The Son of The Star

See the source image
Brittney Griner seen making her bed at Russian Women's Penal Colony No. 2.
Brittney Griner seen making her bed at Russian Women’s Penal Colony No. 2.
A bed with Griner's name on is placed on her bed at the Russian Penal Colony.
A bed with Griner’s name on is placed on her bed at the Russian Penal Colony.

Give Us The Black Barabbas

by

Jobn Presco

Chapter: The Son of The Star

In 1986, I heard of a a group of Radical Berkeley Gays, who went to Russia in order to meet a wife or husband, get married as heterosexuals, then return to America. They were liberating LGBTQ people who were being severely oppressed. To see our President embrace the wife of Brittney Griner in the Oval Office, while giving her the good news her husband was set free, was very liberating.

Welcome home Brittney!

I turned on CNN this morning and saw a white woman from the Family Foundation, trying to make a case she and her Christian group were subjected to discrimination in a restaurant whose staff refused to serve them. They said they did not “feel safe” around them.

https://www.familyfoundation.org/speakupvirginia

For over twenty years I have been studying the riddle as to why the residents of Bethlehem tried to throw Jesus off a cliff – after he read the passage from Isaiah that refers to the Jubilee. This morning I suspect it was to demonstrate the ancestor of Jesus and Joseph – REJECTED THE NATIONAL REVOLUTION led by devout and learned Jews against Rome and Roman legions THAT HAD ENSLAVED the God of the Jews – and His Children! When did the plan to build a temple to Jupiter on Zion – begin? How many millions of Christians want the Jews – to rebuild their temple – so the Christian Jesus can return? The invalid President, Donald Trump, moved the U.S. Ebassy to Jerusalem, a act that gives him ETERNAL FORGIVENESS of all sins. He can do no wrong! How, confounding to those who were born in a Secular Democracy, or, immigrated to such a place, and became Citizens. The questions if, how many Christians believe – they are the only true citizens of a Nation they insist was founded by King Jesus, for the purpous of fulfilling Christian Prophecy?

So, what is THE MOTIVE for the attempted murder of Jesus – who did not FEEL SAFE after this attempt – TO SPEAK HIS MIND Study the reason, and the words. There is NOTHING WRONG saying this. Learned Jews engaged in religious debate – all the time – especially around the temple where a young Jesus went – and astounded The Elders with his knowledge of the Torah. Well, the angered ones in the Synagogue – knew the Torah – but no other Jews in Judea? They are rendered incapable of RECOGNIZING the importance of Jesus’ teaching – that would render his a Messiah?

26 But unto none of them was Elias sent, save unto Sarepta, a city of Sidon, unto a woman that was a widow.

27 And many lepers were in Israel in the time of Eliseus the prophet; and none of them was cleansed, saving Naaman the Syrian.

28 And all they in the synagogue, when they heard these things, were filled with wrath,

Why is Jesus talking about Elias? Why didn’t he – TELL THE TRUTH? Why didn’t he say he has come to be crucified so all human beings can b saved and know Eternal Life? Sure Jesus, and God, knew the Jews were going to be FILLED WITH WRATH – anyways!

This morning, thanks to the controversy surround the RELEASE FROM CAPTIVITY of a black woman, descended from Black Slaves brought to America – against their will – I conclude the original story was INVENTED to depict the citizens of Bethlehem – did not take part in the Religious Revolution that bid Jews to NOT PAY TAXES, and, fight to restore the Laws of the Jubilee, that were done away with a hundred years before Jesus was born by the Sanhedrin.

As we head to Bethlehem, following a star, I will prepare your way. I will show you why God’s Children of Bethlehem had much to gain with the restoration of the Jubilee. Unto them – Jesus had the right stuff! This is why they asked for the release of Barabbas ‘The Son of the Father’ and leader of the Jubilee Tax Rebellion – that would STOP the Roman Slave Masters from building their Dream City atop of Zion. Now do you see THE OWNERS OF WRATH – the wealthy Jews and their Roman friends – who were engaged in the Slave Trade, and, had plans to build The Dream City of Slavery.

I suspect there was a CONSPIRACY to take away THE JOY of Brittney’s release by Christian groups and think tanks associated with Ginni Thomas. Is Russia’s Cozy Bear part of the scheme to bring Jesus to earth in a extremely violent manner? Why doesn’t Jesus come back – in peace?

On this day, December 10, 2002, I have proven that Jesus did not come to lead The World Sex Police. He came to set free all the slaves of the Roman Empire – AND DESTROY IT!

To be continued

https://www.familyfoundation.org/speakupvirginia

https://richmond.com/opinion/williams-the-family-foundation-in-being-denied-a-meal-gets-a-taste-of-its-own/article_90efd73c-15b1-5a80-8329-eb26e65ad18b.html

In the dispute between Metzger Bar and Butchery and The Family Foundation of Virginia, any regular reader of my column knows where my sympathies lie.

The German-inspired eatery in Richmond’s Church Hill — co-owned by culinary star Brittanny Anderson — canceled the reservation for an event by the Family Foundation, a faith-based, conservative Christian organization staunchly opposed to marriage equality and abortion rights.

Service was denied “after the owners of Metzger found out it was a group of donors to a political organization that seeks to deprive women and LGBTQ+ persons of their basic human rights in Virginia,” the restaurant said in an Instagram post.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bar_Kokhba_revolt

In Luke 4.18-19 we read of the beginning of Jesus’ ministry in a Synagogue in Nazareth. He stands up to be recognized, the attendant hands him the Torah roll, specifically the roll of Isaiah, to read, and he seeks a particular, Messianic passage, Isaiah 61.1-2, Luke 4.18-19).

‘The spirit of the Lord God is upon me, because God has anointed me to preach good news to the meek, he has sent me to bind up the broken of heart, to proclaim liberty to captives and to those who are prisoners, freedom, to proclaim the Jubilee year of the Lord and the day of God’s vengeance’.

The terms that Jesus was using in his discourse were those associated with Sabbatical Years, and with the Jubilee Year that was observed every fiftieth year. In this year all the debts of the poor were absolved, and slaves set free. Jubilee Years were not being celebrated by the Jews in the 1st century, yet the ordinary seven-year sabbatical cycle was very much in evidence among the Jews and Samaritans. The last time the Jubilee was celebrated was in 121 BCE.

I suspect Jesus was calling for the reinstatement of the Jubilee Year and thus the severe questioning from the Jews as to his authority to call for the freeing of slaves, the forgiveness of all debts by the poor who became slaves to fellow Jews in order to pay a debt, and, the non-payment of taxes during the Jubilee Year, which would get him in trouble with the Romans and the wealthy Sanhedrin who approved of Roman rule because it created a upper class, the very thing the Jubilee Year was designed to prevent from being permently established. The wealthy Jews who saw loss of revenue, and the return of lands to the poor tenants, tried to murder Jesus, who I suspect has produced Revelations, proclaiming himself the Alpha and Omega, the first and last days when God will have his vengeance and Judgement. The Jubilee Year began on the Day of Atonement.
Here is the proof that Jesus was preaching Orthodoxy

Jon the Nazarite

The Year of Jubilee:

Redemption and Freedom for the people of God.

“And you shall count seven sabbaths of years for yourself, seven
times seven years; and the time of the seven sabbaths of years shall
be to you forty-nine years. Then you shall cause the trumpet of the
Jubilee to sound on the tenth day of the seventh month; on the Day
of Atonement you shall make the trumpet to sound throughout all your
land. And you shall consecrate the fiftieth year, and proclaim
liberty throughout all the land to all its inhabitants. It shall be
a Jubilee for you; and each of you shall return to his possession,
and each of you shall return to his family ” (Leviticus 25:8-10, All
scriptures quoted are from the New King James Version unless
otherwise noted)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bar_Kokhba_revolt

The revolt erupted as a result of religious and political tensions in Judea following on the failed First Revolt in 66–73 CE. These tensions were related to the establishment of a large Roman military presence in Judea, changes in administrative life and the economy, together with the outbreak and suppression of Jewish revolts from Mesopotamia to Libya and Cyrenaica.[8] The proximate reasons seem to be the construction of a new city, Aelia Capitolina, over the ruins of Jerusalem and the erection of a temple to Jupiter on the Temple Mount.[9] The Church Fathers and rabbinic literature emphasize the role of Rufusgovernor of Judea, in provoking the revolt.[10] Historian Menahem Mor attributes the main cause of the revolt not to the construction of Aelia Capitolina or specific Roman policies but to the charismatic and politically messianic nature of Bar Kokhba himself.[11]

The Bar Kokhba revolt greatly influenced the course of Jewish history and the philosophy of the Jewish religion. Despite easing the persecution of Jews following Hadrian’s death in 138 CE, the Romans barred Jews from Jerusalem, except for attendance in Tisha B’AvJewish messianism was abstracted and spiritualized, and rabbinical political thought became deeply cautious and conservative. The Talmud, for instance, refers to Bar Kokhba as “Ben-Kusiba”, a derogatory term meaning “son of deception”, used to indicate that he was a false Messiah. It was also among the key events to differentiate Christianity as a religion distinct from Judaism.[25] Although Jewish Christians regarded Jesus as the Messiah and did not support Bar Kokhba,[26] they were barred from Jerusalem along with the other Jews.[27]

Bar Kochba Turnverein

Posted on July 19, 2020 by Royal Rosamond Press

It is becoming quite clear to millions of sane Americans, that neo-Confederates, Evangelicals, and right-wing Israeli Zionists, have created a alternative reality, a subversive cult in our Democracy. These three groups felt they were put out of power by Liberal Democrats and Bohemians. Why does the rebuilding of the temple in Israel, and the restoration of King David’s kingdom, have so much to do with the covert plans of whites who dwell in the red states. It has been suggested by the Speaker of the House that Trump will not vacate the White House if he loses the coming election. This suggests there exist a alternative reality most Americans are not aware of.

John Presco

Secular-Socialist Foundation of Zion

Posted onDecember 21, 2011by Royal Rosamond Press

It was radical socialist Jews, who belonged to sports clubs, that founded the state of Israel, and not Rabbis or a Messiah. The only person giving the title ‘Messiah’ was Harry Truman, a Democrat. The group that gets most of the credit is the Israelitische Turnverein, a group of Jewish gymnasts who were expelled from the Berlin Turnverien. My Stuttmeiser, Janke kinfolk were members of the Tunrverein, and were radical Forty-Eighters who are also give credit for the founding of Israel. These Forty-Eighters made up John Fremont’s and Jessie Benton’s bodyguard. The Freemasons are here. Other clubs that followed were named after “Bar Kochba” who was seen as a Messiah until he failed to drive the Romans out of Judea. His name was changed to “Simon bar Kozeba” (Hebrew: בר כוזיבא‎, “Son of lies” or “Son of deception”).Whne you add it all up, for some strange reason my kindred are right there at the center of the Zionist controversy that has overcome the Republican Party, all but destroying it. The Zionist Evangelicals – disguised as Patriots – have brought our Democracy to a halt. In order to keep the focus on them, budgets are not going to be passed. Millions will be hurt financially. These religious fanatics use our Federal Taxes like a secular tithe in order to spread their propaganda that backs the Hawks of Israel. The only thing that keeps them hidden in the wings, is they have failed to capture the White House. When they do, the Capitol building that houses the Senate and Congress, will be turned into the Evangelical Vatican. They do these things because they know their cosmology is not tenable, is based on delusions and lies. They are Decietful Parasites looking for a legitimate host. This is why I registered as a Republican two years ago.

Get out of the Republican Party founded by my kindred. Form you own party.

Jon the Nazarite

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hakoah_Berlin

As early as the 19th century, Jewish sports clubs were founded in Eastern and Central Europe. The first club was the Israelite Gymnastic Association Constantinople (German: Israelitischer Turnverein Konstantinopel) founded in 1895 in Constantinople, Turkey by Jews of German and Austrian extraction who had been rejected from participating in other social sport clubs. Two years later, haGibor was formed in Philipople, Bulgaria and 1898 saw the founding of Bar Kochba Berlin along with Vivó és Athletikai Club in Budapest, Hungary.
Other clubs that followed were named after “Bar Kochba” or Hebrew names such as “Hakoah” or “Hagibor” that symbolized strength and heroism. One of the basic premises behind the founding of these clubs was Jewish Nationalism. The concept was that Jews were not only a religious entity, but also one based on a common historical and social background, having special cultural and psychological concepts that have been preserved to this day, resulting in a strong recognition of collective belonging.
In 1906, the first Jewish gymnastics club was formed in Palestine. Clubs later would spring up in other cities. By 1912, all of them joined the Maccabi Federation of Israel. That same year, the first relations were established between them and their European counterparts, when a decision was taken at the Maccabi Conference in Berlin to begin group trips to Palestine.

Simon bar Kokhba (Aramaic: שמעון בר כוכבא‎, also transliterated as Bar Kochba) was the Jewish leader of what is known as the Bar Kokhba revolt against the Roman Empire in 132 CE, establishing an independent Jewish state of Israel which he ruled for three years as Nasi (“Ruler”). His state was conquered by the Romans in 135 following a two-year war.
Documents discovered in the modern era[1] give us his original name, Simon ben Kosiba, (Hebrew: שמעון בן כוסבא‎) he was given the surname Bar Kokhba, (Aramaic for “Son of a Star”, referring to the Star Prophecy of Numbers 24:17, “A star has shot off Jacob”) by his contemporary, the Jewish sage Rabbi Akiva.
After the failure of the revolt, the rabbinical writers referred to bar Kokhba as “Simon bar Kozeba” (Hebrew: בר כוזיבא‎, “Son of lies” or “Son of deception”).

Despite the devastation wrought by the Romans during the First Jewish-Roman War (66–73 CE), which left the population and countryside in ruins, a series of laws passed by Roman Emperors provided the incentive for the second rebellion. The last straw was a series of laws enacted by the Roman Emperor Hadrian, including an attempt to prevent Jews from living in Jerusalem; a new Roman city, Aelia Capitolina, was to be built in its place. The second Jewish rebellion took place 60 years after the first and re-established an independent state lasting three years. For many Jews of the time, this turn of events was heralded as the long hoped for Messianic Age. The excitement was short-lived, however; after a brief span of glory, the revolt was eventually crushed by the Roman legions.

A complete Roman legion with auxiliaries was annihilated. The new state knew only one year of peace. The Romans committed no fewer than twelve legions, amounting to one third to one half of the entire Roman army, to reconquer this now independent state. Being outnumbered and taking heavy casualties, the Romans refused to engage in an open battle and instead adopted a scorched earth policy which reduced and demoralized the Judean populace, slowly grinding away at the will of the Judeans to sustain the war.

The first all Jewish gymnastic club was formed in 1895 known as the
Israelitische Turnverein Konstantinopel (Israelite Gymnastic
Association Constantinople), it was formed by German and Austrian
Jews residing in Constantinople (Istanbul – Kushta) who were
unwelcome at the German gymnastic societies with their “Aryan –
only” membership proclivities.

Modeling themselves on the very German organization which had barred
them, they adopted the slogan of the vigorous, devout, cheerful and
free.

Another milestone in the formation of the Jewish sport movement
occurred at a meeting of the permanent committee of the Second
Zionist Congress held in Basel in 1898. Dr. Max Nordau made an
impassioned plea for a Muscular Judaism noting that “We Jews possess
an exceptional gift for physical activity. It may by that this will
appear paradoxical since we have been accustomed for generations to
view ourselves in the mirror which our enemies have held up to so,
and to discover any number of physical blemishes. It is true that
our muscles have been weakened and that our attitudes and postures
are not always satisfactory… but when Jews do engage in sport their
defects vanish, their postures improve, their muscles become strong
and their general health gets better”. Similarly, Herzl stressed
that the derisive term coined by the anti-Semites, Judenjungen (akin
to “Jewboy”), should be reversed in both form and content, and give
way to the meritorious appellation Junge Juden (Young Jew).

Following Herzl’s and Nordau’s call, many clubs were quickly
organized. This nascent movement received an immeasurable boost with
the appearance in 1900 of the first periodical dedicated entirely to
Jewish sport, Die Juedische Turanzeitung, which was the official
publication of the pre-eminent Jewish gymnastic club, Juedische
Turnverein Bar Kochba – Berlin.

Bolstered by the newspaper’s daring proclamation, the by now
numerous Jewish gymnastic clubs banded together in 1903 under the
umbrella organization of Die Juedische Turnerschaft (Jewish
Gymnastic Association) with headquarters in Berlin. The constitution
of Die Juedische Turnerschaft permitted membership to every Jewish
gymnastic club that accepted that “the aim of the society is to
foster gymnastics as a medium to build up physical fitness as part
of the Jewish National Idea.”

On the fourth of May [1856] the regular annual festival of the Turnverein Association of San Francisco took place, with all the usual accompaniments of music, dancing, gymnastics, oratory, eating and drinking. The festival, which was inaugurated by a procession of the Society to welcome their brother Turners from the interior, lasted three days, and everybody passed off in the most orderly and agreeable manner. The gymnastic performances were excellent, and formed a large portion of the ceremonies.

The celebration of the “May festival,” although in the United States it is conducted under the control of the Turnverein Association, is a national festival in which all the Germans partake, and which is celebrated throughout all Germany. The origin of the Turner Association, which has now become so large and so important a one among our German citizens, was a political one. Germany is divided into thirty-six different States, with as many Governments of a despotic nature, and many of them hostile to each other.

Young Germany, deeply imbued with the spirit of freedom, has been for a long time anxious to throw off these yokes, and unite under one liberal, consolidated Government; but the rulers, in order to prevent this, have forbidden all assemblies or associations for political purposes, under heavy penalties. In order to avoid this prohibition an enthusiastic republican named Jahn made the meeting and associations for gymnastic exercises the occasion for the spread of democratic doctrines, and the Turnverein (or gymnastic association,) soon spread and grew into importance wherever Germans are found. This association now exists in, and exercises a great influence over the whole German population.

There is no secrecy about the association, neither is there any direct connection between the different associations, although a Turner of any one city considers himself, to all intents and purposes, a member of the Turnverein of any other city.

In 1906, the first Jewish gymnastics club was formed in Palestine. Clubs later would spring up in other cities. By 1912, all of them joined the Maccabi Federation of Israel. That same year, the first relations were established between them and their European counterparts, when a decision was taken at the Maccabi Conference in Berlin to begin group trips to Palestine.

Simon bar Kokhba (Aramaic: שמעון בר כוכבא‎, also transliterated as Bar Kochba) was the Jewish leader of what is known as the Bar Kokhba revolt against the Roman Empire in 132 CE, establishing an independent Jewish state of Israel which he ruled for three years as Nasi (“Ruler”). His state was conquered by the Romans in 135 following a two-year war.
Documents discovered in the modern era[1] give us his original name, Simon ben Kosiba, (Hebrew: שמעון בן כוסבא‎) he was given the surname Bar Kokhba, (Aramaic for “Son of a Star”, referring to the Star Prophecy of Numbers 24:17, “A star has shot off Jacob”) by his contemporary, the Jewish sage Rabbi Akiva.
After the failure of the revolt, the rabbinical writers referred to bar Kokhba as “Simon bar Kozeba” (Hebrew: בר כוזיבא‎, “Son of lies” or “Son of deception”).

Despite the devastation wrought by the Romans during the First Jewish-Roman War (66–73 CE), which left the population and countryside in ruins, a series of laws passed by Roman Emperors provided the incentive for the second rebellion. The last straw was a series of laws enacted by the Roman Emperor Hadrian, including an attempt to prevent Jews from living in Jerusalem; a new Roman city, Aelia Capitolina, was to be built in its place. The second Jewish rebellion took place 60 years after the first and re-established an independent state lasting three years. For many Jews of the time, this turn of events was heralded as the long hoped for Messianic Age. The excitement was short-lived, however; after a brief span of glory, the revolt was eventually crushed by the Roman legions.

A complete Roman legion with auxiliaries was annihilated. The new state knew only one year of peace. The Romans committed no fewer than twelve legions, amounting to one third to one half of the entire Roman army, to reconquer this now independent state. Being outnumbered and taking heavy casualties, the Romans refused to engage in an open battle and instead adopted a scorched earth policy which reduced and demoralized the Judean populace, slowly grinding away at the will of the Judeans to sustain the war.

The first all Jewish gymnastic club was formed in 1895 known as the
Israelitische Turnverein Konstantinopel (Israelite Gymnastic
Association Constantinople), it was formed by German and Austrian
Jews residing in Constantinople (Istanbul – Kushta) who were
unwelcome at the German gymnastic societies with their “Aryan –
only” membership proclivities.

Modeling themselves on the very German organization which had barred
them, they adopted the slogan of the vigorous, devout, cheerful and
free.

Another milestone in the formation of the Jewish sport movement
occurred at a meeting of the permanent committee of the Second
Zionist Congress held in Basel in 1898. Dr. Max Nordau made an
impassioned plea for a Muscular Judaism noting that “We Jews possess
an exceptional gift for physical activity. It may by that this will
appear paradoxical since we have been accustomed for generations to
view ourselves in the mirror which our enemies have held up to so,
and to discover any number of physical blemishes. It is true that
our muscles have been weakened and that our attitudes and postures
are not always satisfactory… but when Jews do engage in sport their
defects vanish, their postures improve, their muscles become strong
and their general health gets better”. Similarly, Herzl stressed
that the derisive term coined by the anti-Semites, Judenjungen (akin
to “Jewboy”), should be reversed in both form and content, and give
way to the meritorious appellation Junge Juden (Young Jew).

Following Herzl’s and Nordau’s call, many clubs were quickly
organized. This nascent movement received an immeasurable boost with
the appearance in 1900 of the first periodical dedicated entirely to
Jewish sport, Die Juedische Turanzeitung, which was the official
publication of the pre-eminent Jewish gymnastic club, Juedische
Turnverein Bar Kochba – Berlin.

Bolstered by the newspaper’s daring proclamation, the by now
numerous Jewish gymnastic clubs banded together in 1903 under the
umbrella organization of Die Juedische Turnerschaft (Jewish
Gymnastic Association) with headquarters in Berlin. The constitution
of Die Juedische Turnerschaft permitted membership to every Jewish
gymnastic club that accepted that “the aim of the society is to
foster gymnastics as a medium to build up physical fitness as part
of the Jewish National Idea.”

On the fourth of May [1856] the regular annual festival of the Turnverein Association of San Francisco took place, with all the usual accompaniments of music, dancing, gymnastics, oratory, eating and drinking. The festival, which was inaugurated by a procession of the Society to welcome their brother Turners from the interior, lasted three days, and everybody passed off in the most orderly and agreeable manner. The gymnastic performances were excellent, and formed a large portion of the ceremonies.

The celebration of the “May festival,” although in the United States it is conducted under the control of the Turnverein Association, is a national festival in which all the Germans partake, and which is celebrated throughout all Germany. The origin of the Turner Association, which has now become so large and so important a one among our German citizens, was a political one. Germany is divided into thirty-six different States, with as many Governments of a despotic nature, and many of them hostile to each other.

Young Germany, deeply imbued with the spirit of freedom, has been for a long time anxious to throw off these yokes, and unite under one liberal, consolidated Government; but the rulers, in order to prevent this, have forbidden all assemblies or associations for political purposes, under heavy penalties. In order to avoid this prohibition an enthusiastic republican named Jahn made the meeting and associations for gymnastic exercises the occasion for the spread of democratic doctrines, and the Turnverein (or gymnastic association,) soon spread and grew into importance wherever Germans are found. This association now exists in, and exercises a great influence over the whole German population.

There is no secrecy about the association, neither is there any direct connection between the different associations, although a Turner of any one city considers himself, to all intents and purposes, a member of the Turnverein of any other city.

Although a proposal to form a “Gymnastic Army” (Turnerschar) to supplement the National Guard was never realized, gymnasts manned barricades and participated in crucial fighting during the revolutions. Early in the revolutionary period, the eighty-odd members of the Kiel Turnverein took arms against Denmark in the conflict over Schleswig-Holstein. Although soon defeated, their actions won praise from moderates in the organization who contrasted their “unpolitical” dedication to the cause of the nation with the more radical social and political programs of gymnasts in other regions. Exemplifying this latter trend were the gymnasts in the mob that murdered Prince Felix Lichnowsky and General Hans von Auerswald in Frankfurt in September 1848, during a popular protest against the armistice with Denmark, and those who fought, often in the club uniform, to defend the city of Dresden against Prussian forces in May 1849. Turnverein clubs also participated in the veneration of Robert Blum, who had been killed by counter-revolutionary forces in Vienna, by holding services in his honor, marching in memorial parades, and helping to raise money for his family.
The Turnverein as an organization was most closely associated with the uprisings in Baden, the center of the radical sentiment in southwest Germany. Gymnasts had been among the defenders of the city of Freiburg in early disturbances in the province in April 1848. In the late spring and early summer of 1849, violence erupted again and brought about some of the most prolonged fighting of the revolutionary period. After agitation for a democratic nation-state had forced the Grand Duke to flee, other German states, led by Prussia, sent in troops to crush the movement. The gymnastic organization of the Rhineland province of Hanau organized a march to Baden to defend the province. Although this force gathered around 600 men along the way, it was poorly armed and led and easily outmatched by the regular armies it encountered. About 240 survivors of this effort managed to cross into neighboring Switzerland, where they received a hero’s welcome from Swiss gymnasts and students.
The aftermath of the 1848 revolutions devastated the German gymnastic movement. Clubs were disbanded, property confiscated and leaders lost to jail or exile. The various attempts to form a union of gymnastic clubs likewise fell victim to the Reaction. In these circumstances, the Turnverein turned away from politics to concentrate on its gymnastic program. It was only with the revival of the drivefor German unification in the late 1860s, that the gymnastic movement rediscovered its purpose and was able to regain he momentum of the revolutionary era.

About Royal Rosamond Press

I am an artist, a writer, and a theologian.
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