King Arthur’s Castle

thor33

thor44

thor66

thor88Turstin is Thurstein “Thor’s Stone” who was Eric the Red’s son who came to Vineland to retrieve the body of his brother Thorvald, who may be the ancestor of the ex-wife, Mary Ann Thorvaldson, who claims she descends from Eric. Is Tursten FitzWolf kin to Eric?

Rosamond Clifford’s great grandmother is Lesceline Harcourt, the wife of Pons FitzWilliam. The House of Harcourt is close to Rollo from whom Pons descends, as well as the Merovingians via the Wendens. It is now clear that King Henry made a maze to hide Rosamond from those who would want to capture her, and her bloodline.

There is a ring at Caerleon that was a Roman amphitheatre. One enters it like one enters a maze. Some say this arena inspired the Round Table. A movie made in 2004 depicts Arthur as a Roman soldier.

Jon Presco

Copyright 2013

http://www.archive.org/stream/cihm_27942/cihm_27942_djvu.txt

Caerleon also has associations with later Arthurian literature as the birthplace of the writer Arthur Machen who often used it as a location in his work. The Hanbury Arms was visited by Tennyson who lodged there while he wrote his Morte d’Arthur (later incorporated into his Idylls of the King).[13] Today Caerleon has a modern statue of a knight, “The Hanbury Knight”, in reflecting inox by Belgian sculptor Thierry Lauwers.[14] In Michael Morpurgo’s novel Arthur, High King of Britain, Caerleon is the castle where Arthur unknowingly commits incest with his half-sister Margause, resulting in the conception of his son Mordred who will later bring about his downfall.

Arthur made the Round Table, so reputed of the Britons. This Round Table was ordained of Arthur
that when his fair fellowship sat to [eat] meat their chairs should be high alike,
their service equal, and none before or after his comrade. Thus no man could boast
that he was exalted above his fellow, for all alike were gathered round the board,
and none was alien at the breaking of Arthur’s bread.

–Wace, Roman de Brut, c. 1155.
The notion of King Arthur’s Round Table has become a universal symbol for equality and just government. Actually, Geoffrey of Monmouth makes no mention of a Round Table in his history of Arthur. It was Robert Wace, writing around 1155, who was the first to mention this noble piece of furniture in his Roman de Brut, a French version of Monmouth’s work. In our travels, we found supposed Round Tables in Bryn-Rhyd-yr-Arian, Caerleon, Penrith, Stirling, and Winchester.

http://orgs.bsc.edu/arthur/tables.html

Arthur, also known as Artorius Castus (Clive Owen), is portrayed as a Roman cavalry officer, the son of a Roman father and a Celtic mother, who commands a unit of Sarmatian auxiliary cavalry in Britain at the close of the Roman occupation in 467 A.D. He and his men guard Hadrian’s Wall against the ‘Woads’, a group of native Britons who are rebels against Roman rule, led by the mysterious Merlin (Stephen Dillane).
As the film starts, Arthur and his remaining knights Lancelot (Ioan Gruffudd), Bors (Ray Winstone), Tristan (Mads Mikkelsen), Gawain (Joel Edgerton), Galahad (Hugh Dancy) and Dagonet (Ray Stevenson) are expecting discharge from the service of the Empire after faithfully serving for 15 years.

Medieval Icelandic tradition relates that Erik the Red and his wife Þjóðhildr (Thjodhildr) had four children: a daughter, Freydís, and three sons, the explorer Leif Eiríksson, Þorvaldr (Thorvald) and Þorsteinn (Thorstein). http://www.wikitree.com/genealogy/Clifford-Family-Tree-58

http://www.wikitree.com/genealogy/Fitzwilliam-Family-Tree-89

Thurstan”Toussaint De Bertrand”Montfort formerly Brioquibec aka Bastembourg
Born 0935 in Normandy, France
Son of Anslech Brioquibec and Heloe Beulac
[sibling(s) unknown]
Husband of Juliane Murdac— married [date unknown] [location unknown]
Father of Gisele Montfort, Hugh Montfort and Adeline de Montfort
Died 1023 in Montfort Sur Risle, Eure, Normandy, France

When in 911 the Viking chief Rollo obtained the territories that would make up Normandy through the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte, he distributed domains to his main supporters among those who had accompanied him on his expeditions against the English and the Neustrians. After the conquest of Normandy, considerable lands (notably the seigneurie of Harcourt, near Brionne, were granted to Bernard the Dane as a reward for his exploits, and from him they descended upon the lords (seigneurs) of Harcourt.

[edit] French and English branches
The Harcourt family has been perpetuated up until the present day in a French branch and an English branch. The château d’Harcourt in Harcourt, Eure, Normandy, built around 1100, survives.
[edit] English branch
In the 11th century, Errand of Harcourt and his three brothers followed William the Conqueror, duke of Normandy, on the Norman invasion of England, and the brothers were installed with English lands. The English Harcourt branch entered the English peerage, as barons then viscounts then earls. At first the Harcourts had lands in Leicestershire, but in 1191 Robert de Harcourt of Bosworth inherited lands of his father-in-law at Stanton in Oxfordshire, which then became known as Stanton Harcourt.[1] The manor of Stanton Harcourt has remained in the Harcourt family to the present day, although from 1756 to 1948 their main residence was at Nuneham House, also in Oxfordshire. Simon Harcourt was created Baron Harcourt in 1711 and Viscount Harcourt in 1721. The third viscount was created Earl Harcourt in 1749, but all titles were extinguished with the death of marshal William Harcourt, 3rd Earl Harcourt, in 1830. His cousin Edward Vernon, Archbishop of York, thus inherited the majority of that branch’s lands and titles and took the name and heraldic shield of the English Harcourt family by royal authorisation on 15 January 1831. This created the Vernon-Harcourt branch, descended from a Harcourt woman. The title Viscount Harcourt was created a second time in 1917 for Lewis Harcourt, but the title was again extinguished on the death of his son.
As well as this branch, the English Harcourt family also descends from the older line of the Harcourts of Ankerwycke.The last Lord of the Manor of Ankerwycke and Wrayesbury was Captain Guy Elliot Harcourt whose issue live on the Isle of Wight. Several members of the Harcourt family where gold miners in Africa and Australia,most notable was Otto Henry Simon Harcourt whose wife Muriel Ascroft was the grandaughter of James Jennings owner of the Blaauwbank Gold Mines at Magaliesburg.Their son Charles Walmer Harcourt Ascroft inherited the mines in 1912 aged 17 then went missing after marrying Cecil Violet Enid Greville. Many of the great Norman families who accompanied William the Conqueror in the 11th century such as the Harcourts, Nevilles, Grevilles, Lucan,Bingham, De Beauchamps were related and held great swathes of land across Britain.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Harcourt

The House of Harcourt is a Norman family, descended from the Viking Bernard the Dane and named after its seigneurie of Harcourt in Normandy. Its mottos were “Gesta verbis praeveniant” (Olonde branch), “Gesta verbis praevenient” (Beuvron branch), and “Le bon temps viendra … de France” (English branch).

Bernard the Dane (French: Bernard le Danois) (c. 880 – before 960) was a Viking jarl (earl) of Danish origins. He put himself in the service of another jarl installed at the mouth of the Seine, Rollo (before 911). After the accords of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte that officially gave birth to the duchy of Normandy (911), Bernard converted to the Christianity at Rouen the following year (912) and shortly afterwards received from Rollo the county of Pont-Audemer in Roumois (today in the Eure département) then, later, the city of Harcourt.
Under Rollo’s son and successor Duke William, Bernard was charged at the beginning of the 930s with putting down the serious uprising led by a certain Riouf (a Norman from the west, who had besieged the Duke in Rouen). Around 935 he put down a revolt in Bessin and Cotentin by Viking communities completely independent from the young and fragile power of the dukedom, unlike the east of the duchy of Normandy where its ducal power was affirmed a little later.
Later, on William’s premature death by assassination, Bernard became regent of the duchy of Normandy in December 942, beside Anslech de Bricquebec, Osmond de Conteville and Raoul Taisson.
In 945-946, he appealed to Harald Bluetooth and his Danes to defend the duchy when it was attacked by the Carolingian king Louis of Outremer and Hugh the Great, duke of the Franks. Louis was attempting to retake the lands of the west in Normandy that had been granted to the Viking bands thirty years earlier.
Bernard died a few years later (before 960). He is supposed to have been the ancestor of two great Anglo-Norman baronial families, the Beaumonts and the Harcourts.

http://www.geneajourney.com/clffrd.html

Wace, (born c. 1100, Jersey, Channel Islands—died after 1174), Anglo-Norman author of two verse chronicles, the Roman de Brut (1155) and the Roman de Rou (1160–74), named respectively after the reputed founders of the Britons and Normans.
The Rou was commissioned by Henry II of England, who sometime before 1169 secured for Wace a canonry at Bayeux in northwestern France. The Brut may have been dedicated to Henry’s queen, Eleanor of Aquitaine. Written in octosyllabic verse, it is a romanticized paraphrase of Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Historia regum Britanniae, tracing the history of Britain from its founding by the legendary Brutus the Trojan. Its many fanciful additions (including the story of King Arthur’s Round Table) helped increase the popularity of the Arthurian legends. The Rou, written in octosyllabic couplets and monorhyme stanzas of alexandrines, is a history of the Norman dukes from the time of Rollo the Viking (after 911) to that of Robert II Curthose (1106). In 1174, however, Henry II transferred his patronage to one Beneeit, who was writing a rival version, and Wace’s work remained unfinished.
Wace’s artistry in the Brut exerted a stylistic influence on later verse romances (notably on a version of the Tristan story by Thomas, the Anglo-Norman writer), whereas the English poem Brut (c. 1200) by Lawamon was the most notable of many direct imitations. Three devotional works by Wace also survive.

Thurston is an English-language surname. The name has several origins. In some cases it can have originated from the Old Norse personal name Þórsteinn. This name is derived from the Old Norse elements Þórr (“Thor”, the Scandinavian thunder god) and steinn (“stone”, “rock”). In other cases the name can have originated from the name of Thurston, located in Suffolk, England.[1] This place name is derived from the Old Norse personal name Þóri and the Old English element tūn (“enclosure”, “settlement”).[2][1]

http://www.archive.org/stream/cihm_27942/cihm_27942_djvu.txt

http://www.mygen.com/users/outlaw/Outlawe_Viking_Origins.htm

Thurston (Thorstein) was a Viking name which was brought across to Britain either during the various invasions from 793 A.D. – 1066, or by the Normans (descendants of the Vikings) from 1066 onwards.
There are many Thorsteins mentioned in the Viking Sagas, with perhaps the most famous one being the son of Eric the Red and the brother of Leif Ericsson. Leif discovered America while poor old Thorstein tried to follow in his footsteps, was battered by storms, failed to find land and after his return died in a plague the following winter. (To rub it in, his wife remarried and along with her new husband did make it to America)
The name derives from the Vikings (especially the Icelanders) love of the God Thor, who would then name their sons after him.

http://books.google.com/books?id=Mu8UAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA18&lpg=PA18&dq=thurston+erik+the+red&source=bl&ots=792zMmNfbu&sig=rToI5MI-zwprW4fYWEYmoVUAW0s&hl=en&sa=X&ei=HoZ6UeX-OsiaiALf5IGYDQ&sqi=2&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=thurston%20erik%20the%20red&f=false

Erik Thorvaldsson (Old Norse: Eirīkr Þōrvaldsson; 950 – c. 1003), known as Erik the Red (Old Norse: Eirīkr hinn rauði[1]), is remembered in medieval and Icelandic saga sources as having founded the first Norse settlement in Greenland. The Icelandic tradition indicates that he was born in the Jæren district of Rogaland, Norway, as the son of Thorvald Asvaldsson, he therefore also appears, patronymically, as Erik Thorvaldsson (Eiríkr Þorvaldsson). The appellation “the Red” most likely refers to his hair color.[2] Leif Ericson, the famous Icelandic explorer, was Erik’s son.

Descendants
Medieval Icelandic tradition relates that Erik the Red and his wife Þjóðhildr (Thjodhildr) had four children: a daughter, Freydís, and three sons, the explorer Leif Eiríksson, Þorvaldr (Thorvald) and Þorsteinn (Thorstein). Erik himself remained a follower of Norse paganism, unlike his son Leif and Leif’s wife, who became Christians. Thjothhild was the daughter of Jørundur Ulfsson and Thorbjørg Gilsdottir (from whom Gilsfjørd is named). Jørund’s mother Bjørg was granddaughter to Irish king Cerball mac Dúnlainge (Kjarval) through his daughter Rafarta.
While not the first to sight the North American continent, Leif Erikson became the first Viking to explore the land of Vinland (part of North America, probably near modern-day Newfoundland). Leif invited his father on the voyage, but according to legend, Erik fell off his horse on his way to the ship and took this as a bad sign, leaving his son to continue without his company. Erik died the winter after his son’s departure. There is no evidence that Leif was aware of his father’s death until he got back to Greenland.

Thorstein Eiriksson (Old Norse: Þōrsteinn Eirīkssonr) was the third and youngest son of Eiríkr the Red and brother of Leif Ericson.
Practically nothing is known about Thorstein’s life. According to Brattahlíð lore,[citation needed] Thorvald, the brother of Leif and Thorstein, set sail in Eric’s footsteps to further explore Vinland, an area of North America. The natives, called Skraelings (Old Norse: Skrælingar) by the Norse, attacked Thorvald and his men. Thorvald received a fatal wound and was buried in Vinland. His crew returned to Greenland.[citation needed]
Thorsteinn subsequently set sail for Vinland to retrieve his brother’s body, along with his wife Guthrith (Gudrida).[citation needed] However, his expedition got lost and never reached Vinland, and returned to Greenland. At the close of the first week of winter they landed at Lysufiord, where Thorstein fell ill and died. In the spring, Gudrida returned to Ericsfiord.

Gudrid’s early story can be derived from “The Saga of Eirik the Red” and “The Saga of the Greenlanders.” According to “The Saga of Eirik the Red”, Gudrid was the daughter of a chieftain by the name of Thorbjorn of Laugarbrekka. As the story goes, a young man by the name of Einar asked for her hand in marriage, but because his father was a slave, Gudrid’s father refused to give her hand in marriage. When it was suggested that the match would be a wise decision due to Thorbjorn’s financial situation, he announced that he would rather “leave my farm than live with this loss of honor, and rather leave the country than shame my family.” Gudrid and her father promptly left Iceland and voyaged to Greenland to accompany Eirik the Red. Thirty others went with them on the journey, but the group experienced complications due to poor weather, which slowed their progress during the summer. After this setback, illness plagued the group and half of the company died. Despite these failures, Gudrid and her father landed safely in Greenland in the winter.[1] Although it is not mentioned in “The Saga of Eirik the Red,” according to the “Saga of the Greenlanders,” at the time Gudrid was married to a Norwegian merchant named Thorir, who died from illness after being rescued by Leif Eirikson.[2] According to this account, Leif Eirikson (henceforth named Leif the Lucky) rescued Gudrid and fifteen men from a skerry, brought them safely to Brattahlid, and invited Thorir and Gudrid to stay there with him. That winter, Thorir died of illness.
According to both Sagas, Gudrid then married Thorstein Eiriksson, Leif Eiriksson’s younger brother and Eirik the Red’s son. According to the Saga of the Greenlanders, Gudrid then accompanied her husband on his quest to Vinland, with the hope that he could retrieve the body of his brother Thorvald (the areas described as Vinland in the two Sagas have been identified as L’Anse aux Meadows, in Newfoundland, Canada). The two spend the winter in Lysufjord with a man by the name of Thorstein the Black and his wife Grimhild, but illness soon struck the group and both Grimhild and Gudrid’s husband Thorstein died. According to this account, Thorstein temporarily rises from the dead to tell Gudrid that she will be married to an Icelander, and that they will have a long life together with many descendents. He stated that she would leave Greenland to go to Norway and then Iceland, and after a pilgrimage south, she would return to Iceland, where a church would be built near her farm. According to the Saga of Eirik the Red, Thorstein makes the voyage to Vinland by himself, and it is only upon his return that the two marry. According to the Saga, “Thorstein had a farm and livestock in the western settlement at a place called Lysufjord” and another man by the name of Thorstein (whose wife in this version is named Sigrid) owned a half-share on this farm. The couple moved to the farm and, like in the Saga of the Greenlanders, Thorstein died and told Gudrid of her future, although in this version he focuses more on the importance of Christianity, asking Gudrid to “donate their money to a church or poor people.” [3]
After his death, Gurid moved back to Brattahlíð, where she married a merchant named Thorfinn Karlsefni, who is described in the Saga of Eirik the Red as being “a man of good family and good means” and “a merchant of good repute.” According to “The Saga of the Greenlanders,” after their marriage, and at Gudrid’s urging, the two led an attempt to settle Vínland with sixty men, five women, and a cargo of various livestock (while it is implied in “The Saga of Eirik the Red” that she accompanies him, Gudrid is never actually mentioned in the account of the journey). While in Vínland, the couple had a son who they named Snorri Thorfinnsson, who is the first European reported to be born in the Western Hemisphere. Shortly after Snorri was born, the family traveled back to Greenland. According to “The Saga of Eirik the Red,” the couple had another son named Thorbjorn. Although it is only mentioned in “The Saga of the Greenlanders,” Thorfin died, leaving Gudrid to live as a widow.[4]
The Christianisation of Iceland at this period meant that religious conversions were common. Gudrid converted to Christianity and, when Snorri married, went on a pilgrimage to Rome. While some have discussed the possibility that Gudrid spoke with the pope on her journey, there is no proof of it. While she was away, Snorri built a church near the estate, fulfilling the prediction that Thorstein had made. When she came back from Rome, she became a nun and lived in the church as a hermit.[5]
[edit] Descendants
According to “The Saga of Eirik the Red,” “Karlsefni and Gudrid had a son named Thorbjorn, whose daughter Thorunn was the mother of Bishop Bjorn. Thorgeir, Snorri Karlsefni’s son was the father of Yngvild, the mother of the first Bishop Brand.”

http://sagadb.org/eiriks_saga_rauda.en

Chapter 5
Eirik had a wife who was named Thjodhild, and two sons; the one was named Thorstein, and the other Leif. These sons of Eirik were both promising men. Thorstein was then at home with his father; and there was at that time no man in Greenland who was thought so highly of as he. Leif had sailed to Norway, and was there with King Olaf Tryggvason.
Now, when Leif sailed from Greenland during the summer, he and his men were driven out of their course to the Sudreyjar. They were slow in getting a favourable wind from this place, and they stayed there a long time during the summer … reaching Norway about harvest-tide.
He joined the body-guard of King Olaf Tryggvason, and the king formed an excellent opinion of him, and it appeared to him that Leif was a well-bred man. Once upon a time the king entered into conversation with Leif, and asked him, “Dost thou purpose sailing to Greenland in summer?”
Leif answered, “I should wish so to do, if it is your will.” The king replied, “I think it may well be so; thou shalt go my errand, and preach Christianity in Greenland.”
Leif said that he was willing to undertake it, but that, for himself, he considered that message a difficult one to proclaim in Greenland. But the king said that he knew no man who was better fitted for the work than he. “And thou shalt carry,” said he, “good luck with thee in it.” “That can only be,” said Leif, “if I carry yours with me.”
Leif set sail as soon as he was ready. He was tossed about a long time out at sea, and lighted upon lands of which before he had no expectation. There were fields of wild wheat, and the vine-tree in full growth. There were also the trees which were called maples; and they gathered of all this certain tokens; some trunks so large that they were used in house-building. Leif came upon men who had been shipwrecked, and took them home with him, and gave them sustenance during the winter. Thus did he show his great munificence and his graciousness when he brought Christianity to the land, and saved the shipwrecked crew. He was called Leif the Lucky.
Leif reached land in Eiriksfjordr, and proceeded home to Brattahlid. The people received him gladly. He soon after preached Christianity and catholic truth throughout the land, making known to the people the message of King Olaf Tryggvason; and declaring how many renowned deeds and what great glory accompanied this faith. Eirik took coldly to the proposal to forsake his religion, but his wife, Thjodhild, promptly yielded, and caused a church to be built not very near the houses. The building was called Thjodhild’s Church; in that spot she offered her prayers, and so did those men who received Christ, and they were many. After she accepted the faith, Thjodhild would have no intercourse with Eirik, and this was a great trial to his temper.
After this there was much talk about making ready to go[17] to the land which Leif had discovered. Thorstein, Eirik’s son, was chief mover in this, a worthy man, wise and much liked. Eirik was also asked to go, and they believed that his luck and foresight would be of the highest use. He was [for a long time against it, but did not say nay], when his friends exhorted him to go. They made ready the ship which Thorbjorn had brought there, and there were twenty men who undertook to start in her. They had little property, but chiefly weapons and food. On the morning when Eirik left home he took a little box, which had in it gold and silver; he hid the money, and then went forth on his journey.
He had proceeded, however, but a little way, when he fell from his horse, and broke his ribs and injured his shoulder, and cried out, “Aiai!” At this accident he sent word to his wife that she should take away the money that he had hidden, declaring his misfortune to be a penalty paid on account of having hid the money. Afterwards they sailed away out of Eiriksfjordr with gladness, as their plan seemed to promise success. They were driven about for a long time on the open sea, and came not into the track which they desired. They came in sight of Iceland, and also met with birds from the coast of Ireland. Then was their ship tossed to and fro on the sea. They returned about harvest-tide, worn out by toil and much exhausted, and reached Eiriksfjordr at the beginning of winter.
Then spake Eirik, “You were in better spirits in the summer, when you went forth out of the firth, than you are in now, and yet for all that there is much to be thankful for.” Thorstein replied, “It is a chieftain’s duty now to look after some arrangement for these men who are without shelter, and to find them food.” Eirik answered, “That is an ever-true saying, ‘You know not until you have got your answer.’ I will now take thy counsel about this.” All those who had no other abodes were to go with the father and the son. Then came they to land, and went forth home.
Chapter 6
Now, after this, I have to tell you how Thorstein, Eirik’s son, began wooing Gudrid, Thorbjorn’s daughter. To his proposals a favourable answer was given, both by the maid herself, and also by her father. The marriage was also arranged, so that Thorstein went to take possession of his bride, and the bridal feast was held at Brattahlid in the autumn. The banquet went off well, and was numerously attended. Thorstein owned a homestead in the Vestribygd on the estate known as Lysufjordr (shining firth).
The man who was called Thorstein owned the other half of the homestead. His wife was called Sigrid. Thorstein went, during the autumn, to Lysufjordr, to his namesake, both he and Gudrid. Their reception was a welcome one. They were there during the winter. When little of the winter was past, the event happened there that fever broke out on their estate. The overseer of the work was named Garth. He was an unpopular man. He took the fever first and died. Afterwards, and with but little intermission, one took the fever after another and died. Then Thorstein, Eirik’s son, fell ill, and also Sigrid, the wife of his namesake Thorstein. And one evening Sigrid left the house, and rested awhile opposite the outer door; and Gudrid accompanied her; and they looked back towards the outer door, and Sigrid screamed out aloud.
Gudrid said, “We have come forth unwarily, and thou canst in no wise withstand the cold; let us even go home as quickly as possible.” “It is not safe as matters are,” answered Sigrid. “There is all that crowd of dead people before the door; Thorstein, thy husband, also, and myself, I recognise among them, and it is a grief thus to behold.” And when this passed away, she said, “Let us now go, Gudrid; I see the crowd no longer.”
Thorstein, Eirik’s son, had also disappeared from her sight; he had seemed to have a whip in his hand, and to wish to smite the ghostly troop. Afterwards they went in, and before morning came she was dead, and a coffin was prepared for the body. Now, the same day, the men purposed to go out fishing, and Thorstein led them to the landing places, and in the early morning he went to see what they had caught.
Then Thorstein, Eirik’s son, sent word to his namesake to come to him, saying that matters at home were hardly quiet; that the housewife was endeavouring to rise to her feet and to get under the clothes beside him. And when he was come in she had risen upon the edge of the bed. Then took he her by the hands and laid a pole-axe upon her breast. Thorstein, Eirik’s son, died near nightfall. Thorstein, the franklin, begged Gudrid to lie down and sleep, saying that he would watch over the body during the night. So she did, and when a little of the night was past, Thorstein, Eirik’s son, sat up and spake, saying he wished Gudrid to be called to him, and that he wished to speak with her.
“God wills,” he said, “that this hour be given to me for my own, and the further completion of my plan.” Thorstein, the franklin, went to find Gudrid, and waked her; begged her to cross herself, and to ask God for help, and told her what Thorstein, Eirik’s son, had spoken with him; “and he wishes,” said he, “to meet with thee. Thou art obliged to consider what plan thou wilt adopt, because I can in this issue advise thee in nowise.”
She answered, “It may be that this, this wonderful thing, has regard to certain matters, which are afterwards to be had in memory; and I hope that God’s keeping will test upon me, and I will, with God’s grace, undertake the risk and go to him, and know what he will say, for I shall not be able to escape if harm must happen to me. I am far from wishing that he should go elsewhere; I suspect, moreover, that the matter will be a pressing one.”
Then went Gudrid and saw Thorstein. He appeared to her as if shedding tears. He spake in her ear, in a low voice, certain words which she alone might know; but this he said so that all heard, “That those men would be blessed who held the true faith, and that all salvation and mercy accompanied it; and that many, nevertheless, held it lightly.”
“Itis,” said he, “no good custom which has prevailed here in Greenland since Christianity came, to bury men in unconsecrated ground with few religious rites over them. I wish for myself, and for those other men who have died, to be taken to the church; but for Garth, I wish him to be burned on a funeral pile as soon as may be, for he is the cause of all those ghosts which have been among us this winter.” He spake to Gudrid also about her own state, saying that her destiny would be a great one, and begged her to beware of marrying Greenland men. He begged her also to pay over their property to the Church and some to the poor; and then he sank down for the second time.
It had been a custom in Greenland, after Christianity was brought there, to bury men in unconsecrated ground on the farms where they died. An upright stake was placed over a body, and when the priests came afterwards to the place, then was the stake pulled out, consecrated water poured therein, and a funeral service held, though it might be long after the burial.
The bodies were removed to the church in Eiriksfjordr, and funeral services held by the priests.
After that died Thorbjorn. The whole property then went to Gudrid. Eirik received her into his household, and looked well after her stores.

During the Middle Ages, after the Romans had left Britain, Caerleon or nearby Venta Silurum (now Caerwent) was the administrative centre of the Kingdom of Gwent. The parish church, St Cadoc’s was founded on the site of the legionary headquarters building probably sometime in the 6th century. A Norman-style motte and bailey castle was built outside the eastern corner of the old Roman fort, probably by the Welsh Lord of Caerleon, Caradog ap Gruffydd. It was held in 1086 by Turstin FitzRolf, standard bearer to William the Conqueror at Hastings. From the apparent banishment of Turstin by William II, it was held from 1088 by Wynebald de Ballon, brother of Hamelin de Ballon who held Abergavenny further up the River Usk. Battles raged between the Welsh and Normans and in 1171 Iorwerth ab Owain and his two sons destroyed the town of Caerleon and burned the Castle. Caerleon was an important market and port and presumably became a borough by 1171, although no independent charters exist. Both castle and borough were seized by William Marshal in 1217 and Caerleon castle was rebuilt in stone. The remains of many of the old Roman buildings stood to some height until this time and were probably demolished for their building materials.
[edit] The Welsh Revolt

Round Tower, at The Hanbury Arms, Caerleon, 2010
During the Welsh Revolt in 1402 Rhys Gethin, General for Owain Glyndŵr, took Caerleon Castle together with those of Newport, Cardiff, Llandaff, Abergavenny, Caerphilly and Usk by force.[6] This was probably the last time Caerleon castle was ruined, though the walls were still standing in 1537 and the castle ruins only finally collapsed in 1739 – their most obvious remnant is the Round Tower at the Hanbury Arms public house. The Tower is a Grade II* listed building.[7]

Geoffrey of Monmouth, the first author to write at length of King Arthur, makes Caerleon one of the most important cities in Britain in his Historia Regum Britanniæ. He gives it a long, glorious history from its foundation by King Belinus to when it becomes a metropolitan see, the location of an Archbishopric superior to Canterbury and York, under Saint Dubricius, followed by St David who moved the archbishopric to St David’s Cathedral.
Geoffrey makes Arthur’s capital Caerleon and even Sir Thomas Malory has Arthur re-crowned there. The still-visible Roman amphitheatre at Caerleon has been associated with Arthur’s ‘Round-Table’ element of the tales;[10] and has been suggested as a possible source for the legend.[11]
“For it was located in a delightful spot in Glamorgan, on the River Usk, not far from the Severn Sea. Abounding in wealth more than other cities, it was suited for such a ceremony. For the noble river I have named flows along it on one side, upon which the kings and princes who would be coming from overseas could be carried by ship. But on the other side, protected by meadow and woods, it was remarkable for royal palaces, so that it imitated Rome in the golden roofs of its buildings… Famous for so many pleasant features, Caerleon was made ready for the announced feast.” (Historia Regum Britanniae “History of the Kings of Britain”)
Though the huge scale of the ruins along with Caerleon’s importance as an urban centre in early medieval Kingdom of Gwent may have inspired Geoffrey, the main historical source for Arthur’s link with “the camp of the legion” is the list of the twelve battles of Arthur in the 9th century Historia Brittonum. However the “urbs legionis” mentioned there may rather more probably be Chester – or even York.[12] “Camelot” first appears in Chrétien de Troyes’ Lancelot, though Chretien also mentions Caerleon.

About Royal Rosamond Press

I am an artist, a writer, and a theologian.
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