“FitzWolf” and The Bayeux Tapestry






hastings9In the Bayeux Tapestry we see a knight carrying the gonfanon of William the Conqueror. Some say this is Eustace, but Wace in his Roman de Rou, says this is Turstin FitzRolf. Wace says Raol “famous wolf” de Toeni – the ancestor of Fair Rosamond – was the official Standard Bearer for William. Eustace and Raol are kin to William, thus they would carry the cote of arms of William and his kinsman.
Is “Son of Wolf” kin to William? All three men of the ganfanon are proven companions of William.

Bennett Rosamond was a Grand Master of the Orange Lodge who carried the gonfanon of William of Orange in parades. Bennett was the owner of the Rosamond Woolen Mill and descends from a family of weavers in Europe who belonged to weaver’s guilds.

It is alleged Eustace and Matilda commissioned the Bayeux Tapestry that Wace provides much of the history of. King Henry commissioned Wace to author ‘The Roman de Rou’. As to who made this tapestry, I suspect it was woven in Louvain, that was the weaver’s capital of Europe. Eustace and Raol are kin to the Dukes of Louvain. Gottschalk Rosemondt was a Master of Louvain College that used to be weaver’s hall. The Rosemondts were weavers in Holland and England. After the Weaver’s Revolt in Louvain, thousands of weavers left for Holland and England.

The Rosemondt cote of arms depicts a dancing wolf ‘The Duke of the Woods’. Are we kin to FitzWolf? Did my ancestors work on the Bayeux Tapestry? Consider the Sleeping Beauty Princess name Rosamond and her finger pricked with a weaving needle. Consider that Wace authored a Arthurian around William, and instruduced Excalibur and the Round Table. How about Authur’s gonfanon and Wace’s Roman de Rou that is about Rollo, a name that means “famous wolf”.

The Bayeux Tapestry is now a family legend, as is the Rougemont Templars who wore a weaver’s needle when they went on Crusade. The cross in the Rosamond cote of arms is made of a weaver’s needle. The Roman de Rou can be about the Rougemont Templars who came to own the other most famous cloth in western history, the Shroud of Turin.

Above is a painting by Waterhouse of Fair Rosamond in her maze-bower being discovered by Queen Eleanore via the red thread. Rosamond is working on a tapestry. Both women are kin to Rollo and William the Conqueror. I own this legend, this thread, that has been traced by me to the the House of Stewart, Princess Diana, and Prince William.

This ‘Son of the Wolf’ will carry my rose gonfanon into battle when I push the haters of Art into the molten sea of hell. FitzWolf will lead the Pre-Raphaelites in a new direction, and give rise to Knights of the House of Wolfen who will destroy the red state slave holders of the dead confederacy.

Last but not least, FitzWolf owned Caerleon Castle that is Camelot. It is clear Wace created a Grail legend when he took the gonfanon from Eustace (where it belonged) and put it into the hand of FitzWolf in order to ground his Norman King Arthur in real history. Raol de Toeni holds Arthur’s gonfanon for a little while, because King Henry wants to honour the ancestor of his paramour, Rosamond Clifford. This is a very ancient love story that lie hidden for 1,300 years until I asked “What is in a name?”….and looked at my Rosamond Family Tree.

Those closest to me who delighted in calling me “mad”……have had their day. The Wolf Lord has returned!

“He was recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 as holding as a sub-tenant, the castle of Caerleon, at the southern end of the English frontier with unconquered Wales.”


It is my hope that one day my grandson, Tyler Hunt, will find his birthright that has been denied him, and carry my quest, and my sword, Excalibur, into the future.

Jon Presco

Copyrght 2013






The duke called a serving man, and ordered him to bring forth the gonfanon which the pope had sent him; and he who bore it having unfolded it, the duke took it, reared it, and called to Raol de Conches; “Bear my gonfanon,” said he, “for I would not but do you right; by right and by ancestry your line are standard bearers of Normandy, and very good knights have they all been.”

French legend maintained the tapestry was commissioned and created by Queen Matilda, William the Conqueror’s wife, and her ladies-in-waiting.

Turstin FitzRolf was a Norman magnate, one of the few proven Companions of William the Conqueror who fought at the Battle of Hastings in 1066. As his name indicates, he was the son of (fils de) a certain Rolf, synonymous with Rou (Norman-French popular form) and Rollo (Latinization). His first name appears as Tosteins, Thurstan and other variants.[2] He appears to have originated in Bec-de-Mortagne, Pays-de-Caux, Normandy, according to the Roman de Rou poem written by Wace in about 1170. He was recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 as holding as a sub-tenant, the castle of Caerleon, at the southern end of the English frontier with unconquered Wales. He also appears to have been the first holder of the extensive Barony of North Cadbury, Somerset, which included several manors in nearby counties. He is chiefly remembered as the standard bearer of William the Conqueror at Hastings, as recorded by the reliable 12th-century chronicler Orderic Vitalis.


Geoffrey of Monmouth, the first author to write at length of King Arthur, makes Caerleon one of the most important cities in Britain in his Historia Regum Britanniæ. He gives it a long, glorious history from its foundation by King Belinus to when it becomes a metropolitan see, the location of an Archbishopric superior to Canterbury and York, under Saint Dubricius, followed by St David who moved the archbishopric to St David’s Cathedral.

Geoffrey makes Arthur’s capital Caerleon and even Sir Thomas Malory has Arthur re-crowned there. The still-visible Roman amphitheatre at Caerleon has been associated with Arthur’s ‘Round-Table’ element of the tales;[10] and has been suggested as a possible source for the legend.[11]
“For it was located in a delightful spot in Glamorgan, on the River Usk, not far from the Severn Sea. Abounding in wealth more than other cities, it was suited for such a ceremony. For the noble river I have named flows along it on one side, upon which the kings and princes who would be coming from overseas could be carried by ship. But on the other side, protected by meadow and woods, it was remarkable for royal palaces, so that it imitated Rome in the golden roofs of its buildings… Famous for so many pleasant features, Caerleon was made ready for the announced feast.” (Historia Regum Britanniae “History of the Kings of Britain”)
Though the huge scale of the ruins along with Caerleon’s importance as an urban centre in early medieval Kingdom of Gwent may have inspired Geoffrey, the main historical source for Arthur’s link with “the camp of the legion” is the list of the twelve battles of Arthur in the 9th century Historia Brittonum. However the “urbs legionis” mentioned there may rather more probably be Chester – or even York.[12] “Camelot” first appears in Chrétien de Troyes’ Lancelot, though Chretien also mentions Caerleon.

Plaque at birthplace of Arthur Machen, The Square, High Street
Caerleon also has associations with later Arthurian literature as the birthplace of the writer Arthur Machen who often used it as a location in his work. The Hanbury Arms was visited by Tennyson who lodged there while he wrote his Morte d’Arthur (later incorporated into his Idylls of the King).[13] Today Caerleon has a modern statue of a knight, “The Hanbury Knight”, in reflecting inox by Belgian sculptor Thierry Lauwers.[14] In Michael Morpurgo’s novel Arthur, High King of Britain, Caerleon is the castle where Arthur unknowingly commits incest with his half-sister Margause, resulting in the conception of his son Mordred who will later bring about his downfall.

I have immortalized my family. Above are photos of the EE Zunft Rebleuten Guild of Basel whose emblem is a dancing wolf. Fremasonry has its roots in the guilds. Notice the cote of arms behind glass in top photo. William Morris said the sons of the House of Wolfen are best suited to tell the tale of their battle with the slave masters of Rome.

Jon Rosamond Wolferose


“Erhart de Rougemont who bought in 1495 “the house called Rebleuten-Zunft in Basle in the Freistrasse.’

Peter Rosemond had seen in print the letters from Erasmus to Gotschalk Rosemondt. He noticed that a seal used by a Rosemont in Holland, bearing a jumping fox, was like an emblem he had noticed in a wall of the house Rebleuten-Zunft in Basle. This seal dated back to 1430,

This James (or Jacob, for these names were once interchangeable) was the son of Hans Ulrich Rosemond, born 1623, a weaver; who was a son of Hans, a weaver, born 1581; who was a son of Fred Rosemond, born 1552, a weaver, member of town council and a local captain; who was the son of another Hans whose date of birth is not known, but he too, was a weaver and became a citizen of Basle in 1534. His father was Erhart de Rougemont who
bought in 1495 “the house called Rebleuten-Zunft in Basle in the Freistrasse.’ Peter Rosemond further reported information from the Records Office in Basle that “before Basle the family resided in Holland up to 1338, and it is said they descended from the estate Rosemont, near Belfort, in France, where also the village Rougemont
is found.”

A family coat-of-arms was registered in Basle about 1537 when the first Hans became a resident there. A reproduction of this coat-of-arms in the writer’s possession shows a weaver’s crook conspicuously, and it will be remembered that in Ireland our people were linen weavers and farmers, and that Edward, the elder, was a
weaver in this country. Peter Rosemond had seen in print the letters from Erasmus to Gotschalk Rosemondt. He noticed that a seal used by a Rosemont in Holland, bearing a jumping fox, was like an emblem he had noticed in a wall of the house Rebleuten-Zunft in Basle. This seal dated back to 1430, whereas the coat-of-arms above mentioned dates from 1534, it seems. Peter Rosemond died September 22, 1930. This is but a sketch of what he wrote.”

Turstin, the son of Rolf (which, as stated above, was probably although not conclusively identified as being the same person as this Turstin) was a prominent figure in the Battle of Hastings.








The duke called a serving man, and ordered him to bring forth the gonfanon which the pope had sent him; and he who bore it having unfolded it, the duke took it, reared it, and called to Raol de Conches; “Bear my gonfanon,” said he, “for I would not but do you right; by right and by ancestry your line are standard bearers of Normandy, and very good knights have they all been.” “Many thanks to you,” said Raol, “for acknowledging our right; but by my faith, the gonfanon shall not this day be borne by me. To-day I claim quittance of the service, for I would serve you in other guise. I will go with you into the battle, and will fight the English as long as life shall last, and know that my hand will be worth any twenty of such men.” Then the duke turned another way, and called to him Galtier Giffart. “Do thou take this gonfanon,” said he, “and bear it in the battle.” But Galtier Giffart answered, “Sire, for God’s mercy look at my white and bald head; my strength has fallen away, and my breath become shorter. The standard should be borne by one who can endure long labour; I shall be in the battle, and you have not any man who will serve you more truly; I will strike with my sword till it shall be died in your, enemies blood.” Then the duke said fiercely, “By the splendour of God, my lords, I think you mean to betray and fail me in this great need.” “Sire,” said Giffart, “not so! we have done no treason, nor do I refuse from any felony towards you; but I have to lead a great chivalry, both soldiers and the men of my fief. Never had I such good means of serving you as I now have; and if God please, I will serve you: if need be, I will die for you, and will give my own heart for yours.” “By my faith,” quoth the duke, “I always loved thee, and now I love thee more; if I survive this day, thou shalt be the better for it all thy days.” Then he called out a knight, whom he had heard much praised, Tosteins Fitz Rou le blanc, by name, whose abode was at Bee-en-Cauxr. To him he delivered the gonfanon; and Tosteins took it right cheerfully, and bowed low to him in thanks, and bore it gallantly, and with good heart. His kindred still have quittance of all service for their inheritance on that account, and their heirs are entitled so to hold their inheritance for ever.

William sat on his warhorse, and called out Rogier, whom they call de Montgomeri. “I rely much on you,” said he; “lead your men thitherward, and attack them from that side. William, the son of Osber, the seneschal, a right good vassal, shall go with you and help in the attack, and you shall have the men of Boilogne and Poix, and all my soldiers. Alain Fergant and Aimeri shall attack on the other side; they shall lead the Poitevins and the Bretons, and all the barons of Maine; and I with my own great men, my friends and kindred, will fight in the middle throng, where the battle shall be the hottest.”

The barons and knights and lancemen were all now armed; the men on foot were well equipped, each bearing bow and sword: on their heads were caps, and to their feet were bound buskins. Some had good hides which they had bound round their bodies; and many were clad in frocks, and had quivers and bows hung to their girdles. The knights had hauberks and swords, boots of steel and shining helmets; shields at their necks, and in their hands lances. And all had their cognizances, so that each might know his fellow, and Norman might not strike Norman, nor Frenchman kill his countryman by mistake. Those on foot led the way, with serried ranks, bearing their bows. The knights rode next, supporting the archers from behind. Thus both horse and foot kept their course and order of march as they began; in close ranks at a gentle pace, that the one might not pass or separate from the other. All went firmly and compactly, bearing themselves gallantly; and in each host stood archers ready to exchange shots.



The gonfalon, gonfalone (from the early Italian confalone), or “gonfanon” (from French heraldry) is a type of heraldic flag or banner, often pointed, swallow-tailed, or with several streamers, and suspended from a crossbar. It was first adopted by Italian medieval communes, and later, by local Guilds, Corporations and Districts. The difference between a gonfanon with long tails and a standard is that a gonfanon displays the device on the non-tailed area, and the standard displays badges down the whole length of the flag.[1]
A gonfalon can include a badge or coat of arms, or ornamentations of fancy design. Today every Italian comune (municipality) has a gonfalon sporting its coat of arms.


The Oriflamme was mentioned in the eleventh century ballad the Chanson de Roland[2] as a royal banner, first called Romaine and then Montjoie.[3] According to legend, Charlemagne carried it to the Holy Land in response to a prophecy regarding a knight possessing a golden lance, from which flames would burn and drive out the Saracens.[4] This suggests that the lance was originally the important object, with the banner simply a decoration, but this changed over time.[5]

The Bayeux Tapestry (French: Tapisserie de Bayeux, IPA: [tapisʁi də bajø], Norman : La telle du conquest) is an embroidered cloth—not an actual tapestry—nearly 70 metres (230 ft) long, which depicts the events leading up to the Norman conquest of England concerning William, Duke of Normandy and Harold, Earl of Wessex, later King of England, and culminating in the Battle of Hastings.

According to Sylvette Lemagnen, conservator of the tapestry,
The Bayeux tapestry is one of the supreme achievements of the Norman Romanesque, … Its survival almost intact over nine centuries is little short of miraculous, … Its exceptional length, the harmony and freshness of its colors, its exquisite workmanship, and the genius of its guiding spirit combine to make it endlessly fascinating.[1]
The tapestry consists of some fifty scenes with Latin tituli (captions), embroidered on linen with coloured woollen yarns. It is likely that it was commissioned by Bishop Odo, William’s half-brother, and made in England—not Bayeux—in the 1070s. In 1729 the hanging was rediscovered by scholars at a time when it was being displayed annually in Bayeux Cathedral. The tapestry is now exhibited at Musée de la Tapisserie de Bayeux in Bayeux, Normandy, France.

The earliest known written reference to the tapestry is a 1476 inventory of Bayeux Cathedral,[2] but its origins have been the subject of much speculation and controversy.

French legend maintained the tapestry was commissioned and created by Queen Matilda, William the Conqueror’s wife, and her ladies-in-waiting. Indeed, in France it is occasionally known as “La Tapisserie de la Reine Mathilde” (Tapestry of Queen Matilda). However, scholarly analysis[3] in the 20th century concluded it was probably commissioned by William’s half-brother, Bishop Odo who, after the Conquest, became Earl of Kent and, when William was absent in Normandy, regent of England.


stace II, (c.  1015–1020 – c. 1087), also known as Eustace aux Gernons (with moustaches) [1][2][3] was Count of Boulogne from 1049–1087. He fought on the Norman side at the Battle of Hastings, and afterwards received large grants of land forming an honour in England. He is one of the few proven Companions of William the Conqueror. It has been suggested that Eustace was the patron of the Bayeux Tapestry.[4]

These events evidently caused a shift in Eustace’s political allegiances, for he then became an important participant in the Norman conquest of England in 1066. He fought at Hastings, although sources vary regarding the details of his conduct during the battle. The contemporary chronicler William of Poitiers wrote concerning him:
“With a harsh voice he (Duke William) called to Eustace of Boulogne, who with 50 knights was turning in flight and was about to give the signal for retreat. This man came up to the Duke and said in his ear that he ought to retire since he would court death if he went forward. But at the very moment when he uttered the words Eustace was struck between the shoulders with such force that blood gushed out from his mouth and nose and half dead he only made his escape with the aid of his followers”.[7]

The depiction in the Bayeux Tapestry shows a knight carring a banner who rides up to Duke William and points excitedly with his finger towards the rear of the Norman advance. William turns his head and lifts up his visor to show his knights following him that he is still alive and determined to fight on. This conforms therefore with Eustace having somewhat lost his nerve and having urged the Duke to retreat whilst the Battle was at its height with the outcome still uncertain. Other sources suggest that Eustace was present with William at the Malfosse incident in the immediate aftermath of the battle, where a Saxon feigning death leapt up and attacked him, and was presumably cut down before he could reach William.

Eustace received large land grants afterwards, which suggests he contributed in other ways as well, perhaps by providing ships.

Mahaut De Louvain
born about 0984 Louvain, Brabant, Belgium
married about 1005 Brabant, Belgium

Eustache II Count De Boulogne born about 1030 Boulogne, France died about 1093

Mahaut De Louvain
born about 0984 Louvain, Brabant, Belgium

*Lambert I de Hainault “the Bearded” Count of Louvain
born about 0952 Louvain, Brabant, Belgium
died 12 September 1015 in battle near Florennes

*Gerberge de Laon de Lorraine
born about 0977 Lower Lorraine, France
died 1015/1018

*Lambert II “Baudry” Count of Louvain born about 0995 Lorraine, France
died 21 September 1062 buried 1062 Cloister of St. Gertrud, Nivelles, France
*Henri I Comte de Louvain born about 0990

*Eustache I Count De Boulogne
born about 1004 Boulogne, Vendee, France
married about 1005 Brabant, Belgium

*Lambert De Boulogne born about 1020 Boulogne, Flandres
died 1054 Bataille De Lille, Flandres
*Eustache II Count De Boulogne born about 1030 Boulogne, France died about 1093

Adeliza ‘Adela’ DE LOUVAIN 1278 1279 1280 1281 1282 (Godfrey I ‘the Bearded’ DE Duc de Brabant 4, Henry II DE Comte de Louvain 3, Lambert II ‘Baudry’ DE Comte de Louvain 2, Lambert I ‘the Bearded’ DE Comte de Louvain 1) was born about 1103 in Louvain, Brabant, Lorraine, France,1280 died 23 Apr 1151 in Afflighem Nunnery, South Brabant, France 1280 1282 about age 48, and was buried in Affligem Abbey, Brabant, Belgium. Another name for Adeliza was Adelicia of LORRAINE. Adeliza married William D’ AUBIGNY 1st Earl of Arundel (See Link for Ancestry), son of William Pincerna D’ AUBIGNY and Maud BIGOD, after 1135 in Arundel Castle, West Sussex, England. William was born about 1103 in Buckenham, Wayland, Norfolk, England and died 12 Oct 1176 of Arundel Castle, West Sussex, England about age 73.

See the William D’ AUBIGNY 1st Earl of Arundel Entry for this Couple’s Children and Descendants.

Adeliza next married Henry I ‘Beauclerc’ Of ENGLAND King of England [1100-1135] (See Link for Ancestry) [1100-1135],2 1279 1684 1685 1686 son of William I ‘the Conqueror’ Of NORMANDY King of England [1066-1087] and Matilda ‘Maud’ Of FLANDERS, 29 Jan 1120 or 1121 in Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England. Henry was born in 1068 in Selby, West Riding, Yorkshire, England,1279 1280 1686 died 2 Dec 1135 in Lyons-La-Foret, Normandy, France 2 1279 1686 at age 67, and was buried 4 Jan 1136 in Reading Abbey, Berkshire, England.2

See the Henry I ‘Beauclerc’ Of ENGLAND King of England [1100-1135] Entry for this Couple’s Children and Descendants.

Duke of Brabant

The Duchy of Brabant was formally erected in 1183/1184. The title “Duke of Brabant” was created by the German Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in favor of Henry I, son of Godfrey III of Leuven (who was Duke of Lower Lotharingia at that time). The Duchy of Brabant was a feudal elevation of the since 1085/1086 existing title of Landgrave of Brabant. This was an Imperial fief which was assigned to Count Henry III of Leuven shortly after the death of the preceding Count of Brabant, Count Palatine Herman II of Lotharingia († September 20, 1085). Although the corresponding county was quite small (limited to the territory between the rivers Senne and Dender) its name was applied to the entire country under control of the Dukes from the 13th century on. In 1190, after the death of Godfrey III, Henry I also became Duke of Lotharingia. Formerly Lower Lotharingia, this title was now practically without territorial authority, but was borne by the later Dukes of Brabant as an honorific title.

In 1288, the Dukes of Brabant became also Duke of Limburg. The title fell to the Dukes of Burgundy in 1430. Later on, it followed with the Burgundian inheritance until the French Revolution, although the northern part of the territory of Brabant was actually governed by the United Provinces during the 17th and 18th century (see Generality Lands).

Henry III (1085/1086–1095); already Count of Leuven and Brussels from 1078.
Godfrey I (from 1095)

Counts of Leuven, Counts of Brussels, Landgraves of Brabant, Margrave of Antwerp and Dukes of Lower-Lorraine:
Godfrey I (1106–1139) appointed as Duke in 1106
Godfrey II (1139–1142)
Godfrey III (1142–1190)

Dukes of Brabant and Dukes of Lothier:
Henry I (1190–1235); already Duke of Brabant from 1183/1184
Henry II (1235–1248)
Henry III (1248–1261)
Henry IV (1261–1267)

Dukes of Brabant, Dukes of Lothier and Dukes of Limburg:
John I (1267–1294)
John II (1294–1312)
John III (1312–1355)
Joanna (1355–1406)

[edit] House of Burgundy

Dukes of Brabant, Dukes of Lothier and Dukes of Limburg:
Anthony, Duke of Brabant (1406–1415)
John IV, Duke of Brabant (1415–1427)
Philip I of Saint-Pol (1427–1430)
Philip II the Good (1430–1467)
Charles I the Bold (1467–1477)
Mary (1477–1482)

[edit] House of Habsburg
Maximilian (regent, 1482–1494)
Philip III (1494–1506)
Charles II (1506–1555)
Philip IV (1555–1598)
usurpation by Francis, Duke of Anjou (Valois) (1582–1584)[1] Isabella Clara Eugenia and Albert (1598-1621)
Philip V (1621-1665)
Charles III (1665-1700)
Philip VI (1700-1706)
Charles IV (1706-1740)
Maria Theresa and Francis I (1740-1780)
Joseph (1780-1789)
Leopold (1790-1792)
Francis II (1792-1794)

[edit] Revived title in contemporary tradition

[edit] House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

In the modern Kingdom of Belgium, the title of “Duke of Brabant” revived as honorific title and is traditionally assigned to the Crown Prince (even though the province of Noord-Brabant, part of the historical duchy, is now part of the Netherlands).
Leopold (II) (1840–1865)
Leopold, son of Leopold II (1865–1869)
Leopold (III) (1909–1934)
Baudouin (1934–1951)
Philippe (1993–present )

In contrast to King Albert II’s title, King of the Belgians, the crown prince, Prince Philippe is called Prince of Belgium, not Prince of the Belgians, a title that does not exist. He is also Duke of Brabant, the traditional title of the heir apparent to the Belgian throne. This title precedes the title Prince of Belgium. The Crown Princess, Mathilde, is styled Duchess of Brabant.

William the Conqueror had men of diverse standing and origins in France, under his command at the Battle of Hastings in 1066, along with others completing his Norman conquest of England until after the Harrying of the North and before the Anarchy.

The term “Companions of the Conqueror” in the widest sense signifies those who planned, organised and joined with William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, in the great adventure which was the Norman Conquest of England (1066–1071). The term is however more narrowly defined as those nobles who actually fought with Duke William in the Battle of Hastings.[2] This article is concerned with the latter narrow definition.

This knight depicted in the Bayeux Tapestry (detail of above) appears below the marginal legend E[…]tius, a Latinised version of Eustace. He has therefore been identified as Eustace, Count of Boulogne.[3] His finger pointing to Duke William seems to depict his urging the Duke to retreat, as the account in William of Poitiers relates. However, others state the figure to be Turstin FitzRolf, due to its carrying of a standard depicting a cross, apparently the Papal Banner. Turstin was described as having carried the “Standard of the Normans” by Orderic Vitalis.

Many ancient English families of Norman origin have claimed amongst their ancestors a participant at the Battle of Hastings as a matter of great pride giving them legitimacy in the higher echelons of the British aristocracy. The large majority of these claims are based on legend and cannot be proven by historical evidence.

Many hundreds of Norman nobles of varying degrees certainly fought with the Duke at Hastings, yet the fact remains that the names of only 15 of these are recorded in contemporary historical sources considered to be unimpeachable.[4] This very select group is therefore known as the “Proven Companions”,[5] as distinct from the several hundred “Likely”, “Probable” or “Possible” Companions. Many lists and “rolls” of so-called Companions have been drawn up over the ages, and continue so to be, yet the 3 unimpeachable sources remain as follows:

[edit] Unimpeachable sources

Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, fighting at Hastings, holding a club. Legend above: Hic Odo Eps (Episcopus) Baculu(m) Tenens Confortat Pueros, “Here Odo the Bishop holding a club gives strength to the boys”. The club may reflect his clerical status which might have precluded the shedding of blood by sword,[6] yet in the same scene Duke William himself also holds a club. (Bayeux Tapestry)
The following 3 sources constitute the only generally accepted reliable contemporary evidence which names participants at the Battle of Hastings. Between all three sources only 15 names result.[7]
Gesta Guillelmi II Ducis Normannorum (“The Deeds of William II, Duke of the Normans”) by William of Poitiers, written between 1071 and 1077. William was born in about 1020 in Les Préaux, near Pont-Audemer, and belonged to an influential Norman family. After serving as a soldier he studied at Poitiers then returned to Normandy to become chaplain to Duke William and archdeacon of Lisieux. He died in 1090. His work is a eulogistic biography of the Duke. The earlier and concluding parts are lost, but the extant part covers the period between 1047 and 1068 and contains details of the Conqueror’s life, although untrustworthy with regard to affairs in England. It gives a detailed description of the preparations for the Norman Conquest of England, the Battle of Hastings and its aftermath. The work forms the basis for much of the writing of Orderic Vitalis.
Historia Ecclesiastica (“The Ecclesiastical History”), by Orderic Vitalis, particularly books 4 & 5.[8] Orderic was born in England in about 1075, the son of a Norman priest, and at the age of 11 became a novice monk in Normandy in the monastery of St Evroul-en-Ouche. He started his great work, commissioned to be primarily a history of his monastery, in about 1110 and continued it until his death in 1142.
The Bayeux Tapestry, an annotated pictorial representation of the Norman Conquest. It was probably made at Bayeux, Normandy, shortly after the event in the 11th century.

[edit] List of 15 “Proven Companions”

(The order of listing is that given in the respective sources)
(1) Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester (Source: William of Poitiers)

“A certain Norman, Robert, son of Roger of Beaumont, being nephew and heir to Henry, Count of Meulan, through Henry’s sister Adeline, found himself that day in battle for the first time. He was as yet but a young man and he performed feats of valour worthy of perpetual remembrance. At the head of a troop which he commanded on the right wing he attacked with the utmost bravery and success”.[9]
(2) Eustace II, Count of Boulogne (Source: William of Poitiers)

“With a harsh voice he (Duke William) called to Eustace of Boulogne, who with 50 knights was turning in flight and was about to give the signal for retreat. This man came up to the Duke and said in his ear that he ought to retire since he would court death if he went forward. But at the very moment when he uttered the words Eustace was struck between the shoulders with such force that blood gushed out from his mouth and nose and half dead he only made his escape with the aid of his followers”.[10]
(3) William, Count of Évreux (Source: William of Poitiers)

“There were present in this battle: Eustace, Count of Boulogne; William, son of Richard, Count of Evreux; Geoffrey, son of Rotrou, Count of Mortagne; William FitzOsbern; Haimo, Vicomte of Thouars; Walter Giffard; Hugh of Montfort-sur-Risle; Rodulf of Tosny; Hugh of Grantmesnil; William of Warenne, and many other most renowned warriors whose names are worthy to be commemorated in histories among the bravest soldiers of all time”.[11]
(4) Geoffrey of Mortagne, later Count of Perche (Source: William of Poitiers)
(5) William FitzOsbern, 1st Earl of Hereford (Source: William of Poitiers)
(6) Aimeri, Viscount of Thouars (Source: William of Poitiers)
(7) Walter Giffard, Lord of Longueville (Source: William of Poitiers)
(8) Hugh de Montfort, Lord of Montfort-sur-Risle (Source: William of Poitiers)
(9) Ralph de Tosny, Lord of Conches (Source: William of Poitiers)
(10) Hugh de Grandmesnil (Source: William of Poitiers)
(11) William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey (Source: William of Poitiers)
(12) William Malet, Lord of Graville (Source: William of Poitiers)

“His (King Harold’s) corpse was brought into the Duke’s camp and William gave it for burial to William, surnamed Malet, and not to Harold’s mother, who offered for the body of her beloved son its weight in gold”.[12]
(13) Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, later Earl of Kent (Source: Bayeux Tapestry)

“Hic Odo Eps (Episcopus) Baculu(m) Tenens Confortat Pueros”. (Here Odo the Bishop holding a club strengthens the boys).[13]
(14) Turstin FitzRolf[14] (Source: Orderic Vitalis)
(15) Engenulf de Laigle (Source: Orderic Vitalis)

[edit] The five additional names

These five were agreed upon by both David C. Douglas and Geoffrey H. White and are from the Complete Peerage XII-1, Appendix L.
(16) Geoffrey de Mowbray, Bishop of Coutances (Source: William of Poitiers)[15]
(17) Robert, Count of Mortain (Source: The Bayeux Tapestry)[15]
(18) Wadard. Believed to be a follower of the Bishop of Bayeux (Source: The Bayeux Tapestry)[15]
(19) Vital. Believed to be a follower of the Bishop of Bayeux (Source: The Bayeux Tapestry)[15]
(20) Goubert d’Auffay, seigneur of Auffay (Source: Orderic Vitalis)[15]

Since the time of these lists, J. F. A. Mason in the English Historical Review adds one additional name:
(21) Humphrey of Tilleul-en-Auge (Source: Orderic Vitalis)[16]

[edit] Sources of secondary merit
Carmen de Hastingae Proelio (Song of the Battle of Hastings), a poem, said to be by Bishop Guy of Amiens and written shortly after 1066.
Roman de Rou (The Romance of Rolf), written by Wace, about 1160-70. Lists 116 names.
Cronicques de Normendie, by William Le Talleur. Published at Rouen, Normandy, in 1487.[17]
Collectanea by John Leland (d.1552). Based on a Roll of Battle Abbey.
Holinshed’s Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland, by Raphael Holinshed (1529–1580), first published in 1577, in England. Said to be based on Le Talleur, and Leland.[18]
Roll of Battle Abbey, various in number, date and reliability, surviving from 16th century. The original version, now long-lost, is said to have been placed in Battle Abbey, built by William the Conqueror on the spot of King Harold’s death, shortly after the Battle.
Roll of Dives-sur-Mer, Normandy, 1862. Names were engraved in 1862 under the auspices of the French Archaeological Society, on the wall of the nave of the Norman church (11th century) of Dives-sur-Mer. 475 names are listed, based mainly on names contained in the Domesday Book. The names are therefore merely those of Normans holding land in England in 1086, many of whom may have fought at Hastings.
Roll of Falaise, Normandy, 1931. This consists of a bronze plaque erected on the initiative of the French government in 1931 in the Château de Falaise. It lists 315 names, based on the Roman de Rou and one of the Battle Abbey Rolls.

Coat of arms of Philippe and Mathilde of Belgium, duke and duchess of Brabant.

[edit] House of Bourbon
Juan Carlos I, King of Spain

The title Duke of Brabant is one of the titles of the Spanish Crown.

[edit] See also
Duchess of Brabant
Dukes of Brabant family tree

[edit] References

About Royal Rosamond Press

I am an artist, a writer, and a theologian.
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