I was born under a sign in the heavens. When I died, I saw God, raised my hand, and spoke these words…….
I was destined for the church. This message did not get to me due to my abusive parents. It came directly from God – twice! The First Messenger was my DNA! My ancestors spoke to me in foreign tongues at the moment of my death. I was their Last Hope. God hears their prayers, and restored my life.
After taking a DNA test for Ancestry.Com I found a Priestly Linage that descends from the Rosenberg and Schwarzenberg family to William and John Wilson. We find Lord Zinzendorf in our family tree – that came to America and founded Churches! William Wilson is a marvel of the Church of England, that time forgot. I am going to find time to do a portrait of John Wilson and Nikolaus Zinzandorf. Then there is Gottschalk Rosemondt and the Order of Saint Francis.
“William Wilson was Chaplain to the Archbishop of Canterbury, Prebendary of Rochester, Rector of Cliffe, near Rochester, etc. and for 32 years, Prebendary of St. George’s Chapel at Windsor where he was buried.”
“He was educated at Merton College, Oxford which he left in 1575 on his acceptance of a living from the Earl of Pembroke. . .He became Prebendary of Saint Paul’s and Rochester Cathedrals, and held the rectory of Cliffe, Kent. In 1584 he became a Canon of Windsor in place of Dr. William Wickham.”
“He was a Prebendary of St. Paul’s and Rochester Cahtedral, and also rector of Cliffe, Kent. He was chaplain of Archbishop Grindall of Canterbury, and was made Canon of Windsor in 1584. He married Isabel, daughter of John and Elizabeth Woodhall of Walden, Essex, a niece of Bishop Grindall. He died in 1615, and was buried next his father at Windsor.”
“Rev. William Wilson, D.D., of Merton College, Oxford, was also a prebendary of st. Paul’s and Rochester cathedrals, and held the rectory of cliffe, in the county of Kent. In 1584 he became canon of Windsor in place of dr. Will. Wickham promoted to the see of Lincoln, being about that time chaplain to Edmund (Grindall), Archbishop of Canterbury. He married Isabel Woodhall, daughter of John and Elizabeth Woodhall of Walden in Essex, and niece of Archbishop Grindall. He was buried in St. George’s Chapel, Windsor Castle, near the body of his father, William Wilson, late of Wellsbourne, in Lincolnshire, Gent.”,
I was born October 8, 1946 two minutes after the sun set. An amazing star-shower was suddenly visible. The nurses in the maternity ward bid my mother to come to the window and look, but, was too spent having just delivered me.
Rosemary said she had a vision while she was giving birth to me, she telling herself she must not forget it. She forgot.
Rosemary named me after John the Baptist because she believed I was born on the Day of Atonement, Yom Kippur. I was born three days after Yom Kippur.
When my Astrologer began her five hour (recorded) reading of my chart, she began
with these words;
“Jon, I have never seen a chart like yours, never knew it was possible. It
begins where all charts in theory begin, on the exact cusp of Pisces and Aries..
For this reason I had to move up the time of your birth ten minutes, or in
theory, you were not born. As it is now, you barely escaped becoming a veritable
prisoner in this lifetime, that is, all the information you came here to share.”
I believe I was born to die, and when I did, my clock was readjusted so my information could be set free. My astrologer said I am of the great Scorpion Scholars of the Biblical Wilderness who sting themselves in order to induce a near-death experience and behold the Creator, if only for a little while.
The large painting I did of Rena had her standing on a grassy hill after the sun
had set and the evening sky was a rainbow with stars coming out in the thalo
blue. There was a crescent moon cradling a star. Rena was wearing a thalo blue
cape the color of Carla Bruni’s sweater. I painted stars along the edge. For two
months I have been thinking of posting this photo, for the entity I saw was
wearing a thalo blue robe and had jet black hair filled with tiny stars like
My freed information needed the imput of female information. When our hands touched in the total darkness an amazing download began. It was and electrical experience.
Rena and I spent six weeks together. We never listened to a radio, watched TV..
or went to a movie. We had no friends. We had no electricity, and lived by
candlelight. But what we did every night on our mountain top, was watch the
sunset, and the gods paint the sky with stars. And then we went to be bed, and
in each other’s arms we dreamt a dream of long ago. And we go wherever the stars
took us that night.
Jon Gregory Presco
The October Draconids, in the past also unofficially known as the Giacobinids, are a meteor shower whose parent body is the periodic comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner. Almost all meteors which fall towards Earth ablate long before reaching its surface. The Draconids are best viewed after sunset in an area with a clear dark sky.
The 1933 and 1946 Draconids had Zenithal Hourly Rates of thousands of meteors visible per hour, among the most impressive meteor storms of the 20th century. Rare outbursts in activity can occur when the Earth travels through a denser part of the cometary debris stream; for example, in 1998, rates suddenly spiked and spiked again (less spectacularly) in 2005. A Draconid meteor outburst occurred as expected on 2011 October 8, though a waxing gibbous Moon reduced the number of meteors observed visually. During the 2012 shower radar observations detected up to 1000 meteors per hour. The 2012 outburst may have been caused by the narrow trail of dust and debris left behind by the parent comet in 1959.
The Draconids get their name from the constellation Draco, the Dragon.
In 1933 and 1946, the Draconid outbursts were major – observers reported an astounding rate of 20,000 shooting stars an hour. An Irish astronomer described the 1933 episode like a flurry of snowflakes.
In 1987 I returned to McLure’s Beach and climbed the rock I fell on. I was utterly alone. There was no one in the parking lot, and thus no one for miles. I had gone thru the New Hope Program and had a year of sobriety. I had been in hypnotherapy. I had to do this.
I had not climbed but thirty feet, and was heading for the bridge, when I came upon a plaque nailed into the rock.
“6 KNOWN DEATHS”
This plaque was not there in 1967, and the thought that six people who came after me, met their death, was otherworldly. I was entering The Land of the Known Dead. I thought about the collective grief of their families. Their tears had come here. I closed my eyes, took some deep breaths, told myself I can do this, and proceeded.
I do not think Keith and James knew I was going into shock, because they were in shock at seeing me wounded. The powerful dose was incapacitating. We could not walk. Like a heavy gravity we were pinned to the sand. We could only watch and wait until the inital impact subsided.
After James tried to wash my wound, and after I got soaking wet, I told him to leave me be. He went and sat with Keith about fifty feet away. I sat at the edge of the water listening to the strange sound that the gravel made as each wave receded. It sounded like many engines. All of a sudden landing craft were coming out of the ocean, and I was in the a middle of horrendous battle. A young man fell next to me, mortally wounded. When he died, and with his last breath, he uttered his last word;
I believe I was that soldier.
I watch that scene from Saving Private Ryan where the captain goes into a tunnel of silence. The engine of war is grating up and down my backbone. My teeth are chattering. I can not make it stop.
If my intent was to fraudulently convince my reader I had died and gone to heaven – then came back, I would have picked a more believable death, then death on LSD. When I informed my new found daughter this happened to me, she thought I was utterly insane even though her hippie mother was an avid taker of LSD. My daughter is an atheist, and does not subscribe to any spiritual program. However, she does favor the accepted reality that says only Jesus can die and come back, because this belief, in her opinion, renders her more normal and sane, thus sociably desirable amongst her peers who want to be perceived as normal.
The first group to experiment with LSD, was the military, in America and Britain. Scientists in the employ of the military were instructed to find out if LSD could be used as a weapon, see if it could render the enemy dead in some manner, or, reduce their ability to fight – even their desire to do so. It was British and American tax dollars that discovered that most human beings on LSD had no interest in fighting for their county – or any country. This is good, if only you own this weapon. We can’t have both sides of a conflict dosing each other soldiers, or, there WOULD BE NO WAR!
Hmmmm! Looks like the Hippie Peacenik thing was invented by the Military with the backing of the Normal Ones, those who are not insane, even though their job is to invent ways of killing people for a living.
Now, if Islamic Radicals invented LSD as a weapon, a year ago, and were threatening to employ this weapon in our drinking water, then most Americans would belive this was a very insane and diabolical thing to do. Most Christians would say these radicals evil, this drug born out the ass of the Anti-Christ! Atheists would agree, even though they do not believe in the Ant-Christ or Christ.
Below is an article about Tim Scully. I was introduced to Tim by my art patron whom I will call Robert. Tim was the manager of an art supplies store in Berkeley. My patron and I had gone to buy more art supplies. Robert bought me art supplies the morning after I emerged from my room to find about eight members of the Brotherhood of Eternal Love waiting to behold me. My friend James, who grew up with Tim and Robert, was with me when I died. Something extraordinary happened. Like what? Wasnt LSD going to be used to kill people? Finally, mission accomplished. It works! I am living proof your tax money was not wasted on some stupid-ass drug program.
Robert and Tim conducted experiments at the Livermore Labrador when they were sixteen. They were school geniuses. Robert told me his I.Q. was around 200. I was one of the first guinea pigs to be hooked up to Tim’s bio-feedback machine. Tim and Robert were being heavily recruited by the Military. They just said “NO”.
Mario Savio and others protested the recruiting of gifted students on the UC campus, and was arrested. The industrial Military Comlex that employed Sir Ian Easton and my brother, believed Egg Heads should pay their debt to society, and willingly be an extension of the Killer Hardware Program – because they were educated in the public school system – that honored my gifts, and sent two of my painting to tour the world in a Red Cross show.
I was drafted in 1966. If the military had discovered Art could be turned into a deadly weapon, I would not have been drafted, and would be living in the Berkeley hills (at tax payers expense) watching Luna Rossa compete in America’s Cup while millions all over the world are ravaged by Killer Art.
“Hmmmm!” says the phantom flash-back of my mind.
How well I did as an artist, was being studied by Robert and others, because I refused to be the Acid Messiah and lead the Left against the Right. Indeed, I said I would take LSD away from the players, because – I won!
Robert had me throw three coins while I was lecturing about ten people – just this side of heaven. He bid me to throw these coins six times. I did. I was annoyed, and wanted Robert to go away. Robert and I remained close friends for over a decade. He hung my paintings all over the labs at UC. Robert was the youngest head of a department in UC history.
When my Muse came into my life, she changed the look of my artwork. When I showed my sister my painting, rendered by the colors Robert bought me, she took up art, and became world-famous.
So, one can conclude an experiment with a very powerful dose of LSD in 1967, resulted in the formation of a Historic Artistic Dynasty. I rendered Rena’s image while I was the roommate of Peter Shapiro, who as a member of the bands ‘The Loading zone’ and ‘The Marbles’ who played at the first Acid-Tests. I did not take drugs for fifteen years after I died. I encouraged many to never take drugs again.
The first words I spoke after I came back to life, after lying in my room for two days, was’
“I am thirsty. I would like a glass of water.”
Tim Scully’s sister had approached me, knelt, took my hand, and asked me what I wanted. Tim was a member of the Brotherhood of Eternal Love, as was my friend who was with me when I died on a powerful dose of Orange Sunshine, of which I had an hour before taken another dose so I could get back into my body. There were about five members of the Brotherhood present who had heard of my death. I never met them.
When I took a few sips of water from the crystal goblet, I said this;
“With this water I swallow, I wash the drug LSD from my system, into my urinary track, and I need to use the toilet, where I will flush this drug into the sea, and dilute it, take it from you forever. The game is over.”
And I rose, and did just that. I purged Orange Sunshine from my body, and a movement I was a part of. Later, I would tell two young men who were preparing a batch of LSD for Europe;
“The cops are outside waiting for you.You’re going to get busted.”
Most of the Brotherhood got busted – after the powerful king-like entity that was inside me, rebuked them, with permission of the Lord of Truth I beheld on McClure’s Beach February 11, 1967. I was being asked to be a anti-war Messiah. The LSD I took, did not go with me where I saw my sisters adorned in the jewels of heaven. Back here on earth, I was adorned in precious jewels with wisdom beyond compare. LSD was doing damage to a very delicate God-consciousness that I have been attuned to most of my life.
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Robert “Tim” Scully (born August 27, 1944) is best known in the psychedelic underground for his work in the production of LSD from 1966 to 1969, for which he was indicted in 1973 and convicted in 1974. His best known product, dubbed “Orange Sunshine”, was considered the standard for quality LSD in 1969.
Scully grew up in Pleasant Hill, which was across the Bay from San Francisco. In eighth grade he won honorable mention in the 1958 Bay Area Science Fair for designing and building a small computer. During high school he spent summers working at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory on physics problems. In his junior year of high school, Scully completed a small linear accelerator in the school science lab (he was trying to make gold atoms from mercury) which was pictured in a 1961 edition of the Oakland Tribune. Scully skipped his senior year of high school and went directly to U.C. Berkeley majoring in mathematical physics. After two years at Berkeley, Scully took a leave of absence in 1964 because his services as an electronic design consultant were in high demand. Tim Scully first took LSD on April 15, 1965.
Scully knew the government would move quickly to suppress LSD distribution, and he wanted to obtain as much of the main precursor chemical, lysergic acid, as possible. Scully soon learned that Owsley Stanley possessed a large amount (440 grams) of lysergic acid monohydrate. Owsley and Scully finally met a few weeks before the Trips Festival in the fall of 1965. The 30-year-old Owsley took the 21 year old Scully as his apprentice and they pursued their mutual interest in electronics and psychedelic synthesis.
Owsley took Scully to the Watts Acid Test on February 12, 1966, and they built electronic equipment for the Grateful Dead until late spring 1966. In July 1966 Owsley rented a house in Point Richmond, California and Owsley and Melissa Cargill (Owsley’s girlfriend who was a skilled chemist) set up a lab in the basement. Tim Scully worked there as Owsley’s apprentice. Owsley had developed a method of LSD synthesis which left the LSD 99.9% pure. The Point Richmond lab turned out over 300,000 tablets (270 micrograms each) of LSD they dubbed “White Lightning”. LSD became illegal in California on October 6, 1966, and Scully wanted to set up a new lab in Denver, Colorado.
Scully set up the new lab in the basement of a house across the street from the Denver zoo in early 1967. Owsley and Scully made the LSD in the Denver lab. Later Owsley started to tablet the product in Orinda, California but was arrested before he completed that work. Owsley and Scully also produced a new psychedelic in Denver which they called STP. STP was initially distributed at the summer solstice festival in 1967: 5,000 tablets (20 milligrams each) which quickly acquired a bad reputation. Owsley and Scully made trial batches of 10 mg tablets and then STP mixed with LSD in a few hundred yellow tablets but soon ceased production of STP. Owsley and Scully produced about 196 grams of LSD in 1967, but 96 grams of this was confiscated by the authorities; Scully moved the lab to a different house in Denver after Owsley was arrested on Christmas Eve 1967.
Tim Scully first met William “Billy” Mellon Hitchcock, grandson of William Larimer Mellon and great-great-grandson of Thomas Mellon, through Owsley in April 1967. They became friends and Billy loaned Scully $12,000 for the second Denver lab in 1968. The product from the lab was distributed by the Brotherhood of Eternal Love; Scully was connected with the Brotherhood via Billy Hitchcock.
The second Denver lab was discovered by the police while Scully was out of town. His lab assistants were arrested there when they returned a few days later. Scully was not arrested at that time.
In December 1968 Nick Sand (through an intermediary) purchased a farmhouse in Windsor, California where he and Tim Scully set up a large LSD lab. Tim Scully and Nick Sand (another psychedelic chemist) produced over 3.6 million tablets (300 micrograms each) of LSD they dubbed “Orange Sunshine” by the summer of 1969. In May 1969 Tim Scully was arrested in California for the 1968 Denver lab. The search was eventually ruled illegal, but Scully decided to retire from clandestine chemistry and pursue electronic design instead. In 1969 Scully formed his own corporation, Aquarius Electronics, and he was president and sole designer from 1971-1976.
The government had been building a case against Tim Scully’s partner in the Windsor lab, Nick Sand, since late 1971. In early 1973 Billy Hitchcock was threatened with 24 years in prison for tax evasion if he didn’t help the government convict the prime movers of the LSD cartel. Billy provided evidence and testified against Tim Scully and Nick Sand and they were both indicted in April 1973. Scully’s defense was that he was producing ALD-52, which was legal, and not the controlled substance LSD-25. Scully lost the case and was convicted and sentenced to 20 years in prison in 1974. Scully’s appeals ran out in late 1976, so he sold his stock in his company and began serving prison time in early 1977.
Scully spent his time in prison helping design and build biofeedback and interface systems for the non-vocal handicapped. Scully’s sentence was reduced to 10 years and he was released on parole from prison in 1980. Since his release from prison Scully (2005 pic) has published eight articles on the topic of biofeedback and as many on technical computer topics. He retired from his years of work with Autodesk in 2005 and is currently researching a book on the underground history of LSD. He has written a chronology of his life.
When Robert had me throw the I Ching, I threw hexagram 7 ‘The Army’. He read this as I continued to talk. He did not know I saw many armies come out of the sea just before I died. I was victorious over all of them. There was no need for a strong leader, or powerful general. The task now at hand, was to melt down the weapons and return the people to peace. To have peace, everyone should feel they are not powerless, and indeed, own access to the Truth. My return journey, had begun. I was going home to my farm and look for my wife to be. There was nothing more to do, nor more victory to be had.
When Rena Easton came out of that dark doorway, I could have seen her as my temptress. I asked the sea for a reward, and thus she appeared – my Muse. I picked up my brush again.
She is not a Daughter of Mara, who reminds me of my brother Mark, who suffered dearly from boredom, because he believes he defeated me a long time ago. I could have relieved him of his suffering if I let him near my inner self.
In 1986 a crazy man put a gun to the back of my head and pulled the trigger over and over again. I was on my knees, holding out my arms, surrounded in a white light. I spoke this word “Baba” meaning “father”. I was ready to go home.
Not one of his bullets fired.
But war is always a dangerous thing and brings with it destruction and devastation. Therefore it should not be resorted to rashly but, like a poisonous drug, should be used as a last recourse.
This hexagram is made up of the trigrams K’an, water, and K’un, earth, and
thus it symbolizes the ground water stored up in the earth. In the same way
military strength is stored up in the mass of the people—invisible in times of
peace but always ready for use as a source of power. The attributes of the two
trig rams are danger inside and obedience must prevail outside.
Of the individual lines, the one that controls the hexagram is the strong
nine in the second place, to which the other lines, all yielding, are
subordinate. This line indicates a commander, because it stands in the
middle of one of the two trigrams. But since it is in the lower rather than the
upper trigram, it represents not the ruler but the efficient general, who
maintains obedience in the army by his authority.
THE ARMY. The army needs perseverance
And a strong man.
Good fortune without blame.
An army is a mass that needs organization in order to become a fighting force.
Without strict discipline nothing can be accomplished, but this discipline
must not be achieved by force. It requires a strong man who captures the
hearts of the people and awakens their enthusiasm. In order that he may
develop his abilities he needs the complete confidence of his ruler, who must
entrust him with full responsibility as long as the war lasts. But war is always
a dangerous thing and brings with it destruction and devastation. Therefore
it should not be resorted to rashly but, like a poisonous drug, should be used
as a last recourse.
Acute stress reaction (also called acute stress disorder, psychological shock, mental shock, or simply shock) is a psychological condition arising in response to a terrifying or traumatic event. It should not be confused with the unrelated circulatory condition of shock, or the concept of shock value.
Circulatory shock, commonly known simply as shock, is a life-threatening medical condition that occurs due to inadequate substrate for aerobic cellular respiration. In the early stages this is generally an inadequate tissue level of oxygen.
The typical signs of shock are low blood pressure, a rapid heartbeat and signs of poor end-organ perfusion or “decompensation/peripheral shut down” (such as low urine output, confusion or loss of consciousness). There are times that a person’s blood pressure may remain stable, but may still be in circulatory shock, so it is not always a sign.
Circulatory shock is not related to the emotional state of shock. Circulatory shock is a life-threatening medical emergency and one of the most common causes of death for critically ill people. Shock can have a variety of effects, all with similar outcomes, but all relate to a problem with the body’s circulatory system. For example, shock may lead to hypoxemia (a lack of oxygen in arterial blood) or cardiac arrest.
One of the key dangers of shock is that it progresses by a positive feedback mechanism. Once shock begins, it tends to make itself worse, so immediate treatment of shock is critical to the survival of the sufferer.
At this stage, the vital organs have failed and the shock can no longer be reversed. Brain damage and cell death are occurring, and death will occur imminently. One of the primary reasons that shock is irreversible at this point is that much cellular ATP has been degraded into adenosine in the absence of oxygen as an electron receptor in the mitochondrial matrix. Adenosine easily perfuses out of cellular membranes into extracellular fluid, furthering capillary vasodilation, and then is transformed into uric acid. Because cells can only produce adenosine at a rate of about 2% of the cell’s total need per hour, even restoring oxygen is futile at this point because there is no adenosine to phosphorylate into ATP.
Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms typically start within three months of a traumatic event. In a small number of cases, though, PTSD symptoms may not appear until years after the event.
Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms are generally grouped into three types: intrusive memories, avoidance and numbing, and increased anxiety or emotional arousal (hyperarousal).
Symptoms of intrusive memories may include:
Flashbacks, or reliving the traumatic event for minutes or even days at a time
Upsetting dreams about the traumatic event
Symptoms of avoidance and emotional numbing may include:
Trying to avoid thinking or talking about the traumatic event
Feeling emotionally numb
Avoiding activities you once enjoyed
Hopelessness about the future
Difficulty maintaining close relationships
Symptoms of anxiety and increased emotional arousal may include:
Irritability or anger
Overwhelming guilt or shame
Self-destructive behavior, such as drinking too much
Being easily startled or frightened
Hearing or seeing things that aren’t there
Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms can come and go. You may have more post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms when things are stressful in general, or when you run into reminders of what you went through. You may hear a car backfire and relive combat experiences, for instance. Or you may see a report on the news about a rape and feel overcome by memories of your own assault.
When to see a doctor
It’s normal to have a wide range of feelings and emotions after a traumatic event. You might experience fear and anxiety, a lack of focus, sadness, changes in how well you sleep or how much you eat, or crying spells that catch you off guard. You may have nightmares or be unable to stop thinking about the event. This doesn’t mean you have post-traumatic stress disorder.
But if you have these disturbing thoughts and feelings for more than a month, if they’re severe, or if you feel you’re having trouble getting your life back under control, talk to your health care professional. Getting treatment as soon as possible can help prevent PTSD symptoms from getting worse.
In some cases, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms may be so severe that you need emergency help, especially if you’re thinking about harming yourself or someone else. If this happens, call 911 or other emergency medical service, or ask a supportive family member or friend for help.
“Acute stress response” was first described by Walter Cannon in the 1920s as a theory that animals react to threats with a general discharge of the sympathetic nervous system. The response was later recognized as the first stage of a general adaptation syndrome that regulates stress responses among vertebrates and other organisms.
The onset of a stress response is associated with specific physiological actions in the sympathetic nervous system, both directly and indirectly through the release of adrenaline and to a lesser extent noradrenaline from the medulla of the adrenal glands. These catecholamine hormones facilitate immediate physical reactions by triggering increases in heart rate and breathing, constricting blood vessels. An abundance of catecholamines at neuroreceptor sites facilitates reliance on spontaneous or intuitive behaviors often related to combat or escape.
Normally, when a person is in a serene, unstimulated state, the “firing” of neurons in the locus ceruleus is minimal. A novel stimulus, once perceived, is relayed from the sensory cortex of the brain through the thalamus to the brain stem. That route of signaling increases the rate of noradrenergic activity in the locus ceruleus, and the person becomes alert and attentive to the environment.
If a stimulus is perceived as a threat, a more intense and prolonged discharge of the locus ceruleus activates the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system (Thase & Howland, 1995). The activation of the sympathetic nervous system leads to the release of noradrenaline from nerve endings acting on the heart, blood vessels, respiratory centers, and other sites. The ensuing physiological changes constitute a major part of the acute stress response. The other major player in the acute stress response is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.
[hide] 1 Causes
2 Symptoms of acute stress reaction
3 Symptoms of acute stress disorder
4 Diagnostic guidelines
6 See also
By definition, acute stress disorder (abbreviated ASD) is the result of a traumatic event in which the person experiences or witnesses an event that causes the victim/witness to experience extreme, disturbing or unexpected fear, stress or pain, and that involves or threatens serious injury, perceived serious injury or death to themselves or someone else. Acute stress reaction is a variation of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and is the mind’s and body’s response to feelings (both perceived and real) of intense helplessness.
Symptoms of acute stress reaction[edit source]
The symptoms show great variation but typically include an initial state of “daze”, with some constriction of the field of consciousness and narrowing of attention, inability to comprehend stimuli, and disorientation.
This state may be quickly followed by either further withdrawal from the surrounding situation (to the extent of a dissociative stupor), or by agitation and over-activity, anxiety, impaired judgement, confusion, detachment, and depression. Autonomic signs of panic anxiety (tachycardia, sweating, flushing) are also commonly present.
The symptoms usually appear within minutes of the impact of the stressful stimulus or event, and disappear within 2–3 days (often within hours). Partial or complete amnesia for the episode may be present.
Symptoms of acute stress disorder[edit source]
Common symptoms that sufferers of acute stress disorder experience are: numbing; detachment; derealization; depersonalization or dissociative amnesia; continued re-experiencing of the event by such ways as thoughts, dreams, and flashbacks; and avoidance of any stimulation that reminds them of the event. During this time, they must have symptoms of anxiety, and significant impairment in at least one essential area of functioning. Symptoms last for a minimum of 2 days, and a maximum of 4 weeks, and occur within 4 weeks of the event.
Diagnostic guidelines[edit source]
There must be an immediate and clear temporal connection between the impact of an exceptional stressor and the onset of symptoms; onset is usually within a few minutes, if not immediate. In addition, the symptoms show a mixed and usually changing picture; in addition to the initial state of “daze,” depression, anxiety, anger, despair, overactivity, and withdrawal may all be seen, but no one type of symptom predominates for long; the symptoms resolve rapidly (within a few hours at the most) in those cases where removal from the stressful environment is possible; in cases where the stress continues or cannot by its nature be reversed, the symptoms usually begin to diminish after 24–48 hours and are usually minimal after about 3 days.
If symptoms last for more than a month, then the patient might be instead diagnosed with PTSD.
This disorder may resolve itself with time or may develop into a more severe disorder such as PTSD. However, results of Creamer, O’Donnell, and Pattison’s (2004) study of 363 patients suggests that a diagnoses of Acute Stress Disorder had only limited predictive validity for PTSD. Creamer et al. did however find that re-experiences of the traumatic event and arousal were better predictors of PTSD. Medication can be used for a very short duration (up to four weeks).
A number of studies have been conducted to assess the efficacy of counselling and psychotherapy for people with ASD. Cognitive behavioral therapy which included exposure and cognitive restructuring was found to be effective in preventing PTSD in patients diagnosed with ASD with clinically significant results at 6 months follow-up. A combination of relaxation, cognitive restructuring, imaginal exposure, and in vivo exposure was superior to supportive counseling.