Free Soil and Reverse Immigration

I am calling upon the President of the United States to purchase large tracts of land in the Latin American nations that have become too violent for its citizens to live in, and send young people from America, England, and Germany to live in large colonies. Millions of young people will never own a home. Here is their chance. Here is their chance.

  1. You must sustain from all alcohol and drugs.
  2.  You must learn how to march in formation.
  3.  You must know how to use a firearm.

The U.S. Government will fund commercial enterprises. After three years, a vast tract of land will be given to those who sought asylum. They will march home in a parade, to bagpipes if they cho0se. The Latin Diaspora is grateful for the hospitality the white people have shown them. Together they destroy the murderous gangs and take back their country that is a mixed race Nation of Patriots!

Inclusiveness and Acceptance is a two way street! My Prussian people fled to Chile and taught them how to march. We were forty-eighters who went down South and destroyed the Confederate army. We put Lincoln in the White House.

Here comes stability!

In three years, the gates to the communes open, and out goose steps the Home Guard who start marching for the Capitol. Mothers who have not seen their daughter since they were teenagers will break into tears when they see their child is safe. Other mothers will weep when they recognize their sons. A group of mothers grab the hair of the gang members and tear at their eyes. One mother takes a machete to another. A crowd starts chasing down the murderous gang members. They are brought before the marching mothers. Two break rank, and cut off the heads of those who raped them. Their commander tells them to get back in line. The corrupt government hands over the keys to the city. There is peace, stability, and prosperity!

This is how real history goes. You can read all about this kind of thing, in your Bible. It is not a good time to be a member of a gang. Your days are numbered!

John Presco

Many asylum-seekers in the United States are from Latin America, especially the Northern Triangle region of Central America—El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala.6 They are fleeing because their home countries continue to be plagued with violence—much of it gang-related—as well as economic and political instability. Among those fleeing, many are women; children who may be unaccompanied or traveling with a parent; and LGBTQ people.7 Turning these individuals and families back or actively deporting them to their home countries—sometimes after first criminally prosecuting them and sentencing them to time in U.S. federal prison—may mean returning them to places where they may face persecution, displacement, and, in some cases, even death.8

 

Most of these German immigrants believed in equality and democracy. They disliked the institution of slavery, sensing how its very existence contradicted the lofty phrases of the Declaration of Independence. A majority of Germans settled in the North, partly because of their opposition to slavery, but also because there were more opportunities for free laborers in the North, and because the climate and landscape in many parts of the North more closely resembled that of their native Germany than did the climate and landscape of most of the South.

Germans in antebellum America tended to live close to one another in ethnic neighborhoods. They spoke German in their day-to-day dealings, and their children’s schools were taught in German. Most large northern cities had at least one German-language daily newspaper. The Germans also formed clubs known as Turnvereins, which emphasized exercise and physical culture. Some members of the Turnvereins also formed rifle clubs and joined local militia organizations. When war broke out with the South, these Turners (as members of Turnvereins were called) were a source of ready manpower which authorities in Washington, D.C. sought to mobilize.

SLPL can help persons researching German American ancestors who served in the Civil War. We own books and microfilm sets, and offer access to reference databases like Fold3.com that provide records of men who served in Union Army regiments.

Turners and Free Thinkers

Many of the Forty-Eighters were Free Thinkers and members of the Turnverein. Racist Neo-Confederate Evangelical Bubbas are claiming they are victims of Liberal Socialists who formed Big Government in order to take away their State Rights and individual liberties – because Lincoln was a Marxist who had no moral qualms about slavery in the South, he using slavery as an excuse to plant the Evil Red Empire in the land of the free.
This BIG LIE comes out of the mouths of a thousand evangelical ministers who work round the clock to give their flocks the moral high ground over the Democrats who promote Civil Rights, Women’s Rights, and Equal Pay – all the things that Jesus hates!For some strange reason these fakes believe Jesus was pro-capitalist, and anti-socialism. This has to be true because they need Jesus to lead them against the Liberal North, and the minorities in the Southwest. Who else do they got – Mitt the Mormon?

Getting rid of the public school system is vital in bringing bach puritanical ecclesiastical rule to America. Without Jesus in their camp, this is another crazy, armed rise of racist South. Do not sit on the sidelines and let fake church folks rewrite American history as was the case with my Turnverien kindred in Belmont who were more then likely socialists. The Turnverien Jews were socialist Zionists, and played a huge role in the founding of the Socialist State of Israel in 1947. There is nothing in the Bible that says socialists are evil and are the enemies of God. Assholes who got young Americans into Vietnam in order to put an end to Elvis and the Rock and Roll movement, told many lies in the name of Jesus.

“Like other German-American groups, the American Turners experienced discrimination during World War I. The German language was banned in schools and universities, and German language journals and newspapers were shut down, but the Turner societies continued to function.

The Stuttmeisters refused to change their name, which no doubt made them targets.

German Forty-Eighters in Chile

Before Conservative Germans went after the Jews, they went after the Freethinkers and Forty-Eighters who were forced to flee their homeland in 1848. The Chilean government encouraged these bright, modern-thinking men and women to seek refuge in their nation, they not giving a rat’s ass if they did not believe Adam and Eve propagated the human race ten thousand years ago, because they wanted educated doctors, engineers, and other proffessional people to help bring their government into the next century, help them build a infrastructure.How ironic that intelligent Jews who fled Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, are empowering ignorant Fake Christians backed by Americas Greedy Billionaires who made their fortune on the backs of bright futuristic peoples. And then they blame it on the poor, this rush back to the Stupid Stoneage in preparation for the Blessed Doomsday where many wonderful manmade things will be destroyed by King Killer Jesus! I’m sure the Chilean government would not invite the End Days Darbyites to come live in chile. But, here are the Israelites inviting them to come to Israel, and take over OUR Secular Government! How smart is that?

In the stupefied evangelized city I live in, I can’t get anyone to recognize; least honor the Fremonts and the Forty-Eighters that backed all their efforts in the West. In Chile, MY PEOPLE have a statue erected in their memory, a big THANK YOU! In Springfield got a screaming eagle on a wall with – GOD BLESS AMERICA! And then destroy America for the sake of the Fake Christians?!!!

Evangelical Tea-Baggers are opposing Obama’s plan to put folks back to work repairing our infrastructure – just because he is a black man, and – NOT ONE OF THEM!

Jon Presco

Fremont’s Foreign Fighters

The South hated John Fremont – and still does. He made California great, and was the first to free the slaves. His wife, Jessie Benton Fremont, is my kindred. This progressive couple is the San Francisco World’s Fair.Down South, gun crazy ministers are preaching the End Time Tribulation where the Killer Jesus come and wipe all things secular off the map, leaving obese religious addicts cowering in their bunkers, waiting for Obama’s socialist black troops to come ferret them out, they guzzling down another twelve pack so they can own courage.

John Fremont

A persistent accusation leveled against Fremont was that he surrounded himself with foreign officers – Germans, Hungarians, Italians, and French – and actually preferred foreigners to Americans. Furthermore, the critics charged, these officers exaggerated their military experiences, strutted about in gaudy uniforms of their own design, bestowed sonorous and absurd titles upon themselves, and could give Fremont little practical counsel in a situation full of political difficulties.

The American Civil War, 1861-1865, was the most fateful episode in the history of the United States. Therefore, it’s not surprising that countless thousands of books and articles have been written on virtually every aspect of the conflict.
A substantial portion of these publications naturally deal with the prominent military men on both sides. One individual who has received much attention from historians and Civil War buffs, even though his service in the war was rather brief, is the charismatic John C. Fremont.
On the eve of the Civil War Fremont was one of the best-known and most popular figures in America. His explorations in the Far West had earned him the sobriquet of “Pathfinder.” In 1856 he ran for president on the Republican ticket. He had been asked to be the Democratic presidential candidate, but declined because that party supported slavery.
Although Fremont lost the election, he garnered a substantial portion of the popular and electoral vote. His wife, the intrepid Jessie Benton, was the daughter of the powerful Missouri politician Thomas Hart Benton. In the minds of many Americans, Fremont seemed to embody the spirit of the nation.
At the outbreak of the Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln commissioned Fremont a major-general and assigned him to the command of the Western Department, with headquarters at St. Louis, Missouri. The situation in Missouri was a most turbulent one and the problems facing Fremont were almost insurmountable. His meager forces were short of arms, ammunition, and supplies of every kind. The majority of Missourians were not in sympathy with the attempt of the North to coerce the South. The state was honeycombed with secessionist camps; guerrillas and bushwhackers burned bridges, wrecked trains, attacked exposed Federal units, and terrorized pro-Union citizens.
Despite the overwhelming obstacles, Fremont accomplished much. He organized and trained an army from raw recruits, fortified St. Louis and other key centers, built a squadron of river gunboats, secured strategic rivers posts, and consolidated the railroad transportation system. Declaring that drastic conditions call for drastic measures, he imposed martial law, arrested active secessionists, and suspended the publication of newspapers charged with disloyalty. Like other commanding generals of departments Fremont was not guided by precedents but had to improvise.
Fremont’s actions aroused enmity from various quarters. His numerous political antagonists, ready to capitalize on any misstep, accused him of ostentation and reckless expenditure. His promotion to major-general over the head of many regular army officers excited jealousy. The Blair family, powerful in both local and national politics and once his most ardent supporters, became his bitter foes.
On August 30, 1861, Fremont issued the Missouri Emancipation Proclamation, declaring the property of Missourians in rebellion confiscated and their slaves freed. Radical Northerners rejoiced; “The hour has come, and the man,” intoned Harriet Beecher Stowe, author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin. Lincoln, whose moderate stance on slavery at the time was calculated to keep border slave states loyal, deemed the act as premature and asked Fremont to revoke it. When Fremont refused, Lincoln countermanded it personally.

A persistent accusation leveled against Fremont was that he surrounded himself with foreign officers – Germans, Hungarians, Italians, and French – and actually preferred foreigners to Americans. Furthermore, the critics charged, these officers exaggerated their military experiences, strutted about in gaudy uniforms of their own design, bestowed sonorous and absurd titles upon themselves, and could give Fremont little practical counsel in a situation full of political difficulties.
While there was an element of truth in all of these, the critics, as well as some modern writers echoing their views, overlook a few indisputable facts. First, native-born officers were scarce at the start of the Civil War, prompting not only Fremont but other commanders to rely heavily on the foreign born. Second, many of Fremont’s staff officers successfully continued their military careers longer after he left the army.
A number of publications state or imply that a significant number of the foreign officers around Fremont were Hungarians. Actually, there were only four Hungarians on Fremont’s staff who held important positions at any given time: Alexander Asboth, Charles Zagonyi, John Fiala, and Anselm Albert. Gustav Waagner’s tenure as the Western Department’s chief of artillery lasted but a few weeks due to Fremont’s dismissal.
Other Hungarians serving in Missouri in the early days of the war – Joseph Nemett, Emeric Meszaros, Hugo Hollan, Anton Gerster, Nicholas Perczel, and the four Rombauer brothers: Robert, Roderick Emil, Raphael Guido and Roland – were not part of the Fremont entourage. Philip Figyelmessy, Emeric Szabad and Nicolai Dunka on Fremont’s staff in the Mountain Department occupied minor posts.
A brief summary on the lives and careers of the four prominent Hungarians with Fremont is as follows.

Alexander Asboth

Alexander Asboth – A lieutenant-colonel during the 1848-49 War of Liberation and one of Kossuth’s most loyal followers, Asboth accompanied him to the Ottoman Empire and shared the entire Turkish internment with him. He came to the United States aboard the Mississippi, the vessel sent by President Millard Fillmore to bring Kossuth and his companions to America.
Until the outbreak of the Civil War, Asboth worked as an engineer, his chosen profession. While in the employ of Frederick Law Olmsted, the renowned landscape architect, Asboth helped to survey Central Park as well as the upper west side of Manhattan.

On microfische #1609199, Family History Center, Item 9 –

It states that the `HERMAN’ left HAMBURG Sept. 3, 1851, arrived December 4,
1851 in the port of Valdivia, page 56. Then it says Ship `HERMAN’ under
the command of Captain O.A. Kleingarn, left HAMBVRG, December, 1852 and
made for Valdivia and Valparaio, arriving July 31, 1852.

There must be a mistake in dates. The first is the passenger list, and
the other bit was on another page giving more detailed information, but it
is rather confusing. What year did my ancestor arrive in Chili? I found my
ancestor, Friedrich Wilhelm Stuttmeister on the list, and a much needed
clue. It stated he was from Philadelphia. I have been looking at New York
port of entry, so now I will look for arrivals from Germany to Phiadelphia.

The other puzzler is, did the HERMAN stop in Philadelphia before going on
to Valparaiso, and pick up passengers? My ancestor arrived in the US
before 1844, as he was married on that date, so eight years later he is
traveling to Chili, and what was the attraction? And where was his wife?
More puzzles! Or did he travel back to Germany, and take this emmigrant
ship to Chili from Hamburg? I guess I cannot rule that out.
Has anyone done any extra reading about the Germans who went to Chili? I
noticed from the passenger list, broken down by occupations, there were
three doctors, l lawyer, and various professions represented, along with a
few farmers, carpenters, etc. which I found intriguing. Stuttmeister did
not travel as a physician, but as a `Commercial’. He was a doctor.
Anyone have any comments on this?
Daryl

The first German colonisation was at the Llanquihue lake and in the Frontera. Encouraged by these first successes in 1846 by Philippi, thirty settlers from Hessenwere recruited for Bella Vista. A further 1,000 Germans followed in 1848, mostly inspired by the events of the revolution to begin a new life overseas; besides craftsmen, many university graduates were involved. Arriving in 1851, their numbers were supplemented by skilled workers (beer-brewers, tanners, furniture makers) and included academics such as pharmacists, professors and scientific investigators. In 1852 Germans founded Deutsche Player Maiten, Volcan and Puerto Octay, as well as in 1853, Puerto Montt. Llanquihue, Frutillar and Puerto Varas were settled with Germans in the same year. Between 1872-75, Nordboehmer Quilanto, lot Bajos, El Carril, Linea Plantanosa and new Braunau started. To the settlement of Germans in Valdivia Fritz Kindermann and Karl Anwandter contributed much. In the Frontera (area between the rivers Biobio and Tolten) were settled primarily colonists from Brandenburg, Pomerania and Switzerland.Many Germans moved also into the cities Valparaiso, Santiago, Temuco, Conception, Ancud and Magellanes. They had to endure hard times during the first years in the wilderness, but with determination they gradually became prominent and a most respected segment of Chilean society.

Here Come the Forty-Eighters!

Lojos Kossuth was titled ‘The Angel of Fredom’ by smart Americans. The Darbyites were still in Ireland, dumbing-down the Irish with their Doomsday Pre-Trib Terrorism. Kossuth was a good friend of my kin, the Fremonts. Hungarian forty-Eighters made up the Jessie Scouts, and John’s bodyguards. Kossuth led the revolt against the Catholic Hapburgs who all descend from Jeanne de Rougemont, who may be my ancestor on my mother’s side. The Hapsburgs held the titles King and Queen of Bohemia.Carl Augusta Janke was a Forty-Eighter, he coming to San Francisco in 1848. Many Forty-Eighters in Chile, left for this city to take part in the Gold Rush of 1849.

Above in the Wihelm family of Chile who look like my kinfolk.

Jon Presco

Forty-EightersFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Forty-Eighters were Europeans who participated in or supported the revolutions of 1848that swept Europe. In Germany, the Forty-Eighters favored unification of the German people, a more democratic government, and guarantees of human rights.[1

]Disappointed at the failure of the revolution to bring about the reform of the system of government in Germany or the Austrian Empireand sometimes on the government’s wanted list because of their involvement in the revolution, they gave up their old lives to try again abroad. Many emigrated to the United States, Canada, and Australiaafter the revolutions failed. They included Germans, Czechs, Hungarians, and others. Many were respected, wealthy, and well-educated; as such, they were not typical migrants. A large number went on to be very successful in their new countries.

Contents [hide]
1 Forty-Eighters in the USA
1.1 Notable German Forty-Eighters in the US
1.2 Notable Czech Forty-Eighters in the US
1.3 Notable Hungarian Forty-Eighters in the US
1.4 Notable Irish Forty-Eighters in the US
2 Forty-Eighters in England
2.1 Heligoland
3 Forty-Eighters in Holland
4 Forty-Eighters in France
5 Forty-Eighters in Switzerland
6 Forty-Eighters in Australia
6.1 Famous Australian Forty-Eighters
7 Peripatetic Forty-Eighters
8 See also
9 References
10 Bibliography

[edit] Forty-Eighters in the USAIn the United States, many Forty-Eighters opposed nativism and slavery, in keeping with the liberal ideals that had led them to flee Germany. Several thousand enlisted in the Union Army, where they became prominent in the Civil War. In the Camp Jackson Affair, a large force of German volunteers helped prevent Confederate forces from seizing the government arsenal in St. Louisjust prior to the beginning of the war.[2]

Many Forty-Eighters settled in the Texas Hill Countryin the vicinity of Fredericksburg, and voted heavily against Texas’s secession. In the Bellvillearea of Austin County, another destination for Forty-Eighters, the Germanprecincts voted decisively against the secession ordinance.[3]

More than 30,000 Forty-Eighters settled in the Over-the-Rhineneighborhood of Cincinnati, Ohio. There they helped define the distinct German culture of the neighborhood, but in some cases also brought a rebellious nature with them from Germany. During violent protests in 1853 and 1854, Forty-Eighters were held responsible for the killing of two law enforcement officers.[4]In the Cincinnati Riot of 1853, in which one demonstrator was killed, Forty-Eighters violently protested the visit of the papal emissary Cardinal Gaetano Bedini, who had repressed revolutionaries in the Papal States in 1849.[5]

Many German Forty-Eighters settled in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, helping solidify that city’s progressive political bent and cultural Deutschtum. The Acht-und-vierzigersand their descendants contributed to the development of that city’s long Socialist political tradition.[6]

After the Civil War, Forty-Eighters supported improved labor laws and working conditions. They also advanced the country’s cultural and intellectual development in such fields as education, the arts, medicine, journalism, and business.

[edit] Notable German Forty-Eighters in the USArchitects, Engineers: Louis Burger,[7] Adolf Cluss, Henry Flad
Artists: Friedrich Girsch;[8] Wilhelm Heine; Louis Prang; Adelbert John Volck; Theodore Kaufman
Businessmen, investment bankers: Solomon Loeb, Abraham Kuhnfounders of Kuhn, Loeb & Co.
Generalsin the American Civil War: Louis Blenker; Alexander Schimmelpfennig; Carl Schurz; Franz Sigel; Max Weber; August Willich; Frederick C. Salomon
Journalists, writers, publishers: Mathilde Franziska Anneke; Gustav Bloede (see Marie Bloede); Rudolf Doehn; Carl Adolph Douai; Carl Daenzer; Bernard Domschke; Christian Esselen(editor of Atlantis); Julius Fröbel; Karl Peter Heinzen; Rudolf Lexow(founder of Belletristisches Journal); Niclas Müller; Reinhold Solger;[9] Emil Praetorius; Oswald Ottendorfer; Friedrich Hassaurek;[10] Theodor Olshausen; Hermann Raster; Wilhelm Rapp;[11] Carl Heinrich Schnauffer;[12]Kaspar Beetz; Carl Dilthey; F. Raine; Heinrich Börnstein; Charles L. Bernays; Emil Rothe; Eduard Leyh;[13] George Schneider(who was also a banker); Albert Sigel[14]; Franz Umbscheiden; Edward Morwitz(who was also a physician)
Musicians: Carl Zerrahn; Carl Bergmann; Otto Dresel; Herman Trost(band leader in Sherman’s army who later settled in Lexington, Kentucky, where he conducted the first band at the University of Kentucky; friend of John Philip Sousa)
Physicians: Abraham Jacobi; Herman Kiefer; Ernest Krackowizer;[15] Hans Kudlich; Wilhelm Loewe, Gustav C. E. Weber[16]
Poets: Konrad Krez;[17] Edmund Märklin; Rudolf Puchner
Political activists: Lorenz Brentano(later a member of the Congress); Friedrich Hecker; Carl Schurz(later US Secretary of the Interior); Gustav von Struve; Wilhelm Weitling; Joseph Weydemeyer; Rudolf Dulon; Edward Salomon; Louis F. Schade
Other: Margarethe Schurz(founder of the first kindergartenin the U.S.); Al Sieber(known as “Chief of the Scouts” in Arizona, who fought at Antietam, Fredericksburg, and Chancellorsvillewith Hecker, Schurz, and Sigel, and then in the Battle of Gettysburg); Joseph Spiegel(founder of the Spiegel Catalog); Hugo Wesendonck(founder of the Germania Life Insurance Company, now Guardian Life); Pauline Wunderlich(fought at the Dresden barricades); John Michael Maisch(father of adequate pharmaceutical legislation)
[edit] Notable Czech Forty-Eighters in the USProkup Hudek, one of the “Slavonic Artillerymen” of the 24th Illinois Infantry Regiment, and one of the co-founders of the Workingmen’s Party of Illinois[18]
František Korbel, winegrower in Sonoma County, California
Vojta Náprstek, Czech language publisher in Milwaukee
[edit] Notable Hungarian Forty-Eighters in the USAlexander Sandor Asboth
Charles Zagonyi
Julius Stahel
Albin Francisco Schoepf
Phineas Mendel Heilprin
Michael Heilprin
Edward R. Straznicky
Martin Koszta[19]
[edit] Notable Irish Forty-Eighters in the USThomas Francis Meagher[20]
John O’Mahony
Lola Montez(she fled from Bavariavia Switzerland, France and England)
[edit] Forty-Eighters in EnglandGiuseppe Mazziniused Londonas a place of refuge before and after the revolutions of 1848. In the early years after the failure of the revolutions of 1848, a group of German Forty-Eighters and others met in a salonorganized by Baroness Méry von Bruiningk in St. John’s Wood, England.[21]The baroness was a Russian of German descent who was sympathetic with the goals of the revolutionaries. Among the people who attended her salon, hosted by herself and her husband Ludolf August von Bruiningk, were Carl Schurz, Gottfried and Johanna Kinkel, Ferdinand Freiligrath, Alexander Herzen, Louis Blanc, Malwida von Meysenbug, Adolf Strodtmann, Johannesand Bertha Ronge, Alexander Schimmelfennig, Wilhelm Loewe-Kalbe and Heinrich Bernhard Oppenheim.[22]

Carl Schurz reports “A large number of refugees from almost all parts of the European continent had gathered in London since the year 1848, but the intercourse between the different national groups — Germans, Frenchmen, Italians, Hungarians, Poles, Russians — was confined more or less to the prominent personages. All, however, in common nourished the confident hope of a revolutionary upturning on the continent soon to come. Among the Germans there were only a few who shared this hope in a less degree. Perhaps the ablest and most important person among these was Lothar Bucher, a quiet, retiring man of great capacity and acquirements, who occupied himself with serious political studies.”[23]

Other Germans who fled to England for a time were Ludwig Bamberger,[24] Arnold Ruge, Alexandre Ledru-Rollin and Franz Sigel. Along with several of the above, Sabine Freitag also lists Gustav Adolf Techow, Eduard Meyen, Graf Oskar von Reichenbach, Josef Fickler and Amand Goegg.[25] Karl Blindbecame a writer in England.

Hungarian refugee Gustav Zerffibecame an English citizen and worked as a historian in London. Lajos Kossuth, a Hungarian revolutionary, toured England and then the United States, and then formed a government in exile in England.

[edit] HeligolandIn addition, the British possession of Heligolandwas a destination for refugees, for example Rudolf Dulon.

[edit] Forty-Eighters in HollandLudwig Bamberger was in Holland for a time,[24]as was Heinrich Bernhard Oppenheim.[26]

[edit] Forty-Eighters in FranceLudwig Bamberger settled in Parisand worked in a bank from 1852 until the amnesty of 1866 allowed him to return to Germany.[24]Carl Schurz was in France for a time before moving on to England.[27]He stayed there with Adolf Strodtmann.

[edit] Forty-Eighters in SwitzerlandThe following were all refugees from Germany:

Friedrich Beustsettled in Switzerlandto work in early-childhood education. He lived and worked there until his death in 1899.
Gottfried Kinkelmoved to Switzerland in 1866 after living in England. He was a professor of archaeology and the history of art at the Polytechnikum in Zürich, where he died sixteen years later.
Hermann Köchlyfirst fled to Brussels in 1849. In 1851, he was appointed professor of classical philology at the University of Zürich. By 1864, he was back in Germany as a professor at the University of Heidelberg.
Richard Wagner, the composer, first fled to Paris and then settled in Zurich. He eventually returned to Germany.
[edit] Forty-Eighters in AustraliaIn 1848, the first non-British ship carrying immigrants to arrive in Victoriawas from Germany; the Goddefroy, on February 13. Many of those on board were political refugees. Some Germans also travelled to Australia via London.

In April 1849 the Beulahwas the first ship to bring assisted German vinedresser families to NSW.[28]
The second ship, the Parland[29]left London on 13 March 1849, and arrived in Sydney on 5 July 1849[30]
The Princess Louiseleft Hamburg March 26 of 1849, in the spring, bound for South Australia via Rio de Janeiro. The voyage took 135 days which was considered slow but nevertheless the Princess Louiseberthed at Port Adelaide on August 7, 1849 with 161 emigres, including Johann Friedrich Mosel. Johann, born in 1827 in Berlin in the duchy of Brandenburg had taken three weeks to travel from his home to the departure point of the 350 tonne vessel at Hamburg. This voyage had been well planned by two of the founding passengers, brothers Richard and Otto Schomburgk who had been implicated in the revolution. Otto had been jailed in 1847 for his activities as a student revolutionary. The brothers along with others including Frau von Kreussler and D. Meucke formed a migration group, the South Australian Colonisation Society, one of many similar groups forming throughout Germany at the time. Sponsored by the scientist geologist Leopold von Buch, the society chartered the Princess Louiseto sail to South Australia. The passengers were mainly middle-class professionals, academics, musicians, artists, architects, engineers, artisans and apprentices, and were among the core of liberal radicals, disillusioned with events in Germany.
Many Germans became vintnersor worked in the wine industry; others founded Lutheran churches. By 1860, for example, about 70 German families lived in Germantown, Victoria. (When World War I broke out, the town was renamed Grovedale.) In Adelaide, a German Club was founded in 1854 which played a major role in society.

[edit] Famous Australian Forty-EightersCarl Linger, the conductor and composer who wrote “Song of Australia”
Dr Moritz Richard Schomburgk, later director of the Adelaide Botanical Gardens
Hermann Büring, in the wine industry
Friedrich Krichauff, Chairman of the Agricultural Bureau
[edit] Peripatetic Forty-EightersFerenc Pulszky, a Hungarian politician, who joined Kossuth on his tour of the United States and England, became involved in Italian revolutionary activities and was imprisoned, and then was pardoned and returned home in 1866

Here Come the Free-Thinkers!

False Prophets of the Fake Religion believe science does not matter, only old Biblical laws and myths. They want all secular government to end, so it can be replaced by what really works, Mosaic Law. Can we see an example of how wonderful this rule works? I thought the Jews crucified Jesus because they did not want to go forward, and adopt a new religion? Are the evangelicals talking about Papal Rule, when the Pope launched three crusades against my Bohemian people in Prague, and then the Papal Police burned Johan Huss at the stake? How about what the Pope did to my Huguenot ancestors on Saint Bartholomew Day? Strom Thurmond, launched a crusade against John and Yoko Lennon, and Beverly LaHayes is determined to defund the Arts and National Public Radio, a pet project of Thurmond – the Dixiecrat who loathed the Civil Rights Movement and prayed the South would rise again! Thanks to the Fake Preachers, and some Zionist Rabbis, his prayers are being answered.Jon Presco

FreethoughtFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search
Not to be confused with Freedom of thought or Free will.
Part of a series on
Irreligion

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v · d · e

Freethought is a philosophical viewpoint that holds that opinions should be formed on the basis of science, logic, and reason, and should not be influenced by authority, tradition, or other dogmas.[1] The cognitive application of freethought is known as ‘freethinking,’ and practitioners of freethought are known as ‘freethinkers.'[2]

Contents [hide]
1 Overview
2 Symbol
3 History
3.1 Pre-modern movement
3.2 Modern movements
3.2.1 England and France
3.2.2 Germany
3.2.3 Belgium
3.2.4 Netherlands
3.2.5 United States
3.2.6 Canada
3.2.7 Anarchism
4 See also
5 References
6 Further reading
7 External links

[edit] OverviewFreethought holds that individuals should not accept ideas proposed as truth without recourse to knowledge and reason. Thus, freethinkers strive to build their opinions on the basis of facts, scientific inquiry, and logical principles, independent of any logical fallacies or intellectually limiting effects of authority, confirmation bias, cognitive bias, conventional wisdom, popular culture, prejudice, sectarianism, tradition, urban legend, and all other dogmas. Regarding religion, freethinkers hold that there is insufficient evidence to support the existence of supernatural phenomena.[3]

A line from “Clifford’s Credo” by the 19th Century British mathematician and philosopher William Kingdon Clifford perhaps best describes the premise of freethought: “It is wrong always, everywhere, and for anyone, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence.”

[edit] Symbol
The pansy, symbol of freethought.The pansy is the long-established and enduring symbol of freethought, its usage inaugurated in the literature of the American Secular Union in the late 1800s. The reasoning behind the pansy being the symbol of freethought lies in both the flower’s name and appearance. The pansy derives its name from the French word pensée, which means “thought”; it was so named because the flower resembles a human face, and in mid to late summer it nods forward as if deep in thought.[4]

[edit] History[edit] Pre-modern movementIn Buddhism a type of freethought was advocated by Gautama Buddha, most notably in the Kalama Sutta:

“It is proper for you, Kalamas [the people of the village of Kesaputta], to doubt, to be uncertain; uncertainty has arisen in you about what is doubtful. Come, Kalamas. Do not go upon what has been acquired by repeated hearing; nor upon tradition; nor upon rumor; nor upon what is in a scripture; nor upon surmise; nor upon an axiom; nor upon specious reasoning; nor upon a bias towards a notion that has been pondered over; nor upon another’s seeming ability; nor upon the consideration, ‘The monk is our teacher.’ Kalamas, when you yourselves know: ‘These things are bad; these things are blameable; these things are censured by the wise; undertaken and observed, these things lead to harm and ill, abandon them. “…Do not accept anything by mere tradition… Do not accept anything just because it accords with your scriptures… Do not accept anything merely because it agrees with your pre-conceived notions… But when you know for yourselves—these things are moral, these things are blameless, these things are praised by the wise, these things, when performed and undertaken, conduce to well-being and happiness—then do you live acting accordingly.”

However, Bhikkhu Bodhi (b. 1944 – ) argues against the idea that “the Buddha’s teaching dispenses with faith and formulated doctrine and asks us to accept only what we can personally verify”,[5] saying this interpretation

forgets that the advice the Buddha gave the Kalamas was contingent upon the understanding that they were not yet prepared to place faith in him and his doctrine; it also forgets that the sutta omits, for that very reason, all mention of right view and of the entire perspective that opens up when right view is acquired. It offers instead the most reasonable counsel on wholesome living possible when the issue of ultimate beliefs has been put into brackets.

Bhikkhu Bodhi’s interpretation is by no means universal to Buddhists or even to Theravada Buddhism, the tradition in which he is ordained. For example, Ven. Soma Thera, a Theravada monk from Sri Lanka, called the Kalama Sutta “The Buddha’s Charter of Free Inquiry”.[6]

The web of transmissions and re-inventions of critical thought meanders from the Hellenistic Mediterranean, through repositories of knowledge and wisdom in Ireland and the Iranian civilizations (e.g. Khayyam and his unorthodox sufi Rubaiyat poems), and in other civilizations, as the Chinese, (e.g. the seafaring Southern Sòng’s renaissance),[7] and on through heretical thinkers of esoteric alchemy or astrology, to the Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation.

French physician and writer Rabelais celebrated “rabelaisian” freedom as well as good feasting and drinking (an expression and a symbol of freedom of the mind) in defiance of the hypocrisies of conformist orthodoxy in his utopian Thelema Abbey (from θέλημα: free “will”), the devise of which was Do What Thou Wilt:

“So had Gargantua established it. In all their rule and strictest tie of their order there was but this one clause to be observed, Do What Thou Wilt; because free people … act virtuously and avoid vice. They call this honor.”

When the hero of his book, Pantagruel, journeys to the “Oracle of The Div(in)e Bottle”, he learns the lesson of life in one simple word: “Trinch!”, Drink! Enjoy the simple life, learn wisdom and knowledge, as a free human. Beyond puns, irony, and satire, Gargantua’s prologue metaphor instructs the reader to “break the bone and suck out the substance-full marrow” (“la substantifique moëlle”), the core of wisdom.

[edit] Modern movementsThe year 1600 is considered the beginning of the era of modern freethought, as it is marked by the execution in Italy of Giordano Bruno, a former Dominican Monk, by the Inquisition.[8]

[edit] England and FranceThe term free-thinker emerged toward the end of the 17th century in England to describe those who stood in opposition to the institution of the Church, and of literal belief in the Bible. The beliefs of these individuals were centered on the concept that people could understand the world through consideration of nature. Such positions were formally documented for the first time in 1697 by William Molyneux in a widely publicized letter to John Locke, and more extensively in 1713, when Anthony Collins wrote his Discourse of Free-Thinking, which gained substantial popularity. In France, the concept first appeared in publication in 1765 when Denis Diderot, Jean le Rond d’Alembert and Voltaire included an article on Libre-Penseur in their Encyclopédie. The European freethought concepts spread so widely that even places as remote as the Jotunheimen, in Norway, had well-known freethinkers, such as Jo Gjende, by the 19th century.

The Freethinker magazine was first published in Britain in 1881.

[edit] GermanyIn Germany, during the period (1815–1848) and before the March Revolution, the resistance of citizens against the dogma of the church increased. In 1844, under the influence of Johannes Ronge and Robert Blum, belief in the rights of man, tolerance among men, and humanism grew, and by 1859 they had established the Bund Freireligiöser Gemeinden Deutschlands (Union of Secular Communities in Germany). This union still exists today, and is included as a member in the umbrella organization of free humanists. In 1881, in Frankfurt am Main, Ludwig Büchner established Deutschen Freidenkerbund (German Freethinkers League) as the first German organization for atheists. In 1892 the Freidenker-Gesellschaft and in 1906 the Deutscher Monistenbund were formed.[9] Freethought organizations developed “Jugendweihe”, secular “confirmation” ceremonies, and atheist funeral rites.[9][10] The Union of Freethinkers for Cremation was founded in 1905, and the Central Union of German Proletariat Freethinker in 1908. The two groups merged in 1927, becoming the German Freethinking Association in 1930.[11] More “bourgeois” organizations declined after World War I, and “proletarian” Freethought groups proliferated, becoming an organization of socialist parties.[9][12] European socialist free-thought groups formed the International of Proletarian Freethinkers (IPF) in 1925.[13] Activists agitated for Germans to disaffiliate from the Church and for secularization of elementary schools; between 1919–21 and 1930–32 more than 2.5 million Germans, for the most part supporters of the Social Democratic and Communist parties, gave up church membership.[14] Conflict developed between radical forces including the Soviet League of the Militant Godless and Social Democratic forces in Western Europe led by Theodor Hartwig and Max Sievers.[13] In 1930, the Soviet and allied delegations, following a walk-out, took over the IPF and excluded the former leaders.[13] Following Hitler’s rise to power in 1933, most freethought organizations were banned, though some right-wing groups that worked with Volkisch associations were tolerated by the Nazis until the mid 1930s.[9][12]

[edit] BelgiumMain article: Organized secularism
The Université Libre de Bruxelles and the Vrije Universiteit Brussel, along with the two Circles of Free Inquiry (Dutch and French speaking), defend the freedom of critical thought, lay philosophy and ethics, while rejecting the argument of authority.

[edit] NetherlandsIn the Netherlands, freethought has existed in organized form since the establishment of De Dageraad (now known as de Vrije Gedachte) in 1856. Among its most notable subscribing 19th century individuals were Johannes van Vloten, Multatuli, Adriaan Gerhard and Domela Nieuwenhuis.

In 2009, Frans van Dongen established the Atheist-Secular Party, which takes a considerably restrictive view of religion and public religious expressions.

[edit] United States
Robert G. Ingersoll [15]Driven by the revolutions of 1848 in the German states, the 19th century saw an immigration of German freethinkers and anti-clericalists to the United States (see Forty-Eighters). In the U.S., they hoped to be able to live by their principles, without interference from government and church authorities.[16]

Many Freethinkers settled in German immigrant strongholds, including St. Louis, Indianapolis, Wisconsin, and Texas,[16] where they founded the town of Comfort, Texas, as well as others.

These groups of German Freethinkers referred to their organizations as Freie Gemeinden, or “free congregations.”[16] The first Freie Gemeinde was established in St. Louis in 1850.[17] Others followed in Pennsylvania, California, Washington, D.C., New York, Illinois, Wisconsin, Texas, and other states.[16][17]

Freethinkers tended to be liberal, espousing ideals such as racial, social, and sexual equality, and the abolition of slavery.[16]

Freethought in the United States began to decline in the late nineteenth century. Its anti-religious views alienated would-be sympathizers. The movement also lacked cohesive goals or beliefs. By the early twentieth century, most Freethought congregations had disbanded or joined other mainstream churches. The longest continuously operating Freethought congregation in America is the Free Congregation of Sauk County, Wisconsin, which was founded in 1852 and is still active today. It affiliated with the American Unitarian Association (now the Unitarian Universalist Association) in 1955.[18]

German Freethinker settlements were located in:

Burlington, Racine County, Wisconsin[16]
Belleville, St. Clair County, Illinois
Castell, Llano County, Texas
Comfort, Kendall County, Texas
Fond du Lac, Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin[16]
Frelsburg, Colorado County, Texas
Hermann, Gasconade County, Missouri
Jefferson, Jefferson County, Wisconsin[16]
Indianapolis, Indiana[19]
Latium, Washington County, Texas
Manitowoc, Manitowoc County, Wisconsin[16]
Meyersville, DeWitt County, Texas

About Royal Rosamond Press

I am an artist, a writer, and a theologian.
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