Brevoort of the House of Bourbon

The Story of Rosamond

by

Jon Presco

Copyright 2017

The Model Huguenot Society

Three days ago I talked to my ex-fiancé Virginia Hambley, on the phone. She told me I have been on her mind and wants to see me. The next day I discovered Robert Brevoort Buck, and Beryl Buck, have blood ties to the Huguenot King of France, who signed the Edict of Nantes. Was Beryl aware of this blood to the royalty of France via the Bourbons, whom Virginia’s kindred tried to restore after the French Revolution. I truly doubt she did, or she would have mentioned the Huguenots in her suggestion the Buck Foundation promote a religious agenda. I am working on making the County of Marin a Model Huguenot County, that will embrace all religions.

Denis de Rougemont is related to the Rougemonts who founded Lloyd’s of London that wants to expand into the European Union, that Denis co-founded. I am authoring a letter to Lloyds about establishing a model healthcare program for the poor. I believe Denis in kin to the Knights Templar who owned the Shroud of Turin. I want to bring these lineages together in order to empower Alcohol Justice.

The Buck and Rosamond family have come together. I would like to see a Statue of Huguenot Harmony standing at the entrance to the Larkspur Landing, where I envisioned a New Atlantis in 1986. How about Sea Cadet training center for poor young men and women? The Huguenot Society  and Genealogy center can move to Marin. We live forever via our children and their children.

https://rosamondpress.com/2013/08/09/the-marine-society-and-rougemont/

https://rosamondpress.com/2013/10/08/denis-de-rougemont-lordre-nouveau/

Mary Catherine Navarre Brevoort

http://www.elmwoodhistoriccemetery.org/biographies/mary-catherine-navarre-brevoort/

https://rosamondpress.com/2016/07/19/rougemont-templars-of-trichatel-2/

Born September 4, 1782, Mary Catherine was the daughter of Robert DeNavarre and Archange Marsac (Mary Louise). She was the niece of General Alexander Macomb and a lineal descendant of the Duke of Vendome, the brother of King Henry IV of France.

On January 5, 1811, Mary Catherine was married to Henry Bergaw Brevoort. They lived on Rouge Farm until 1812. In 1812, during the war while Henry was serving with Commodore Perry in the Lake Erie campaign, Mary Catherine was taken captive by Indians.

Following her release and the end of the war, they returned to Detroit and had five children.

Mary Catherine Brevoort Died on December 26, 1868 at the age of 86. She died in the house where she had been born and where she was married—a house that had been built by her father.

Born: September 4, 1782
Died: December 26, 1868
Buried: Lot 48, Section V

Denis de Rougemont is the son of Georges de Rougemont, pastor , and of Alice, née Bovet . La famille de Rougemont est originaire de Saint-Aubin près de Neuchâtel . The Rougemont family comes from Saint-Aubin near Neuchâtel . En 1784 , elle a reçu une « reconnaissance d’ancienne noblesse » du Roi Frédéric II de Prusse (Neuchâtel était alors une Principauté prussienne). In 1784 she received an “acknowledgment of ancient nobility ” from King Frederick II of Prussia (Neuchâtel was then a Prussian Principality). Des membres de la famille de Rougemont ont fait partie du Conseil d’État de Neuchâtel. Members of the Rougemont family were members of the Council of State of Neuchâtel.

The Marine Society and Rougemont

lloydsssMarine_Society_Page_3

marine-sci

marinessClive de Rougemont was head of the Sea Cadets. He is of a Huguenot banker ancestry that fled with much of France’s wealth after the repeal of the Edict of Nantes. This family founded Lloyd’s of London. I may be kin to this family.

Because Vendôme was the king’s son, their marriage was celebrated with a big festival including a ball (featuring a pavane registered in André Danican Philidor‘s “Recueil de plusieurs airs par Philidor L’Aisné” that became known to a wider audience through tghe interpretation of “Le Concert des nations” under the direction of Jordi Savall) and its own Ballet de cour, the first one for Louis XIII to dance (The dauphin‘s dance was very good, so that within the next year it was followed by a “Ballet de M. le Dauphin dansé le 8 mars”, the first appearances of the future king that brought forth Louis’s great talent for dancing.

https://www.geni.com/people/Fran%C3%A7ois-Antoine-de-Rougemont/6000000046923138091

Georges De Rougemont

MyHeritage Family Trees
Famille Bourée Web Site, managed by Bernard Bourée (Contact)
Birth: Oct 12 1758 – Saint-Aubin-Sauges, 2024, Boudry, Neuchâtel, Suisse
Death: Dec 22 1824 – Neuchâtel, 64580, Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Suisse
Parents: François Antoine De Rougemont, Henriette De Rougemont (née De Montmollin)
Siblings: Charlotte Petitpierre (née De Rougemont), Catherine De Rougemont, Francois Andre De Rougemont, Jean Henry De Rougemont
Wife: Charlotte-louise-albertine De Rougemont (née Ostervald)
Children: Rose De Rougemont, Frédéric Constant De Rougemont, Denis François Henri De Rougemont

Henry IV (French: Henri IV, read as Henri-Quatre pronounced [ɑ̃ʁi.katʁ]; 13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), also known by the epithet “Good King Henry”, was King of Navarre (as Henry III) from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first French monarch of the House of Bourbon, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.

Baptised as a Catholic but raised in the Protestant faith by his mother Jeanne d’Albret, Queen of Navarre, he inherited the throne of Navarre in 1572 on the death of his mother. As a Huguenot, Henry was involved in the French Wars of Religion, barely escaping assassination in the St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre, and later led Protestant forces against the royal army.

Henry, as Head of the House of Bourbon, was a direct male-line descendant of Louis IX of France, and “first prince of the blood“. Upon the death of his brother-in-law and distant cousin Henry III of France in 1589, Henry was called to the French succession by the Salic law. He initially kept the Protestant faith and had to fight against the Catholic League, which denied that he could wear France’s crown as a Protestant. To obtain mastery over his kingdom, after four years of stalemate, he found it prudent to abjure the Calvinist faith. As a pragmatic politician (in the parlance of the time, a politique), he displayed an unusual religious tolerance for the era. Notably, he promulgated the Edict of Nantes (1598), which guaranteed religious liberties to Protestants, thereby effectively ending the Wars of Religion. He was assassinated in 1610 by François Ravaillac, a fanatical Catholic, and was succeeded by his son Louis XIII.[1  

Immediately after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, one William Rosamond, a Huguenot, fled from France. He was married to a lady whose maiden name had been Anne d’Orr . (French ‘of gold’).

Tom Rosamond, one of the current researchers in the US, had a Heraldry House in Boston do research on a family crest, and a crest was discovered that originated in Ireland. This crest exactly matches the one that Mary Jane Loya has. 4. My father, Robert Henry Rosamond (1909 – 1987), did a great deal of research into the family history. He told me (how I wish I had paid more attention) that we were descended from the Huguenots and that the he had managed to trace as far back as a William Rosamond, a Huguenot who left France in the late 17th century. He said that one of the sons of William Rosamond had settled in Sandwich and started a silk weaving business that had later been moved to Bethnal Green. He had discovered that one member of the family had been deported from Oxford Assizes for Highway Robbery in the 18th century.

On the eve of the French Revolution, Bourmont entered the Gardes Françaises of the French royal army but he emigrated in 1789. Bourmont served in Louis Joseph de Bourbon, Prince de Condé royalist army in the campaigns of 1792 and 1793. Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé who held the title Prince du Sang.
“Prince of the blood”.

https://www.buckinstitute.org/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buck_Institute_for_Research_on_Aging

The Buck Foundation Trust was created by Beryl Hamilton Buck after the death in 1953 of her husband, pathologist Leonard W. Buck. Leonard’s father, Frank Buck, was one of the founders of Belridge Oil.[8] When Beryl Buck died in 1975, the bulk of the estate became part of the San Francisco Foundation, about $7.6 million dedicated to “charitable purposes in Marin County” including, “extending help to the problems of aging.” The Belridge Oil stock in the trust was bought in 1979 by Shell Oil for $253 million, increasing the trust’s value substantially.[8][9] Attempts by the San Francisco Foundation to use the cy pres doctrine to spend outside of Marin County resulted in litigation which the SF Foundation lost.[8][10]

As part of a 1986 court settlement, the Marin Community Foundation was established which administers the trust, today valued at approximately $1 billion.[11] The settlement distributes 80% of the trust’s annual earnings to causes specific to Marin County. It divides the remaining 20% among three Marin County organizations:

  • the Buck Institute for Research on Aging,

  • the Buck Institute for Education,[12] and
  • Alcohol Justice, formerly named The Marin Institute, which deals with alcohol-related problems.

https://rosamondpress.com/2013/01/04/serving-the-prince-of-the-blood/

https://rosamondpress.com/2013/01/05/de-bourmont-of-anjou-and-de-bar/

https://rosamondpress.com/2015/03/31/renaissance-castle-2/

Scholarships

In 1956, the Society established an annual scholarship at Cornell University to be awarded to the young man or woman recommended by the university, subject to the recipient’s proof of descent from a Huguenot who settled in the United States before November 28, 1787–the date of the Edict of Toleration.

Marie L. Rose, a French-born widow residing in New York City, died on December 17, 1960, bequeathing her residuary estate to the Society as a trust fund, the income to be used to give financial assistance to American men and women of Huguenot ancestry attending college. Over the years, the grant has grown; and, each year, scholarships are granted to selected students as space becomes available at the colleges listed below.

https://www.huguenotsociety.org/heritage/

https://www.huguenotsociety.org/being-a-huguenot/

http://huguenotsocietyofamerica.org/?page=Huguenot-History

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/lloyds-of-london-to-set-up-a-european-insurance-company-in-brussels-after-brexit-eu-europe-a7657201.html

http://www.globalhealthinsurance.com/global-health-plans

http://www.checkcompany.co.uk/director/426842/MR-CLIVE-IRVING-DE-ROUGEMONT

San Francisco earthquake[edit]

On 18 April 1906, a major earthquake and resulting fires destroyed more than 80 per cent of the Californian city of San Francisco. This event was to have a profound influence on building practices, risk modelling, and the insurance industry.

The 1906 San Francisco earthquake caused substantial losses for Lloyd’s underwriters

Lloyd’s losses from the earthquake and fires were substantial, even though at the time the placement of insurance business overseas was viewed with some wariness. One of Lloyd’s leading underwriters, Cuthbert Heath, famously instructed his agent in San Francisco to “pay all of our policyholders in full, irrespective of the terms of their policies”. The prompt and full payment of all claims arising out of the disaster helped to cement Lloyd’s reputation for reliable claims payment and as an important trading partner for US brokers and policyholders. It was estimated that around 90 per cent of the damage to the city was caused by the resultant fires. Since 1906, fire following earthquake has generally been an insured peril under most policies.[7]

MR CLIVE IRVING DE ROUGEMONT is a Lloyds Underwriting Agent from London. This person was born in February 1946, which was over 71 years ago. MR CLIVE IRVING DE ROUGEMONT is British and resident in United Kingdom. This company officer is, or was, associated with at least 8 company roles.

https://rosamondpress.com/2013/08/09/de-rougemont-of-lloyds/

https://rosamondpress.com/2013/08/09/the-marine-society-and-rougemont/

https://rosamondpress.com/2013/08/08/andromeda-and-the-great-art-lesson/

https://archive.org/stream/lettersofdenizat2717hugu/lettersofdenizat2717hugu_djvu.txt

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_IV_of_France

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_counts_and_dukes_of_Vend%C3%B4me

https://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=20235574

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Joseph,_Duke_of_Vend%C3%B4me

Louis Joseph de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme (Louis Joseph; 1 July 1654 – 11 June 1712) was a French military commander during the War of the Grand Alliance and War of the Spanish Succession, Marshal of France.

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César
Légitimé de France
Duke of Vendôme
Engraved portrait of César de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme (1594-1665).jpg

César by Moncornet
Born (1594-06-03)3 June 1594
Château de Coucy, France
Died 11 October 1665(1665-10-11) (aged 71)
Paris, France
Spouse Françoise de Lorraine
Issue
Detail
Louis, Duke of Vendôme
François, Duke of Beaufort
Élisabeth, Duchess of Nemours
Full name
César de Bourbon, Legitimé de France
Father Henry IV of France
Mother Gabrielle d’Estrées

César de Bourbon, Légitimé de France (3 June 1594 – 22 October 1665) was the son of Henry IV of France and his mistress Gabrielle d’Estrées, and founder of the House of Bourbon-Vendome. He held the titles of 1st Duke of Vendôme, 2nd Duke of Beaufort and 2nd Duke of Étampes, but is also simply known as César de Vendôme. Through his daughter, Élisabeth de Bourbon, César was a great-great-great-grandfather of Louis XV of France, merging thereafter to the French royal line. César de Bourbon is also an ancestor of Juan Carlos I of Spain, of Albert II, King of the Belgians, of Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, and of Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples, a pretender to the Italian throne.

Biography[edit]

Born at the Château de Coucy in the Picardy region of France; his parents had started their affair in 1591 and César had been the couple’s first child. He was legitimised in 1595, and was created the first Duke of Vendôme by his father in 1598. The Duchy of Vendôme had been owned by the Bourbon dynasty since 1393, at that point being a County then being raised by Louis XII of France to a Duchy. In the same year, he was engaged to Françoise de Lorraine (1592–1669), “…one of the richest heiresses in France”.[1]

In 1598, César was created Duke of Vendome in his own right. One year later he also inherited the titles of Duke of Beaufort and Duke of Étampes upon the death of his mother, who died as a result of a miscarriage in Paris.

His father, King Henry IV, was grief-stricken, especially given the widely held rumor that Gabrielle had been poisoned. He wore black in mourning, something no previous French monarch had done before. He gave her the funeral of a Queen; her coffin was transported amidst a procession of princes, princesses, and nobles to the Saint Denis Basilica for a requiem Mass. Known in French history and song as La Belle Gabrielle, she was interred at Abbaye Notre-Dame-la-Royale de Maubuisson, Saint-Ouen-l’Aumône (Val-d’Oise, Île-de-France).

He was his father’s first son but due to his illegitimacy, was not allowed to inherit the throne; his half brother, the future Louis XIII of France was born in September 1601 much to the joy of the king.

On 16 July 1608, at the Château de Fontainebleau, he married Françoise de Lorraine (d. 1669), the wealthy heiress of Philippe Emmanuel, Duke of Mercœur. Françoise was the legal heir to the large and separate duchies of Mercœur and Penthièvre. Because Vendôme was the king’s son, their marriage was celebrated with a big festival including a ball (featuring a pavane registered in André Danican Philidor‘s “Recueil de plusieurs airs par Philidor L’Aisné” that became known to a wider audience through tghe interpretation of “Le Concert des nations” under the direction of Jordi Savall) and its own Ballet de cour, the first one for Louis XIII to dance (The dauphin‘s dance was very good, so that within the next year it was followed by a “Ballet de M. le Dauphin dansé le 8 mars”, the first appearances of the future king that brought forth Louis’s great talent for dancin).[2] The Duke of Vendôme fulfilled his marital duties, but he was famous for his numerous homosexual affairs.[3] Some of them are reported in Tallement des Réaux‘s Historiettes.

César was involved in many noble intrigues during the reign of his half-brother Louis XIII of France.[4] Implicated in the conspiracy of Chalais against Cardinal Richelieu, he and his brother Alexandre, the Chevalier de Vendôme, were imprisoned in the Château de Vincennes in 1626. He was released in 1630 and exiled to Holland.

In 1632, he returned to France but was soon accused of plotting the death of Richelieu and was exiled again, this time to England. He did not return until 1642. Soon after his return he took part in the cabale des Importants against Cardinal Mazarin, together with his second son François – this led to yet another exile, till 1650. The marriage of his son Louis to Laura Mancini brought about his reconciliation with Mazarin, and he supported Anne of Austria throughout the Fronde.

He reconciled with his half brother in December 1642, a year before his death and the beginning of the reign of his nephew Louis XIV. The reconciliation occurred after the death of Richelieu.

César led the royal troops against the rebels in Burgundy, of which he was appointed governor in 1650; appointed Grand Admiral of France in 1651 he helped to capture the insurgent stronghold of Bordeaux in July 1653. Joining French forces in the ongoing war with Spain, he defeated a Spanish fleet off Barcelona in 1655.

Early in 1665 the Duke of Vendôme was created the Grand Master of Navigation. He died later that year on 22 October 1665 in Paris and was buried in the chapel of Saint-Georges at the Château of Vendôme.

Communism and Christians

Front Cover

Alexander Macomb (April 3, 1782 – June 25, 1841) was the Commanding General of the United States Army from May 29, 1828 until his death on June 25, 1841. Macomb was the field commander at the Battle of Plattsburgh during the War of 1812 and, after the stunning victory, was lauded with praise and styled “The Hero of Plattsburgh” by some of the American press. He was promoted to Major General for his conduct, receiving both the Thanks of Congress and a Congressional Gold Medal.

https://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=fr&u=http://mlloyd.org/gen/navarre/text/navrob.htm

John Van Tromp Brevoort

Found 10 Records, 5 Photos and 13,367 Family Trees

Born in Detroit on 1811 to Henry Bergaw Brevoort and Mary Catherine Navarre. John Van Tromp married Eliza Ann Navarre and had 3 children. He passed away on 1899 in Barks River Red.

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John Van Trump
Found 10 Records, 8 Photos and 4,666 Family Trees
Born in Rockingham, Virginia, USA on 3 Mar 1799 to Daniel Van Trump. John married Elizabeth Knopp and had 11 children. He passed away on 18 Sep 1869 in Rochester, Fulton, Indiana, USA.
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1760-56

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Elizabeth Knopp
1806-1875
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1825-1897

Reuben Van Trump
1826-1888

Daniel Van Trump
1827-1890

Abraham Van Trump
1831-1906

Calvin Van Trump
1833-1886

Peter Van Trump
1835-1835

Jacob Van Trump
1837-1908

Amanda Van Trump
1838-1839

Caroline Van Trump
1843-1872

Elizabeth Ann Van Trump
1845-1855

Josephine R Van Trump
1847-1882

Denis de Rougemont was titled ‘The Prince of European Culture’. He was at the first Bilderberg meeting, and is considered a co-founder of the European Union. Frederich the Great granted the Rougemonts of Neufchatel a title of old nobility when he came to this area in Switzerland.

Rougemont was the Director of Congress of Cultural Freedom that employed Writers and Artists against the Soviet Block. There is a creative subconscious that may have created a psychic force that brought many to a vortex that a core group created, and was like a psychic internet. The Roza Mira of Russian is sustained outside this Western Vortex, but, subliminal messages are being exchanged by what you might call Art Angels.

Jon Presco

http://monthlyreview.org/1999/11/01/the-cia-and-the-cultural-cold-war-revisited

http://modernhistoryproject.org/mhp?Article=Kulturkampf

Rougemont, Denis (de)
8.09.1906, Couvet (Neuchâtel) – 6.12.1985, Geneva
Source Fondation Denis de Rougemont

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Denis de Rougemont
Biography

Denis de Rougemont was born on on September 8th, 1906 in Couvet in the Canton from Neuchâtel in Switzerland. His/her father is Pasteur. He continues studies of letters at the University of Neuchâtel between 1925 and 1930. In parallel, it starts its first voyages and remains in particular in Vienna, in Hungary and Souabe.

In 1930, it settles in Paris and becomes, within the Esprit movements and the Order New one of the founders of Personalism, at the sides of Emmanuel Mounier, Arnaud Dandieu, Robert Aron, Henri Daniel-Rops and Alexandre Marc. They were called “the nonconformists of the Thirties”. Rejecting as well Hitler as Stalin, just as nationalism and individualism, they preach the idea of an political organization, economic and social which is with the service of the Person designed like a unit at the same time distinct (the individual) and connected to the Community (the citizen), at the same time free (as an individual) and person in charge (as a citizen).

The Federalism appears the model to them which makes it possible best to link the People without giving up their diversity, and this is why they preach it. On the other hand, they reject the State-Nation centralized like mode of organization of the company.

During the years 1930, Denis de Rougemont develops the topics of Personalism through two works: Policy of the Person (1934), To think with the Hands (1936). In 1935-1936, it remains in Germany like French reader at the University of Francfort-sur-le-Main and brings back from there a very negative testimony on the Nazism, which it delivers in his Newspaper of Germany (1938). In 1939 appears the Love and the Occident which shows the influence D `a certain number of accounts mythical (of which Tristan and Iseult) on the typically Western design of an impassioned love and finally destructor, that the author opposes to the true charity.

In 1940, it is mobilized in the Swiss army and, with other personalities, it founds the League of Gothard which aims at stimulating the spirit of resistance to Hitler. Its positions being considered to be not very compatible with Swiss neutrality, it is sent on mission of conferences to the United States. Installed in New York, it publishes the share of the devil into 1942 who is a reflection on the disorders of the modern world, limed in totalitarianism and the materialism. It binds with many writers or European artists in exile (Saint-Exupéry, André Breton, Max Ernst, Marcel Duchamp, Saint-John Perse, Wystan Auden). After Hiroshima and Nagasaki, it shows, in its Letters on the atomic bomb (1946), that the nuclear weapon places the men in front of a world danger which must encourage them to exceed the idea of national sovereignty.

Returned definitively to Europe in 1947, it takes part, at the sides of the federalists, the efforts to link Europe. On August 26th, 1947, he makes the inaugural speech of the first Congress of the European Union of the Federalists (the federalistic attitude). At the time of the Congress of $the Hague (7 May 10th, 1948), he is at the same time rapporteur of the cultural Commission and writer of the Final declaration (Message to Europeans). During this Congress, the cultural Commission proposes the creation of a Center European of the Culture, tries whose seizes itself Denis de Rougemont who to this end organizes the first European Conference of the Culture (Lausanne, 8 December 12th, 1949). The Center European of the Culture is finally made up in Geneva in 1950 and placed under the direction of Denis de Rougemont.

At the same time, it is mobilized with other intellectuals against Stalinist propaganda conveying the idea of a culture to the service of the class struggle, within the Congress for the Freedom of the Culture of which he becomes President in 1952 (he will occupy this function until 1966).

In charge of the Center European of the Culture, Denis de Rougemont provided the foundations, in December 1950, of an organization gathering the European scientists working on nuclear energy: it will be the CERN. He was at the origin of the first association joining together the very first Institutes of European Studies, which was drawn up in Geneva in 1951 (it existed until 1991), as well as European Association of the Festivals of Music. In the sides of Robert Schuman, it took part in the creation of the European Foundation of the Culture (Geneva, December 16th, 1954) which was transported to Amsterdam in 1957 when it always continues its activities.

He undertakes a deliberation on the cultural features which characterize the Occident compared to other civilizations. It is the topic of its work the Western Adventure of the Man (1957) and the think tank on the “dialog of the cultures” (formulates begun again later by UNESCO) which it organizes as from 1961. This same year, it publishes a work on the history of the European idea entitled Twenty-eight centuries of Europe. In 1963, it founds in Geneva the Institute of European Studies which will be incorporated in the University in 1992.

From the years 1960, its activity will concentrate on two topics: the rise of the areas and the transborder areas which carries out it towards the idea of a federalism being combined to the ideal of “Europe of the Areas”; destruction of the environment which leads it to call in question the finalities of our companies. He sees in the emergence of areas to human size at the same time an alternative to the State-Nation and the chance to reintroduce in our companies the concept of responsibility so essential to safeguarding for the environment. Ecology and areas are in the center of its last two major works: Open letter with Europeans (1970), the Future is our business (1977).

One will also raise permanence of his reflection on the technical development and his consequences, since his work on the atomic bomb going back to 1946 until data processing (article “Information is not to know” in 1981), via civil nuclear energy (the CERN).

Denis de Rougemont dies in Geneva on on December 6th, 1985.

The Foundation Denis de Rougemont

One finds on the site of the Foundation Denis de Rougemont of the many information on the writer, in particular of the reference books, the images and bibliography.

The Idea of Europe in the work of Denis de Rougemont and the French non-conformists

09/03/2009 Leave a comment

Denis de Rougemont was a main thinker of the so-called non-conformistes des années trente, a movement of young intellectuals that appeared in France at the beginning of the turbulentcover 1930s, in opposition to both the individualism of liberalism and the collectivism of the Soviet Russia. [1] The main bulk of their work was published between 1930-34 and was concentrated around three separate currents:
◾ The founders and members of L’Ordre nouveau. An intellectual movement established by the Russian migrant Alexandre Marc (born in 1904 in Odessa as Aleksander Markovitch Lipiansky), its goal was to prepare the conditions for a ‘spiritual rebirth’ of the European culture. Its effort was concentrated on going beyond such dualistic divisions as nationalism-internationalism and capitalism-communism. Its inspirations came, among other sources, from the Christian existentialism of Kierkegaard, the federalism of Proudhon, the great critique of Modernity Nietzsche, or from the historicism of Péguy. The thinkers who were a part of L’Ordre nouveau also included Robert Aron, Arnaud Dandieu, Daniel-Rops, Jean Jardin and finally Denis de Rougemont.
◾The Catholic revue L’Esprit of Emmanuel Mounier, founded in 1932. From the beginning it evolved in tight collaboration with L’Ordre nouveau. In reaction to the events of the Second World War it radically shifted to the political left , in order to slowly move back to more moderate positions of the ‘New Left’, under which it still publishes to this date.
◾Young thinkers of Jeune Droite, who were mostly dissidents of the French reactionary and monarchistic right Açtion française. These thinkers included Jean de Fabrègues, Jean-Pierre Maxence and Thierry Maulnier.

Furthermore, Ferdinand Kinsky also includes among them those thinkers, from whom the non-conformists drew their inspiration: Stern, Blondel, Buber, Nédoncelle, Karl Barth, Gabriel Marcel, Jacques Maritain or Nicholas Berdiaeff.[2]

Although the non-conformists came from different backgrounds and their thinking took on some issues rather opposing positions, they all subscribed to the doctrine of ‘personalism’, and, consequently, to federalism. The non-conformists converged on the point that

‘man was above all not an “individual.” He is a “person,” that is both responsible and free, committed and autonomous, a being in himself, but related to his fellowmen by his responsibility’.[3]

As a person, human being is not a lonely monad, not even a rational being, which could exist outside of society, but a social entity whose nature is fulfilled only by sharing his life in common with others. To live within a society does not mean to be enclosed in a ‘homogeneous’ nation-state, but to be a part of multiple and overlapping ‘intermediary’ communities, which are most naturally formed around family, territory, or profession. For the non-conformists/personalists, these intermediary communities both historically and philosophically ultimately share the common European ‘well’ from which they draw their actual particular ideas and traditions. Europe and its culture for them necessarily precede nations and nation-states. The thinkers such as the Schlegels or Herder constructed the idea of a self-sufficient nation from already present, primordial European philosophical and historical traditions. The English historian Christopher Dawson best summarises this position in his 1932 work The Making of Europe, when he notes that

‘The evil of nationalism does not consist in its loyalty to the traditions of the past or in its vindication of national unity and right of self determination. What is wrong is the identification of this unity with the ultimate and inclusive unity of culture which is a supernatural thing.

The ultimate foundation of our culture is not the national state, but the European unity’.[4]

The nation-state was thus only one realised possibility of the European culture. A peculiar thing about nationalist movements was that they consciously denied the notion of their own continuity and grounding in the common European history and philosophical thought. Martin Heidegger would say this was a perfect manifestation of the ‘metaphysics of subjectivity’ – they picked up one particular set of characteristics out of their European heritage and by intellectual sleight of hand, suppressing the memory of their nations continuity with other European sources,[5] argued for their ‘homogeneity and cultural self-sufficiency’.

The French thinker Alain de Benoist recently argued from the same perspective, when he distinguished our ‘objective’ history as ‘a pile of representations of identity of past times and past protagonists’,[6] from our actual-assumed identity, whose dimension is always political since it is based on the projection of our past towards the future. In other words, our actual identity (in the 19th and 20th c., it was that of nations and nation-states), always grounds the collective ‘I’ in the past, based on values and necessities of the present and possibilities of the future. As Alain de Benoist adds, ‘memory screens [our timely, historical identity] and retains what conforms to its idea of the past and to the image it wants to give in order to give it a meaning’.[7]

Diversity of European identities

The purpose of Denis de Rougemont’s book The Idea of Europe is precisely to rip off our identity from the grip of the present and selective memory of nation-states and ground it in the timely and space-bound objective narrative of Europe. Rougemont’s preface to the book also forms the general leitmotif that weaves through the whole work:

‘ Europe is much older than the European nations. Their lack of unity and their ever more illusory claims to absolute sovereignty endanger its very existence. If only they could unite, Europe would be saved, and with it all that remains valuable in its richly creative diversity’.[8]

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About Royal Rosamond Press

I am an artist, a writer, and a theologian.
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