. For six year we have been fast facebook friends. We shared so much information. We fought side by side the rise of Trump. Ben is a friend – and ally! He managed his facebook the way it was set up to be. He has so many wonderful memories to share, and there were no outsiders. If you found Toney, you were in the ‘In Crowd’. I found Ben while looking at the genealogy of Rosamond Clifford, his kindred.

I learned Ben was gravely ill when I posted on my Ian Fleming revival, that brings the Bond lineage back to life in his granddaughter, Victoria Bond. She has this dream, this vision, where a great fleet is gathered once again. The famous British artist, Augustus John, had a son, Caspar John, who refused the title Sir. He was a Sea Lord. I revive Tug Boat Anny, and put her on a tugboat on the Thames. From here she broadcast her talk radio show. I modeled her after the pirate ship Radio London. Ian Fleming is kin to the John family. My kin, Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor is kin to John via the Getty family. Her grandmother is Elizabeth Mary Rosemond. Liz was born in John’s house with twenty of his paintings on the wall. The character, Gully Jimson, is based upon Augustus John. He lives on a old barge on the Thames.

Above are two paintings of Fanny Cornforth by Rossetti. She was a whore. Would she have made porno movies if the technology was available? Trump may be brought down by a wanton hussy such as she, who would have made a great Queen of the Pirates. The top image is of The Grail Mistress. Under her is Fair Rosamond, Ben’s ancestor.

We are preparing to set sail. I have gathered The Grail Fleet. Leading this fleet, is the Golden Hind, sailed by Captain Sir Francis Drake. He was a pirate for Queen Elizabeth. Next comes Jimson’s barge. Next comes the ship that was Radio London. Then come the Navy Ship that Ben served on. Then, come the ships that Caspar commanded.

Hail Britannia!

You can say this fleet is a Bohemian fleet, a Gypsy fleet, a Rebel fleet, that will always set sail when a Tyrant and his gang of liars and crooks do away with the Free press, Freedom of expression, and…………The Truth!

I am asking for permission to use some of the image s from these sites. I am also suggesting a movie be made about the exploits of Ben Pirate.

I can not tolerate the idea of a world without Ben in it. I am witness to his fond farewells to member of his crew, and, am left with the sense we are losing a important part of our history. I salute all of these Sea Lords of the Airwaves who braved unchartered waters, and a new frontier.

Air Space………….The Final Frontier!

Jon Presco

Here are the vessels that Sir Caspar John served upon. He was born into a artistic family. I would like see the College of Defence Studies founded by the Artist, Sir Winston Churchill, expanded to include Creative People in Britain and the U.S. As a rule artists, writers, and musicians do not take slaves, gas people, and loot other people’s art. Hitler did all three. He was a bad artist who cost the world many lives, and a trillion dollars to put him down. We took back the art he stole and put it in sacred public places. I support Theresa May’s strike against Assad, who gassed his own people.

Below are the warships that Sir Ian Easton served on. I know everyday he thwarted the efforts of a dictator who robbed so much art that was not his, Caspar thought of his father and his Bohemian friends, doing what they damn well please, and being as different, and eccentric, as can be!

Long live the Bohemian Navy!

Jon Presco

Here are the vessels that Sir Caspar John served upon. He was born into a artistic family. I would like see the College of Defence Studies founded by the Artist, Sir Winston Churchill, expanded to include Creative People in Britain and the U.S. As a rule artists, writers, and musicians do not take slaves, gas people, and loot other people’s art. Hitler did all three. He was a bad artist who cost the world many lives, and a trillion dollars to put him down. We took back the art he stole and put it in sacred public places. I support Theresa May’s strike against Assad, who gassed his own people.

Below are the warships that Sir Ian Easton served on.

Jon Presco—two-views-on-Fair-Rosamund/

The Rolling English Road

Before the Roman came to Rye or out to Severn strode,
The rolling English drunkard made the rolling English road.
A reeling road, a rolling road, that rambles round the shire,
And after him the parson ran, the sexton and the squire;
A merry road, a mazy road, and such as we did tread
The night we went to Birmingham by way of Beachy Head.

I knew no harm of Bonaparte and plenty of the Squire,
And for to fight the Frenchman I did not much desire;
But I did bash their baggonets because they came arrayed
To straighten out the crooked road an English drunkard made,
Where you and I went down the lane with ale-mugs in our hands,
The night we went to Glastonbury by way of Goodwin Sands.

His sins they were forgiven him; or why do flowers run
Behind him; and the hedges all strengthening in the sun?
The wild thing went from left to right and knew not which was which,
But the wild rose was above him when they found him in the ditch.
God pardon us, nor harden us; we did not see so clear
The night we went to Bannockburn by way of Brighton Pier.

My friends, we will not go again or ape an ancient rage,
Or stretch the folly of our youth to be the shame of age,
But walk with clearer eyes and ears this path that wandereth,
And see undrugged in evening light the decent inn of death;
For there is good news yet to hear and fine things to be seen,
Before we go to Paradise by way of Kensal Green.

The Amazing Radio London Adventure
by Ben Toney
Part 6 – Hanging with the ‘in’ Crowd

Pall Mall Music launches, Ben meets a special lady, Dave Clark is ‘discovered’… and Her Majesty is not amused!
After a few months on the air, Radio London had become the most powerful of all the pirate stations and was giving the BBC a close race for the London audience. There was no doubt that Radio London at that time was the most sought-after station for record plays. It was at this time that I started putting some pressure on Tony Barrow to get me the new Beatles releases first. He told me that it would be difficult for him to do that because the Beatles recorded on Parlophone, an EMI subsidiary. Of course EMI was foremost in the battle against the pirates. Tony said that he would be in a lot of trouble with EMI and possibly Brian Epstein, if he let me have the releases first. However, about two weeks prior to the next Beatles release, someone put an acetate of the record through Dave Cash’s letterbox at home. We had the release ahead of any other station worldwide. The next time the Beatles released a single, someone handed Kenny Everett an acetate of it on the street. Again, we were the first to get a copy. EMI was going mad. They couldn’t imagine how we were getting these copies of the Beatles’ records. Frankly, neither could I. I asked Tony Barrow about the situation and he confessed that he had no idea where the records were coming from. I never pressed the issue. Who questions a gift from heaven?

The American owners and Philip Birch cooked up a little scheme that would have been totally unheard of in America. They had been approached by Harold Shampan, owner of Film Music Ltd. to set up a company which would publish the ‘B’ sides of records for airplays of the ‘A’ sides. I thought this was the most corrupt, inane scheme I had ever heard of. It openly set a “payola” standard for the station that immediately gave us a “black eye” in the music business. Philip called me in and told me that he had passed the idea across the owners and they thought it would be a good way to increase our income; besides, Radio Luxembourg was doing it, so why shouldn’t we? I finally agreed to set up the company which we called Pall Mall Music. It was also agreed that nothing would go on the air without my approval. This meant that only two or three of these records would be sent to the ship weekly. If the record made it into the national charts within the first week, I would keep it in for another week. However, I can think of very few records that did make it for a second week.

It was on the formation of Pall Mall Music that Brian Epstein became interested in doing business with us. I met Brian several times to discuss the artists he wanted to promote through Pall Mall. We made several deals for artists in his stable, including Billy J. Kramer; Paddy, Klaus, and Gibson and The Silkie.

Right, from Ben’s archive: Brian Epstein writes to Ben plugging the new Paddy, Klaus, and Gibson release, ‘No Good Without You Baby’. Click on letter to read enlarged version.

Sometime after Dave Cash had done his ‘loo’ interview with Ringo, I went to the Pickwick Club for dinner. This was one of the few occasions that I ever ate alone in London. I finished my meal and went down to the basement bar to have a nightcap. As I walked in, I noticed a long table surrounded by the Beatles, along with Cynthia Lennon and Jane Asher, Paul McCartney’s girlfriend. Ringo yelled at me and said, “Hey, Ben, come on over and have a nosh with us”. I told him that I had just eaten upstairs. John jokingly remarked, “They won’t allow us to eat up there. They make us come down here to the basement.” I told the group that I had come down to the bar for a drink, so I was invited to rink with them. As a matter of fact, I had several, as we chatted about various subjects not related to the music business. The Beatles had been to Texas several times, but had only gone from the airport to town and back when they performed in the cities of Dallas, Houston, and San Antonio. I think in their mind’s eye, Texas remained as they had seen it portrayed in the movies. They sort of visualised everyone with a gun strapped to his leg, chasing Indians around a wagon train. They were surprised to find out that most of the people in Texas lived in the cities and were engaged in industry and commerce, and that the Indians were no longer attacking wagon trains, but were living quiet, peaceful lives on the reservations. They were also surprised at the fact that I was part-Indian (probably no more than one eighth). The Beatles told me a lot about their hometown of Liverpool. Much of this conversation I can’t remember because it was so general and it took place so long ago, but the Beatles and I both enjoyed this break from our usually stressful work.

One afternoon Mike Stone suggested that I become a member of the Ad Lib Club – a very exclusive club which was open only to people in the music and acting professions. One could only become a member through invitation. Mike had been a member since he was a record producer and he said it would be no problem getting me in if I would pay their annual fee of ten pounds. I asked Mike why he thought; I would want to pay £10 to get into a club with artists that I saw every day anyway. In about a week, Mike brought me a membership card. The owners had decided it would be OK for me to forego the membership fee.

The Beatles, being very wealthy, owned Rolls-Royces, but they also owned Mini Coopers. The Ad Lib was just off Leicester Square down a little-travelled street, so when the Fab Four visited the Ad Lib, they came in their Minis and parked in an alley behind the building. They went via a freight elevator to the second floor (English), third floor (American) where they rang a doorbell and walked into a fabulously-decorated club. Their activities at that time were all shrouded in secrecy.

I went to the Ad Lib several times. It was a great place to mingle with artists. Within the spec of a week, you could probably meet any pop star in the business within its walls. However, the club was not well located for me. Mike Stone and I lived in the same apartment complex in South Kensington, just off Cromwell Road. We were within walking distance of the Cromwellian Club, another popular hangout of the ‘in Crowd’. Many evenings Mike and I could be found at the Cromwellian. Sometime in mid-July of 1965, Bobby Vinton and his manager, Alan Klein, came to London. They met me at the office one afternoon and suggested that we go out in the evening. I told them about the Cromwellian and they agreed that it would be a good place for us to meet. Mike Stone was in the office when I was talking to Bobby and Alan, so they invited him too. As we all arrived at the Cromwellian, Alan spotted a sign reading ‘casino’ with its arrow pointing upstairs. We never saw Alan again until we left the club.

Bobby, Mike, and I went into the bar and ordered drinks and seated ourselves at a table. As we sat there, we spotted a gorgeous brunette sitting across the room. She was with Freda Hilton whom both Mike and I knew. I believe she was connected with the Rick Gunnell Agency. Mike, being the “bloodhound” that he was, got right on the trail and was soon seated with Freda and her friend. Mike struck out with Freda’s friend and soon came back to report to us that her name was Ronagh Clarke and that she worked for the Don Black Agency located almost directly across the street from our Curzon Street office.

After having a few drinks, we decided to call it a night, so, having introduced Bobby to a few people we knew… Brian Epstein, Tom Jones, and the boxer Billy Walker… we took our leave and went upstairs to the casino to fetch Alan Klein. Alan said he was having a wonderful time and told Bobby to go on back to the hotel and he would see him in the morning.

A week or so before meeting Bobby Vinton, the secretary who worked for Mike and me had resigned. On the July 25th 1965 I flew to Spain for a week’s vacation, leaving Mike with instructions to hire us a replacement. When I returned, I found Ronagh Clarke sitting at the secretary’s desk. Mike had apparently offered her a few more quid and had stolen her away from Don Black.

Left, from Ben’s archive: Ronagh Clarke, pictured on Hampstead Heath

Over the next two months so, Ronagh and I became close, and on October 11th 1965 we were married at the Hampstead Registry Office. It was a popular time for weddings. On the same day, my friend Gerry Marsden of Gerry and the Pacemakers married his fiancee at London’s Caxton Hall and during the same week, Johnny Franz, producer of Dusty Springfield and The Walker Brothers, wed his secretary.

Ronagh and I flew to Italy for our honeymoon and spent a night or two in Rome and went to see the sights of St Peter’s Basilica. As were standing and taking in this totally impressive building, we noticed a crowd closing in on us and pushing us forward toward the Pope’s throne. As we stood there, Pope Paul VI appeared and conducted a mass, the first he had celebrated following his trip to America.

Neither Ronagh nor I understood even rudimentary Italian, so on the following day, we caught the “milk” train to Naples. With our lack of knowledge, it took us almost the whole day to make a trip that we could have made in less than two hours on the “Rapid”. Needless today, we got to see far more of the tiny villages along the way than we needed to see. We finally arrived at Naples and took a boat to the Isle of Capri where we spent the rest of our honeymoon.

Ronagh no longer wanted to be my secretary once we were married, so Mike and I were in search of a replacement. As luck would have it, we came upon a young woman called Mary who suited our needs perfectly. I had engaged three secretaries prior to Mary, including Ronagh, and none of them could keep the unwanted song pluggers away from me. A plugger would give them a “sob” story, and the next thing I knew, I had a body sitting next to me touting an artist I had never heard of. Mary was great. She could tell little white lies about my whereabouts, and she knew just the right people to let in to see me.

One of the many people who had arrived on the scene around the opening of Radio London was an Australian by the name of Robert Stigwood. Robert; had previously managed a group that had enjoyed one big hit, and after that they had a long, dry spell. When I met Robert, he was flogging another group that to my knowledge never had a hit. Robert took me out to lunch several times, but he never had any luck getting me to play his records. Then after I married Ronagh in October 1965, Robert took my new wife and me out for an excellent dinner at the Terrazzo Trattoria. We had moved into a new flat in the Marylebone Road and mentioned this during our conversation at dinner. Robert said that he lived directly across the street from us and suggested that we come over to his place some Sunday for brunch. I was not too interested in getting very close to song pluggers so, we never took him up on his invitation

All the gigantic things that happened to Robert Stigwood were things that came to pass after I left Radio London. He finally got himself a fantastic group called the Bee Gees. The Bee Gees made Robert a fortune, and it was not long before he moved to a luxury flat in Grosvenor Square, near the American Embassy. Later, after Brian Epstein died, Robert took over as managing director of NEMS, the Beatles’ management company. I would imagine at that time, he became “filthy” rich. He later became connected with Andrew Lloyd Weber and Tim Rice and produced a stage production called ‘Jesus Christ Superstar’. After having had a great amount of success in the music business, Robert, using the Bee Gees’ music, produced the classic movie “Saturday Night Fever” which starred John Travolta.

Shortly after my marriage to Ronagh, I was contacted by Harold Davidson. Harold had twin stepsons, Paul and Barry Ryan, whom he wanted to promote through Pall Mall Music. They were pretty good artists, so I made a deal with Harold for the ‘B’ side of their record “Don’t Bring Me Your Heartaches”. The boys’ mother was Marian Ryan who had been a very famous singer in England in the late Forties and early Fifties.

Right, courtesy of Brian Long: Ben (centre) and MD Philip Birch (far right) escort the Ryan twins aboard the Galaxy

Harold Davidson had early on gotten himself associated with Lew and Leslie Grade and was a director of the Grade Organisation, reputed to have been the top artist agency in England. Lord Lew Grade was more involved in motion picture production while Leslie and Harold took care of the talent. One of their main performers was Julie Andrews. They also had an agency which handled all the talent of the William Morris Agency from America, which included Frank Sinatra. When Frank was in Europe, Harold handled his bookings.

Since a number: of Harold’s artists were involved in motion pictures, he made occasional trips to Pinewood Studios. On one such trip, he happened upon a young stunt man named Dave Clark. Dave used to crash cars into trees at thirty miles per hour, then the studio would speed up the film and make it appear that the crash happened at sixty miles per hour. Harold noticed that Dave was a good looking young fellow, so he asked him if he would like to be a pop star! Dave said that he would, but he didn’t have any talent. Harold asked him if he thought he could keep time with music while beating a drum. Dave believed he could. So, Harold formed a group around Dave and that was the beginning of the Dave Clark Five. Although the group made a fortune in America, they were never quite as successful on home territory.

Harold, Marian, Ronagh and I want out together on several evenings. On one occasion we went to the Talk of the Town, and on another, it was Tiberious. Then, one afternoon when Harold and I were having lunch, he told me that he had tickets for me and Ronagh to attend the Royal Variety Performance (It is referred to in America as the Royal Command Performance, but there was only one occasion when it was given this title in England, in the year 1912.) Of course, I accepted the tickets with great anticipation.

Lew and Leslie Grade, whose surname was originally Winogradsky, were Ukrainian Jews. Their family left the Ukraine in 1912 because of the pogroms, officially sponsored riots that lead to the destruction of Jewish shops and to physical assaults on Jews, and in some cases to their deaths. Lew and Leslie anglicised their name to “Grade”, while their younger brother took the pseudonym Bernard Delfont.

As they grew up, the Grades and Bernard became good dancers and in time they were dancing on the stage of the Palladium. As previously mentioned, Lew and Leslie were engaged in artist agency and motion picture endeavours; however, Bernard became the impresario at the Palladium and the President of the Variety Artists’ Benevolent Fund. It was likely through Bernard that Harold obtained our tickets for the Royal Variety Performance. These tickets were not all that available to the general public and were mostly pre-sold from year to year to celebrities and the aristocracy. One of these tickets could have been “scalped” for hundreds of pounds.

I rented a tuxedo and Ronagh borrowed a very fancy evening dress from a friend. We leased a chauffeur-driven Bentley (I couldn’t find a Rolls), and we were off to the show. When we arrived at the Palladium, there were hundreds of people gathered around the entrance to get a glimpse of the activities. As we stepped out of the car, many of the onlookers waved. I’m sure they were waving at Ronagh. She was lovely and looked just like a movie star.

We went in and took our seats and prepared ourselves for one of the greatest evenings of entertainment that one could ask for. There were fourteen or fifteen different acts on the programme. First and foremost in importance was America’s own Jack Benny. Another talented American, Tony Bennett, was on the programme, as well as the sensational Peter, Paul and Mary.

Among the UK performers who appeared were Dusty Springfield, Harold’s proteges The Dave Clark Five, Max Bygraves, Arthur Hayes, Neville King, Peter Cook and Dudley Moore, Hope and Keen, The Kaye Sisters, Spike Milligan and Peter Sellers, Ken Dodd and Shirley Bassey.

Left, BBC archive: The Goons, pictured in 1955. (l to r) Spike Milligan, Harry Secombe and the naughty Peter Sellers

Australia’s contribution to this massive gathering was Frank Ifield. The French did their part by sending over the very popular husband and wife team of Johnny Halliday and Silvie Vartan.

Not only were the entertainers world-renowned but also many members of the audience. The Queen and Prince Philip were sitting in their box just above us to the right and film star Ava Gardner was in her box to the left. It was indeed a night to remember! We were thoroughly entertained, but the best was yet to come.

After we all stood up at the end and sang “God, Save the Queen”, Harold moved over to Ronagh and me and suggested that we all go to the cast party. While at the party, all the performers queued to receive the Queen and Prince Philip. Peter Sellers and Spike Milligan had done the most outlandish things on their hugely-popular BBC radio programme, ‘The Goon Show’, which ran between 1951 and 1960. The zany pair didn’t disappoint anyone at this show of shows. They kept making disparaging remarks about the Queen. The Queen, to say the least, was not amused; however, Prince Philip, who was sitting just behind the Queen, was getting his jollies off. When the Queen moved along the reception line to Peter, she said, “Peter, you are a very naughty boy!” Peter cast his eyes down to the floor like a chastised schoolboy and replied, “I know, Ma’am, I know.”

Editor’s note: Prince Charles is known to be a huge fan of the Goon Show. He was also reputed to be a Big L listener and a a member of the Radio London Club – no doubt something else of which his mother disapproved! John Lennon was another well-known Goon fan, as were Kenny and Cash, who regularly spoke in Goonish voices and called each other ‘Neddie’, referring to the character Neddie Seagoon, played by Harry Secombe.

The Variety Artists’ Benevolent Fund website has photos of the 1965 show programme


Posted on December 28, 2021 by Royal Rosamond Press

I was raised a Catholic was taught there were consequences for lying – for telling falsehoods! As Christmas music slowly took over my classical music station, I said to myself..

“Tis the season of The Creeping Lie’. Soon, the lying will be total. The Pope will speak, and not declare Donald Trump – A DAMN LIAR -because he held up a Bible in front of a church, and, Christians went crazy! Hot dog – 1984 is here. Time to hear – JINGLE BELLS! Time to – grease up and bend over – whie the BIG LIE is slowly inserted in the next seventy hours!”

I reasoned, it was THE SEASON OF LIES, and why not go along with it, even bring out MORE LIES, such as the Prophet Jeremiah brought two Jewish Princesses to Ireland – AND THERE REALLY IS A SANTA CLAUS – guarded by the Knight’s Templars of Rougemont! Wasn’t the famous Jewish philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein interested in the writing of Black Mask authors who hung with my grandparents, suggesting there are hidden truths in fantastic fiction?

Yesterday, I spent four hours on my phone Scrolling For Models and Actresses to play James Bond. I hereby lay a copyright on the APP…..’HUNTING FOR BOND’. A major casino should build The Bond Room’ where the Bond Wanna-bes can strut their stuff. There will be The Bond Singers.

Before I went to bed, I noted once again that Ramatamar, resembles Starfish (modeled after Yulia Rose) who I said would be killed-off, and thus she would not contend for the spotlight with Victoria Bond who is somewhat frail and mousy. I refrained from telling Rotem Sela – to put some more meat on those bones! I didn’t want to scare her off by suggesting she’s my – NEW MUSE – who is allot like Miriam Starfish.

I have claimed more than once that God is dictating my books. I think Spooky Noodles wants me to put God’s Word’s in red, and his THOUGHTS – in Irish green? The truth is, Israel stands to gain from my Religious Fables, verses the oppression of Jews by the Popes – and Martin Luthar. Here is the Genesis of ‘The Royal Janitor’.

Rotem means “desert plant” and Sela means “rock” Hmmm!

Vincent Rosemond Rice

Rotem Sela on Instagram: “Tonight’s look ? @padaniofficial @liatboutique”

Casting A Female James Bond To Work Alongside Ana De Armas (

Donald Trump, a Modern-Day King David? – The Atlantic

Tea-Tephi or Scota? > The Throne of Britain: Its Biblical Origin and Future (

Pre-Raphaelite Sightings in TV and Film (

painting of ‘Mary Magdalene’ on America Unearthed (

Mary Magdalene was used to portray Tea Tephi, an Egyptian princess.  Sandys’ painting does not look very Egyptian, but for that matter she also does not look like the middle-Eastern that we know Mary Magdalene to have been.

Curious as to why the Sandys painting was chosen for the program, I googled Tea Tephi.  Surprisingly, Mary Magdalene is the first image that appears in Google image search.  For whatever reason, she appears on this ancestry page about Tea Tephi and I suspect that this is the source for America Unearthed’s use of the painting.

Augustus John, Ian Fleming, and Ben Toney

Posted on July 8, 2019 by Royal Rosamond Press

I posted this weeks before Ben Toney died. I wanted him to get a glimpse of how he was going to be remembered. I had come to realize I was involved in a real James Bond assignment which is to save the alliance between and the United States. I threw Holland into the mix, to only learn two days ago the Dutch had their pirate ship.

The making of Bond 25 is – cursed! The muses hate this movie. Violence and murder is not the message God wants to give in regards to solving world problems. In the name of kindred, Ian Flaming – I take over this production and legacy! I pirate it. I board this wreck and raise a United Flag that contains a musical note and a harp!


Monthly Letters

A Synopsis of the Life and Work of Herbert W. Armstrong—Part IV

                                                                                                                 December 2014

Dear Brethren:

           We are using this month’s letter to forge ahead in telling the condensed story of Mr-s. Herbert Armstrong and that incredible work which God did through them beginning in the early twentieth century. In last month’s issue, we described the very beginning of that little organized assembly outside of Eugene, Oregon, which would become the Radio Church of God in 1933; and also the inauguration of the Radio Church of God radio broadcast (later to be named The World Tomorrow), as well as the debut of The Plain Truth magazine in early 1934. From the very beginning of that enterprise, God opened the doors for a very positive response that would soon catapult the Armstrongs into a whole different world.

Faith Strategies Begin to Form

           Through 1934 and 1935, Mr. Armstrong implemented and sustained his “three-point campaign” of radio broadcasts, monthly publishing of The Plain Truth magazine, and local evangelistic campaigns in the Eugene area. Committing in advance, financially, to pay for these programs well beyond his existing wherewithal certainly required an act of faith that God would provide the needed income. And the income always appeared right when required. It was all being operated on a shoestring budget, and Mr. and Mrs. Armstrong were the ones personally doing the lion’s share of the manual work required to make it all happen, from the cleaning of local meeting halls to the physical production and mailing of mimeographed issues of the magazine. The hours were long and brutally taxing.

           Yet, Mr. Armstrong was still hesitant to commit very much more to newer programs without “guarantees” of financial support. He describes that lesson regarding the first opportunity to expand the radio broadcast outside of Eugene, Oregon:

But the point I wish to make is that, by the end of our first year on the air, Christ opened another door! He opened the door for us to go on station KXL, Portland, then only 100 watts.

But at that time I was afraid to walk through that door—until after co-workers had pledged enough money to pay for it. This very letter quoted above [a Co-Worker letter dated December 20, 1934] went on to ask co-workers for those pledges—totalling only $50 per month, for the year 1935. A coupon form of pledge was mimeographed at the bottom of the second page of the letter.

Our co-workers failed to pledge the needed $50 per month. And I failed to walk through the door Christ had opened. We had to wait almost two more years before God gave us another opportunity for His work to expand into Portland! Later other doors were opened, when I wanted definite pledges before walking through those doors. But definite pledges was not faith.

We had to learn, by experience, that when God opens doors for Christ’s gospel, He expects us to start walking on through, in faith, trusting him to supply our every need (The Plain Truth, March 1961, Autobiography of Herbert W. Armstrong, p. 14).

           Although the radio broadcasts and personal evangelistic campaigns continued through 1936, publishing of the magazine issues was interrupted. He simply did not have the time and resources to tend to all of those irons in the fire. Here is Mr. Armstrong’s explanation of that:

Not only was the expansion of the broadcasting withheld two whole years, but The Plain Truth was suspended from publication, also! After I failed to trust God by going on KXL when He opened its door to us, we were allowed to print and send out only two more issues of The Plain Truth—March and July issues, 1935—and then The Plain Truth was entirely suspended for two and a half years! . . . Not until January, 1938, did The Plain Truth appear again! (The Plain Truth, June 1961, Autobiography, p. 12)

           This history is important because it reveals the thinking that Herbert Armstrong consistently used from that time forward concerning decisions about bold expansions of the work. What the world would consider as reckless disregard for fiscal prudence would be the faith philosophy that Herbert Armstrong would use to make many “audacious” strategic choices to walk through “new doors” in the ensuing years.

           By the end of 1936, the Radio Church of God broadcast had indeed expanded and was then heard on KXL in Portland, and next on KSLM in Salem, through a networked transmission relay from the KORE broadcast in Eugene. Even though these were all small stations, by early 1937, Mr. Armstrong was reporting to his co-workers a listening audience approaching 50,000 every Sunday. By the end of that year, he was reporting over 100,000 listeners, based upon the mail responses they were receiving. At this time he was still using the “church service” format for the broadcasts, including music and a short prayer as a part of each program, more akin to the “other” ministers who were on the radio. This too would change dramatically as exposure grew.

           During this same time Mr. Armstrong continued to try working cooperatively with the other Sabbath-keeping groups in the area, but his success in pastoring expanding local congregations made possible by his radio broadcasts seemed to have fostered jealousy among the other ministers. After it became apparent that their plots to undermine him would never cease, he finally broke with them and focused exclusively upon serving those who were coming into the church through his own personal ministry.

           These continued to be what Mr. Armstrong called “the lean years.” His family lived a very meager existence. There were many times when it appeared that there would be no funds to pay the bills, let alone the cost of continued broadcasts on the radio. The Plain Truth began to be published again in January 1938, but it was a continuing challenge from month to month to keep it all afloat. Citing a Co-Worker letter from July 1938, Mr. Armstrong paraphrased:

. . . only one in ten of those on The Plain Truth mailing list had ever sent a contribution of any kind toward the expenses of the work. And they had never been asked. The few contributors had become Co-Workers voluntarily, without solicitation. The other nine in ten had never received any solicitation (The Plain Truth,November 1961, Autobiography, p. 5).

           He also stated that this same ratio of listeners to contributors would continue to apply (as of 1961) even as that work multiplied exponentially through the decades. But even though he never solicited contributions from his radio audience, the enterprise survived and grew, even if painfully, year after year:

By April 5, 1939, a letter to Co-Workers found in an old file says: “At last, after many unavoidable delays, we are sending you The Plain Truth. This issue goes to about one thousand new readers. It is still mimeographed, because we have not enough funds to print it, as we did two issues last year. It is a tremendous task, and nearly all the work is done by Mrs. Armstrong, our daughter Beverly who is office secretary, and myself.”

In spite of inside office, lack of light or ventilation, lack of desks, filing cabinets and office equipment, the work was growing! The Plain Truth circulation was growing. We were not able to get it out every month. There were seven issues in 1938. The June number was only the third during 1939. It was issued as often as there was enough money for paper, ink and postage. Yet already this little mimeographed “magazine” was being read by a few thousand people—and a hundred thousand or more were hearing the very Gospel Christ Himself preached every week—besides almost continuous evangelistic campaigns reaching hundreds (The Plain Truth, November 1961, Autobiography, p. 8).

Next Big Expansion

           The next big breakthrough occurred on September 17, 1940, when the Radio Church of God broadcast debuted in Seattle, Washington, on 1000-watt station, KRSC. The timing of world events with the war in Europe had provided an ideal opportunity for Herbert Armstrong to address those events in light of Bible prophecy, and people were responding:

By mid-May, 1941, the weekly listening audience, over the three stations in Eugene and Portland, Oregon, and in Seattle, had grown to a quarter million people.

That seemed a huge audience. Indeed, it was a huge audience. The work of God, having been started so very small was, as stated before, growing up.

The circulation of The Plain Truth had gone up to 5,000 copies. . . . Beginning with the issue of August-September, 1940, The Plain Truth had “grown up” from a mimeographed paper to a 16-page printed magazine, bimonthly. By mid-May we were receiving between 200 and 300 letters from radio listeners every week, and mailing out 5,000 copies of The Plain Truth (The Plain Truth, January 1962, Autobiography, p. 11).

           Even though this explosive new response to the radio program generated a sense of great satisfaction in the accomplishment, it came with a huge burden of administration:

Think of just the two of us—with at times the help of a girl who knew no shorthand and could not use a typewriter—handling and answering an average of 250 letters a week, beside all the other things Mrs. Armstrong and I had to do! Then having to call in a half dozen church brethren for volunteer help in addressing 5,000 copies of The Plain Truth by hand. And in those days we had to paste 1-cent stamps on every copy. Mrs. Armstrong had to cook paste of flour and water at home and bring it to the office to paste those wrappers (The Plain Truth, January 1962, Autobiography, p. 12).

           A new office suite became available in Eugene allowing for needed expansion. A secretary could now be hired. Little by little, an infrastructure began to be added to accommodate the growing enterprise.

Seeds of a National Work

           It was also during this particular time in 1941 that Herbert Armstrong began to expand his horizons in considering what further work God may have wanted him to do:

The realization flashed to my mind with terrific impact that in world war II—already then under way—America being then drawn closer to participation—that I could see this “sword” of WAR coming [Ezekiel 3:17–21; 33:1–19]! I looked around. No one had ever sounded this warning! No one was then sounding it! I saw numerous prophecies showing how terribly God is going to punish America and the British Commonwealth people for our apostasy from Him. I saw our sins, individually and nationally, fast increasing!

The conviction came. IF God opened doors for the mass-proclamation of His Gospel, and of this warning, nationwide, I would walk through those doors and proclaim God’s Message faithfully, as long as He gave me guidance, power, and the means.

I had no illusions that I was chosen to be the “modern Ezekiel” to proclaim this message. But I did know that no one was sounding this alarm. . . .

Of course I had been sounding this warning all along—but only in the Pacific Northwest. Now I began to see that God intended to send it to all Israel. And He had revealed to me that that meant, today, the United States, the British Commonwealth, and the nations of northwestern Europe. The idea of my being used, personally, in reaching Britain and these other countries did not yet take sharp focus in my mind. But I did, now, for the first time, begin to think actively and definitely about this work expanding to the entire United States! (The Plain Truth, January 1962, Autobiography, p. 13)

           The bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, provided the means for Herbert Armstrong to really begin to exploit “a niche” not being filled by anyone else on the radio:

. . . A number of nationally famous news commentators and analysts gained the public spotlight—such men as Elmer Davis, H. V. Kaltenborn, Raymond Gram Swing—and some still in the public eye, Ed Murrow, Eric Severeid, and others—just to name a few.

But these men knew nothing of Biblical prophecy. Not knowing the real purpose being worked out here below, they did not grasp the true significance on the world of the future, of the news they were analyzing. They did not know where it was leading.

On the other hand, none of the ministers broadcasting religious programs had the newspaper and analytical background, nor, I may add, the true understanding of the prophecies, to connect that entire third of the Bible with war events.

Putting the two together—factual knowledge and analysis of war events, with Biblical prophecies—put at my disposal a powerful interest-compelling message (The Plain Truth, January 1962, Autobiography, p. 39).

           Many of the higher wattage radio stations in larger market areas that Mr. Armstrong had contacted (including Chicago and Los Angeles) were not inclined toward additional religious programming. But they did seem receptive to Herbert Armstrong’s program. As well, the radio managers where the program was already broadcasting began suggesting dropping the music, given that it was the hard-hitting news analysis that was actually driving the audience response:

At first I was both reluctant and afraid to drop the music. So I experimented by reducing it. No harm resulted. There was no lessening in the response or expressed interest. I reduced it still more. Finally, it was eliminated altogether. We found, as radio station managers had recommended, that our program attracted and held a much larger interest when it started off with analysis of world events and the meaning, as revealed in Biblical prophecy (The Plain Truth, January 1962, Autobiography, p. 39).

           By the time Mr. Armstrong was negotiating the first expansion into the Los Angeles, California, market with KMTR radio in April 1942, he was prepared to make these significant changes:

The time had come to drop the church-service type program altogether. Since the original broadcast name, Radio Church of God, did not invite a listening from non-churchgoers whom we wished primarily to reach, and since in the world’s language the Message of the true Gospel—the kingdom of God—is about tomorrow’s world, I adopted the broadcast name, the world tomorrow!

And so, in mid-April, 1942, the world tomorrow went on the air in Hollywood (The Plain Truth, January 1962, Autobiography, pp. 39–40).

           Instead of merely one half-hour time slot each Sunday morning on KMTR, an opportunity opened for daily broadcasts at 5:30 p.m. The cost meant doubling the cost devoted to the whole work at that time. But rather than shying away out of fear, Herbert Armstrong applied the lesson he had learned in 1935 and made the commitment. Here was the result:

But, miracle of miracles!—for once in our experience, the impact of this early evening daily broadcasting was as tremendous as the test of faith had been! Not once did I ask for contributions on the air, just as I had refused to do from the first broadcast in 1934. And the mailing address for free literature and The Plain Truth, offered on each program, was then Box 111, Eugene, Oregon.

Not only was there an immediate tremendous increase in mail from listeners—there was a corresponding increase in tithes and offerings arriving in Eugene (The Plain Truth, February 1962, Autobiography, p. 12).

           Mr. Armstrong was not capable of sustaining a nightly program in Hollywood for more than a few weeks. But the experience had shown the fruits that were borne with such exposure. Likewise, pulling back to one day a week broadcasts allowed him finally to contract with WHO radio in Des Moines, Iowa:

Station WHO was, at the time, probably the very most valuable single radio station we could have hoped to use. It was a 50,000-watt top-ranking station. It was one of only eight, of all radio stations in America, that still had an absolutely exclusive channel. . . .

Of course, in 1941, this giant WHO was still completely beyond our reach. But by early 1942, with our income doubled, and with the very low rate offered by the manager of WHO, I felt ready to take this leap.

On Sunday night, August 30, 1942, for the first time in my life I was speaking , from the studios of WHO, to a nationwide audience! (The Plain Truth, March 1962, Autobiography, pp. 19–20).

           This was only the beginning of Herbert Armstrong’s national exposure as The World Tomorrow program began to be heard in every state. Contracts with specific stations would come and go, but increasingly that voice could be heard regularly from anywhere across the continental USA.

           Time has been spent in this particular installment to provide additional details showing how that tiny evangelistic work grew from being just a local outreach in rural Oregon to the national enterprise that it became within a few short years. It was that radio broadcast in concert with The Plain Truth magazine that provided the platform for Herbert Armstrong to proclaim a brand of Bible understanding never before heard in the twentieth century.

In loving service to the remnant of God,

Jon Brisby Signature

Jon W. Brisby

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About Royal Rosamond Press

I am an artist, a writer, and a theologian.
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1 Response to The Cultural And Religious History of Springfield

  1. Reblogged this on Rosamond Press and commented:

    I am composing the history of Polly Lane and will send it to The City Club.

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