My Vigilant German Kindred

In the photograph of my German grandfathers taken in the Oakland Hills, we see a rifle hung in a tree. Carl Janke owned a German Theme park south of San Francisco where sharpshooter contests were held. I suspect my German People helped form the Vigilante Committees of California with the help of the Turnverein. I believe they helped found the Jewish Turnverein of Berlin, who were instrumental in founding the Nation of Israel.

This rifle is the symbol of the Emancipation of the slaves. The treacherous Confederacy murdered thousands in order to keep Americans in chains. When the Germans lost their battle against the Papal forces of the Habsburgs, they came to America on many ships. When they came down the gangplank, waiting for them were countrymen, who gave them a rifle and a uniform. They were now Freedom Fighters in the Union Army – and they marched against Lee’s army of traitors. Eventually we defeated him. Lee is my kin. We look alike. There are 240,000 million Americans of German descent.

To the polls! Sweep this Champion Liar – and his Neo-Confederate Goon Squad – into the sea! Remember General Sherman! Write your Senator and demand Moscow Mitch stand before the American People once a week, and give a complete report of the united effort to put down Fuzzyball Putin, and his Demon Squad of Hackers, named in the Mueller report.

Neo-Confederate Traitors of our time, went to Bob Jones University in order to learn evangelical propaganda so they could counter the movement of Martin Luther King. These traitors now control our Senate, that is using the contrived abortion mission to divide our nation. As a Republican Candidate for the Office of the President of the United State of America, it is my objective to sweep the evangelical trailer-trash out of the Republican Party co-founded by my kindred, John Fremont, and his wife Jessie Benton Fremont.

On this day, I found the New Jessie Scouts, a vigilant squad of loyal women whose job it is to protect all women who are being harassed by Treacherous Patriot pretenders, and Trump’s Pussy Squad of Practiced Perverts and Liars. How dare Trump suggest his evangelical worshippers want their Messiah to hold office for a third term. This is treason, preached by fake men of god!

How long would the Black Holocaust have gone on if Lee and his Traitors won the Civil War? How many teenage slaves would have been backed against a wall and had their pussys grabbed, and then forced to bare the child of their owner so it could be sold? Thank God for these good Germans, these Saviors!

Lock him up!

John Presco

Presidential Republican Candidate

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_Americans_in_the_American_Civil_War

TURNVEREIN SHARPSHOOTERS

The Home Guard Willing to Shed Its Blood but Only at Los Angeles The contemplated home guard of sharpshooters connected with the Turnverein Germania Is making but slow progress In getting organized. A minority of intending members met last night but failed to do anything. A score or so were willing to sign the roll to be forwarded to the adjutant general, but several others held back, not from lack of patriotism or want of sympathy with the United States, but for fear that In the event of the state’s accepting their services as an Independent company they might be called upon to do duty or fight away from home. These men hay* ties here which preclude their leaving their families or interests and they are unwilling to sign any papers which might turn out to be no obligation to leave Los Angeles and march to the front. They want to be strictly what the name Implies—home guard. As one man put it tersely, “I am for this country, willing to defend It here and shed my blood right in Los Angeles for the Stars and Stripes, but I’ll be goll-darned if I want to have it run out of my body at Milpitas or Sausalito.” At the next meeting, however, it is expected that so many will sign the roll that the sharpshooters will be able to organize.

Los Angeles 1898

A popular Union commander and native German, Major General Franz Sigel was the highest ranking German-American officer in the Union Army, with many Germans enlisting to “fight mit Sigel.” Sigel was a political appointment of President Abraham Lincoln, who hoped that Sigel’s immense popularity would help deliver the votes of the increasingly important German segment of the population[citation needed]. He was a member of the Forty-Eighters, a political movement of the revolutions in German states that led to thousands of Germans emigrating to the United States. These included such future Civil War officers as Maj. Gen. Carl Schurz, Brig. Gen. August Willich, Louis Blenker, Max Weber and Alexander Schimmelfennig.

Schurz was part of the socio-political movement in America known as the Turners, who contributed to getting Lincoln elected as President. The Turners provided the bodyguard at Lincoln’s inauguration on March 4, 1861, and also at Lincoln’s funeral in April 1865.

belmontbot38 belmontbot39janke444

Untitled-1

Yesterday I discovered one of my great grandfathers founded a Turnverein Hall on Bush Street in San Francisco. This hall was a place one could go hear music and practice gymnastics. The Seamens Friendly Union met here, and the Vigilance Committee.  Plays were performed, and debates held. This is the radical root of San Francisco that I have traced to the Longshoreman’s Hall and the first Acid Tests.  The Turner hall offered music and other entertainment as an alternative to gambling and prostitution. My father was a Merchant Marine and would be pleased to know the first institution for furthering sailor rights met in the Bush hall.

All seamen are invited to attend at the Turn Verein Hall on Bush Street between Stockton and Powell Streets on Thursday Evening, January 11 at 7 1/2 o’clock to form a Seamens Society for the Pacific Coast.

The Vigilance Committee combatted corruption and violence. These were idealists that lay the groundwork for a city famous for it cultural revolutions.

“Flaunting their rebellious spirit, the gymnasts of Vormärz wore their hair long and sported large black hats decorated with a rooster feather”

turn4

Above are my grandparents having picnic in the Oakland Hills. There is a sharpshooters rifle hanging in the tree.  Janke had marksman contests Belmont Park. Many Turnverein were Socialists and Marxists.

Jon Presco

Israeli National-Socialists

Israel was founded by Socialists who got a foothold in Palestine via the Maccabi Sports Clubs that sprang from the German Turnverien, or, Turn Verein, Turner Societies, founded by Freiderich Jahn a Prussian, who is considered by some to be the Father of National-Sociialism, or, the Nazis.I suspect my kin, Carl Janke, was a Turnverein and established a Turner Society in Belmont that later merged with the Oddfellows. William Ralston, whose home was in Belmont, provided the funds to spread the Oddfellows throughout Europe, beginning in Germany, where Jews and Gentiles met in Turnverien clubs, worked out together, talked business, and promoted the idea that their children should marry. Then the Germans wanted the Jews out, and they formed their own Turnverein clubs that became the Maccabi gymnasts who began to colonize Palastine.

After world war one there was a prejudice against Germans, and Turnverein was changed to Tanforan, the alleged kin of a Mexican Spaniard.

The Zionist Socialists of Israel would have you believe, great Rabbis and Jewish Prophets, founded the nation of Israel, for the sake of the evangelical prophets from Ireland. Worng! This is pure Nationalism – without God!

Jon Presco

Copyright 2011

https://rosamondpress.com/2012/06/09/william-janke-on-haight-st/

http://art.famsf.org/wa-janke-founded-belmont-picnic-grounds-and-first-turn-verein-bush-street-39933

“W.A. Janke, founded the Belmont Picnic Grounds, and the first Turn Verein on Bush Street.”

Yesterday I received information from Shirley Schwoerer of the Redwood City Library, that said my ancestor, Carl August Janke, was instrumental in establishing a Turnverien in Belmont, and the Bay Area. Was it the first?

“He erected the old amusement hall of the Turnverein, and managed this for several years.”

Janke may be the first real estate developer in the San Francisco bay area.

“In 1849 the family came around the Horn on an old Clipper ship, and Mr. Janke brought with him on the trip the material for six portable houses. He set up these houses, and at once engaged in a successful business, as a building contractor.”

This information confirms my theory that the Tanforan cottages in the Mission, are the Turnverein cottages that Janke brought around the Cape in order to establish a German community of Freethinkers in the New Western Land of the Free -free of church rule! The Jüdischen Turnverein was established for the same reason. For awhile Jews and Germans shared the same Turnverien in Berlin, and were seen as Liberal-Socialists. San Francisco is considered the most Liberal and ethnically diverse city in the world where folks from the old world can practice their traditions of total freedom. Hitler banned and persecuted the Freethinkers, and outlawed the Turnverein.

The membership of the new clubs was more inclusive, as the cor of students and academics which had made up the rank and file of the Turnverein in its early years was joined by a large contingent of craft workers, along with many Jewish members, often in positions of leadership. These gymnastic clubs were often closely aligned with workers’ organizations and democratic clubs with whom they shared a desire for reform and a rejection of traditional hierarchies.

They even imparted a new spirit to their gymnastic program by initiating training sessions for children and, far more radical in light of the times, for women as well. Flaunting their rebellious spirit, the gymnasts of Vormärz wore their hair long and sported large black hats decorated with a rooster feather instead of the more formal attire of the Biedermeier period.

Given the radicalization of the movement in the 1840s, it is not surprising that the German gymnasts were directly involved in the 1848 revolutions. Turnverein leaders won renown for their leading roles in local uprisings,

The Turnverein as an organization was most closely associated with the uprisings in Baden, the center of the radical sentiment in southwest Germany

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turnersturnernn

http://patch.com/california/sanrafael/history-street-name-the-only-remnant-of-sharp-shooter

 

The first organization of seamen in the United States occurred in January of 1866 when the following notice appeared in a San Francisco paper:

Fremont’s Foreign Fighters

fremont10 fremont11fremont7

The Fremont family spent much time in Europe. I believe Elizabeth Fremont burned the reason why. John and Jessie had a bodyguard made up of foreigners. They feared a foreign invasion, and Lincoln was aware of this;

“President knew we were on the eve of England, France and Spain recognizing the South: they were anxious for a pretext to do so; England on account of her cotton interests, and France because the Emperor dislikes us.”

Above is a photo of Germans reenacting Civil War battles. This is because 200,000 Germans fought in this bloody war. Many of them were Turners. My Prussian and German ancestors were Turners in the Bay Area and had to know what role they would play before my kindred in South Carolina went to war with the Union.

I suspect Carl Janke was part of an effort to make California a colony of the German Unification, if not the Liberal Prussian Capital of a revolt that was taking place throughout Europe led by the Forty-Eighters who made up the Radical Republicans, who nominated John Fremont as their first candidate for office of President of the United States. Lincoln could not have become President without the Germans who must have backed the Fourteenth Amendment so their children could be recognized Citizens of the U.S.A.

In Sunshine magazine, Jessie Fremont says Britain was getting ready to import (deport) thousands of pesky Irish Catholics to California, who could be made into an army to fight for the Confederacy. If the Union fell, I suspect Fremont was prepared to declare a Nation of the West, and launch a European front to defeat the foreign allies of Slave Masters  Consider ISIS Slave Masters recruiting Europeans to come take young girls slaves, and rape them. Mary Confederate Generals raped young black slaves.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_Americans_in_the_American_Civil_War

When Janke brought six portable house around the Cape and erected them in Belmont, it is said he did so to provide housing for gold miners who struck it rich. But gold had not been discovered. I believe these homes were made for leaders of the Prussian Unification and founding of the Prussian State of California and a United West, that was not a part of the Union. I suspect John Fremont gave much of his gold to this Nation Building.

Seamens Friendly Union Society
All seamen are invited to attend at the Turn Verein Hall on Bush Street between Stockton and Powell Streets on Thursday Evening, January 11 at 7 1/2 o’clock to form a Seamens Society for the Pacific Coast.

This meeting resulted in organization of the Seamens Friendly Union and Protective Society. Alfred Enquist was elected president and George McAlpine, secretary. It was the first organization of seamen in this country, perhaps the first in the world. In 1875, the United Seamen’s Association was formed in the port of New York, and it sent a delegation to Congress to petition for laws to protect seamen. The delegation, according to a news report in The New York Times of January 21, was “graciously received by the President.”

No more was heard of this organization.

The Seamen’s Friendly Union and Protective Society in San Francisco did not last long, and the next organization to come along was the Seamen’s Protective Union formed in San Francisco in 1878 with 800 members. It, too, had a short life.

https://www.seafarers.org/aboutthesiu/history.asp

http://www.ohio.edu/chastain/rz/turnvere.htm

Seamens Friendly Union Society
All seamen are invited to attend at the Turn Verein Hall on Bush Street between Stockton and Powell Streets on Thursday Evening, January 11 at 7 1/2 o’clock to form a Seamens Society for the Pacific Coast.

This meeting resulted in organization of the Seamens Friendly Union and Protective Society. Alfred Enquist was elected president and George McAlpine, secretary. It was the first organization of seamen in this country, perhaps the first in the world. In 1875, the United Seamen’s Association was formed in the port of New York, and it sent a delegation to Congress to petition for laws to protect seamen. The delegation, according to a news report in The New York Times of January 21, was “graciously received by the President.”

http://www.digthatcrazyfarout.com/trips/trips_festival_history.html

In practice the event engulfed the two shows. Both America Needs Indians and the Open Theater’s cabaret theater were mournfully out of place in the rackety, echoing space of Longshoremen’s Hall. America Needs Indians was just a little tepee and some slides, so far as most people could tell. But there were things to do. Mikes and speakers and electrical gadgets strewn around. A light show with strobe. A booth selling books on psychedelic subjects, and another selling books about insects. There were Trips Festival T-shirts for sale. And a shopping bag full of Owsley’s latest LSD was making the rounds of the hall. But mostly it was unparalleled chaos in a crowded hall pulsing with undirected energy. A young woman jumped up on stage, stripped to the waist and danced until Brand got her off. This clinched it for the Open Theater, which was supposed to go on at ten__they weren’t going to attempt their nude “Revelations” in this wild energy. They read their sermons and got about halfway through the God Box skits when it became obvious that the crowd wanted rock and roll. They quickly brought on the Marbles, who had recently metamorphosed into a band calling itself the Loading Zone. On Saturday night the Tape Center was going on with films by the Canyon Cinema Group in something called “Options and Contracts at the Present Time.” The Ann Halprin Dancers, films by Bruce Baillie and Anthony Martin and a Vortex Light Box were going to be the visuals. Sound would come from a synthesizer invented by Donald Buchla, which would perform on its own and also modulate the rock and roll sounds of Big Brother and the Holding Company in freakish and avant-garde ways. The Acid Test would follow at 10:00 P.M. “Can you die to your corpses? Can you metamorphose? Can you pass the twentieth century? “What is total dance?”

Turners (German: Turner), are members of German-American gymnastic clubs. A German gymnastic movement was started by Turnvater (turners’ father) Friedrich Ludwig Jahn in the early 19th century when Germany was occupied by Napoleon. The Turnvereine (“gymnastic unions”) were not only athletic, but also political, reflecting their origin in similar “nationalistic gymnastic” organizations in Europe. The Turner movement in Germany was generally liberal in nature, and many Turners took part in the Revolution of 1848.[1] After its defeat, the movement was suppressed and many Turners left Germany, some emigrating to the United States. Several of these Forty-Eighters went on to become Civil War soldiers, the great majority in the Union Army, and American politicians.

The Forty-Eighters were Europeans who participated in or supported the revolutions of 1848 that swept Europe. In the German states, the Forty-Eighters favored unification of the German people, a more democratic government, and guarantees of human rights.[1] Disappointed at the failure of the revolution to bring about the reform of the system of government in Germany or the Austrian Empire and sometimes on the government’s wanted list because of their involvement in the revolution, they gave up their old lives to try again abroad. Many emigrated to the United States, England, and Australia after the revolutions failed. These emigrants included Germans, Czechs, Hungarians, and others. Many were respected and politically active, wealthy, and well-educated; as such, they were not typical immigrants. A large number went on to be very successful in their new countries.

SIU & Maritime History

This article includes parts of a series written by John Bunker, former Seafarer and SIU historian. It features, among other information, a review of the SIU’s origin and early activities, through World War II. It also describes the beginnings of maritime labor in the U.S. in the 1800s and early 1900s. The entire 27-part series was published in the Seafarers Log from June 1980 to June 1983.

A HISTORY OF THE SIU

by John Bunker

The Struggle Begins for a Class of Workers

For hundreds of years, seamen yearned to better their lot. From the whip-lashed oarsmen of Roman and Spanish galleys to the crews of modern windjammers, seamen were usually underfed, underpaid and overworked and considered workmen beyond the usual recourses of the law.

Along with the harsh and vigorous nature of their daily labors were the constant hazards of seafaring. Untold thousands of sailors have set out from port never to return, becoming victims of storms, collisions and that most dreaded foe of the ocean voyager–fire at sea. And in the pages of old shipping journals there was always this recurrent notice beside the name of a ship: “missing and presumed lost with all hands.”

The new Committee of Vigilance enrolled about fifteen hundred people that first day in 1856. Meanwhile a larger meeting place was secured at Turn Verein Hall on Bush Street and in that hall later that evening the committee met again and signed another five hundred or so men. After some discussion, William Coleman proposed dividing into companies of a hundred men in Roman style and forming them into regiments of ten companies each. Since this met with a general consent men were organized according to their number, from one to one hundred and so on until there were fifteen regiments. They were to select the best men, from a military standpoint, from each company to lead them.

Because there were many Frenchmen in the committee Coleman called for all the French speakers to assemble in the middle of the room and also divide into companies of a hundred men, and from each company select officers who spoke their own language. And then, because their numbers were somewhat less than a regiment, they were to form into a French Legion. This all met with hearty approval. The companies, regiments and legion were quickly organized, the officers selected and approved by the executive committee and within the relatively short time of twelve to fifteen hours the 1856 Committee of Vigilance was in nearly complete working order.

http://www.examiner.com/topic/committee-of-vigilance

http://californiamilitaryhistory.org/Sheman2.html

Letters written during the time of the great Vigilance Committee of 1856 at San Francisco, and containing some account of its work as viewed by an interested resident of the place, are rare in the literature of the subject, and are sure to be valuable. How much more must this be true of letters written under such circumstances by General W. T. Sherman. The case for the Vigilance Committee is authoritatively stated in the November number of this magazine, by the former president of the committee, Mr. William T. Coleman. Sherman’s relation to the committee has been described by himself in his “Memoirs,” and that account has led to considerable controversy.

The Governor saw the entire mass of people arrayed against the civil authorities, the only military force in existence sharing the feelings of the people, the cause of the civil authorities being a bare naked principle with two such wretches as Casey and Cora as its exponents. All this time the Vigilance Committee was strengthening its numbers, then 2,500 now 5,000, having at its head such men as William T. Coleman, the brothers Arrington, Flint, of Flint, Peabody & Co, Myras Truett, and indeed all the large merchants, active controlling members, whilst Parrott, Ralston, Drexel, Satlier and Church and most of the rich men are contributing means and countenance sub rosa. I suggested to Johnson for us to go right to their headquarters at the Turn Verein Hall on Bush Street, and we all concluded to go, Garrison, the Governor and his brother, and myself. We reached the hall about eleven o’clock at night, found it lighted up and a stream of people coming and going. . . . After a little delay we were admitted into a bar-room at the right, where we sat down and Mr. Coleman, President of the Vigilance Committee, sat down and had a very general conversation, in which Coleman said the purpose of the association was not designed to subvert the law but to assist it in purging the community of the clique of shoulder strikers, ballot-box stuffers, and political tricksters generally; that the courts and juries had become of no use, and that they must be purged or spurred on; that they did not meditate violence, and were willing to await King’s fate. If he dies, Casey to be tried and speedily executed. All this was fair, and we almost coincided with him in opinion. At first he intimated a desire that Casey should be given up to them, but Governor Johnson told him distinctly that he would enforce the law as speedily as its forms would allow, but he would never consent to Casey being taken from the sheriff’s custody; but that if the committee felt any uncertainty about Casey’s being safe in custody there was no objection to a few men of their number being admitted, who were to be considered as assistant-guards but under control of the sheriff. It was then agreed that if such an arrangement were made that the committee should pledge themselves that those of the committee so admitted should not attempt any violence or league with those outside, but if a change of purpose became necessary the committeemen should be withdrawn and reasonable notice given. Coleman then went into the large hall, and after some time returned with six other gentlemen, with whom further conversation was held, all to the same effect, and the treaty was made verbally, Governor Johnson telling them that he treated with them as individuals, and not in their capacity as a body of men leagued together for a purpose unknown to the law. We were there till half past one at night, and parted with a clear, distinct understanding that no mob violence was contemplated at all, and no demonstration on the jail should be made until their guard was withdrawn and reasonable time thereafter to enable the sheriff to resume the status quo. We agreed to meet at the jail at two o’clock to admit their ten men – the sheriff being at liberty to keep as many as he pleased. We went to the jail, found the sheriff disinclined to admit the enemy, but as he could not depend on the citizens to defend the jail, he became satisfied his only chance of life was to save time, and therefore consented. At two o’clock Friday night ten men of the Vigilance Committee were introduced, and a room in the jail placed at their service, and one or two of them were allowed to stand or sit near the cell door in which Casey is confined. Coleman and Truett came with their posse, assured themselves that Casey was there, and we all left, thinking that, under the circumstances, it was the best thing then at our choice. We all parted Friday night at three o’clock, satisfied to await King’s fate, and believing that the community at large would be satisfied.

The following is an extract from a letter, no date, from General Sherman to Major Turner of St. Louis, contained in a letter from Mrs. Sherman, dated May 18, 1856, to her father, Mr. Thomas Ewing. The letter to Major Turner, as appears from its contents, was also completed on Sunday, May 18, but was begun on Saturday.

I got C.K. Garrison to go with me, and we met the Governor and his brother on the wharf, and walked up to the International Hotel on Jackson Street, above Montgomery. We discussed the state of affairs fully; and Johnson, on learning that his particular friend, William T. Coleman, was president of the Vigilance Committee, proposed to go and see him. En route, we stopped at King’s room, ascertained that he was slowly sinking, and could not live long; and then near midnight we walked to the Turnverein Hall, where the committee was known to be sitting in consultation. This hall was on Bush Street, at about the intersection of Stockton. It lighted up within, but the door was locked. The Governor knocked at the door, and in inquiry from inside–“Who’s there?”–gave his name. After some delay we were admitted into a sort of vestibule, beyond which was a large hall, and we could hear the suppressed voices of a multitude. We were shown into a bar-room to the right, when the Governor asked to see Coleman. The man left us, went into the main hall, and soon returned with Coleman, who was pale and agitated. After shaking hands all round, the Governor said, “Coleman, what the devil is the matter here?” Coleman rejoined that “the people were tired of it, and had no faith in the officers of the law.” A general conversation then followed, in which it was admitted that King would die, and that Casey must be executed; but the manner of execution was the thing to be settled, Coleman contending that the people would do it without trusting the courts or the sheriff. It so happened that at that time Judge Norton was on the bench of the court having jurisdiction, and he was universally recognized as an able and upright man, whom no one could or did mistrust; and it also happened that a grand-jury was then in session. Johnson argued that the time had passed in California for mobs and vigilance committees, and said if Coleman and his associates would use their influence to support the law, he (the Governor) would undertake that, as soon as King died, the grand-jury should indict, that Judge Norton would try the murderer, and the whole proceeding should be as speedy as decency would allow. Then Coleman said “the people had no confidence in Scannell, the sheriff,” who was, he said, in collusion with the rowdy element of San Francisco. Johnson then offered to be personally responsible that Casey should be safely guarded, and should be forthcoming for trial and execution at the proper time. I remember very well Johnson’s asserting that he had no right to make these stipulations, and maybe no power to fulfill them; but he did it to save the city and state from the disgrace of a mob. Coleman disclaimed that the vigilance organization was a “mob,” admitted that the proposition of the Governor was fair, and all he or any one should ask; and added, if we would wait awhile, he would submit it to the council, and bring back an answer. We waited nearly an hour, and could hear the hum of voices in the hall, but no words, when Coleman came back, accompanied by a committee, of which I think the two brothers Arrington, Thomas Smiley the auctioneer, Seymour, Truett, and others, were members. The whole conversation was gone over again, and the Governor’s proposition was positively agreed to, with this further condition, that the Vigilance Committee should send into the jail a small force of their own men, to make certain that Casey should not be carried off or allowed to escape. The Governor, his brother William, Garrison, and I, then went up to the jail, where we found the sheriff and his posse-comitatus of police and citizens. These were styled the “Law-and-Order party,” and some of them took offense that the Governor should have held communication with the “damned rebels,” and several of them left the jail; but the sheriff seemed to agree with the Governor that what he had done was right and best; and, while we were there, some eight or ten armed men arrived from the Vigilance Committee, and were received by the sheriff (Scannell) as part of his regular posse.

http://www.sfmuseum.org/hist6/sherman2.html

Political power in San Francisco was transferred to a new political party established by the vigilantes, the People’s Party, which ruled until 1867 and was eventually absorbed into the Republican Party. The vigilantes had thus succeeded in their objective of usurping power from the Democratic Party machine that hitherto dominated civic politics in the city.[6] Notable people included William Tell Coleman, Martin J. Burke, San Francisco mayor Henry F. Teschemacher, and San Francisco’s first chief of police James F. Curtis.

Vigilante headquarters in 1856 consisted of assembly halls, meeting rooms, a military kitchen and armoury, an infirmary, and prison cells, all of which were fortified with gunny sacks and cannons.[3] Four people were officially executed again in 1856, but the death toll also includes James “Yankee” Sullivan, an Irish immigrant and professional boxer who killed himself after being terrorized and detained in a Vigilante cell.[3][7]

https://rosamondpress.com/2014/11/24/come-to-magic-mountain/

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7kl6cCp_eWc

One prominent critic of the San Francisco vigilantes was General W. T. Sherman, who resigned from his position as Major-general of the Second Division of Militia in San Francisco. In his memoirs, Sherman wrote:

As [the vigilantes] controlled the press, they wrote their own history, and the world generally gives them the credit of having purged San Francisco of rowdies and roughs; but their success has given great stimulus to a dangerous principle, that would at any time justify the mob in seizing all the power of government; and who is to say that the Vigilance Committee may not be composed of the worst, instead of the best, elements of a community? Indeed, in San Francisco, as soon as it was demonstrated that the real power had passed from the City Hall to the committee room, the same set of bailiffs, constables, and rowdies that had infested the City Hall were found in the employment of the “Vigilantes.”[10

About Royal Rosamond Press

I am an artist, a writer, and a theologian.
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