Ronald Reagan, actor and president of the Screen Actors Guild, listens to testimony at a public hearing of the House Committee on Un-American Activities, in 1947. Reagan, who was known for his strong anti-Communist stand, became President of the United States.
The term McCarthyism described the practice of publicly accusing government employees of political disloyalty or subversive activities and using unsavory investigatory methods to prosecute them
These Conservative Judges are – MEESITE TRAINED COPS! They are Reaganites and cult followers of the Fake Jesus. They admire Joe McCarthy. When the Iron Curtain fell because of Beatlemania, I warned my Liberal-Hippie friends they will be coming after us – again.
“They need a group to demonize to remain pertinent.”
Ed Meese and Reagan were/are Right-wing Gunslingers. Reagan wanted a tough guy from a tough town to be his legal bodyguard and henchman. Bad Ass Meese, from Bad Ass Oakland – was perfect to the New Commie Hunt. Will Meese see his other Bad Boy go to Federal Prison, along with his Bad Ass side-kick, Steve Bannon?
Members of the Supreme Court had to have watched the testimony of John Van Tatenhoven and discussed if this was a GOOD TIME to reverse Woe vs,Wade and GO AFTER the LGBTQ community. There might be major demonstrations – EVEN RIOTS – that would make the Liberal-Left LOOK BAD – as planned?
Ed Meese, Ronald Reagan, and Josephy McCarthy, would go AFTER THE BAD ASS that egged the Oath Keepers, and Proud Boy on – for personal political gain……Wouldn’t they?
The U.S. Supreme Court’s decision last month to overturn the 50-year constitutional right to abortion prompted an outcry from activists who said they were misled during the justices’ confirmation hearings.
Conservative Justices Neil Gorsuch, Brett Kavanaugh and Amy Coney Barrett, who voted to overturn Roe v. Wade in a 5-4 vote, have been accused of misleading the public and members of the Senate about their intentions during their respective confirmation hearings before the Senate Judiciary Committee.
The calls to impeach the justices for misleading the public have been led by Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (D-N.Y.), who last month said that “there must be consequences” for upending democratic institutions with false statements.
“If we allow Supreme Court nominees to lie under oath and secure lifetime appointments to the highest court of the land and then issue — without basis, if you read these opinions — rulings that deeply undermine the human civil rights of the majority of Americans, we must see that through,” she said on NBC.
Several other House Democrats have joined in the calls to get answers on whether the justices misled the public about overturning Roe.
Sen. Dick Durbin (D-Ill.), however, said removing a justice is “not realistic” when he was asked if Justice Clarence Thomas should be impeached.
The House can file articles of impeachment for a federal judge with a majority vote, but the Senate must secure a two-thirds majority vote to remove a judge.
As a result, any impeachment effort for a Supreme Court justice would face an uphill battle. Democrats now have 50 Senate seats, but not all 50 of those Democrats would be likely to vote to impeach a Supreme Court justice.
Only one Supreme Court justice has ever been impeached.
In 1805, the House impeached justice Samuel Chase, but the Senate acquitted him.
Related video: Here’s What the 9 Supreme Court Justices Said About Abortion During Their Confirmation Hearings
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Here’s What the 9 Supreme Court Justices Said About Abortion During Their Confirmation Hearings
Chase, a federalist with a “volcanic personality,” was accused of bitter partisan rhetoric, refusing to dismiss biased juror, and excluding or limiting defense witnesses in at least two cases, according to the Senate’s historical recounting of the event on its website.
The House labeled Chase an “electioneering partizan” and successfully passed articles of impeachment, according to the Senate’s history. But in the Senate, Chase was acquitted on eight articles, which “thereby effectively insulated the judiciary from further congressional attacks based on disapproval of judges’ opinions,” according to the Senate’s website.
Convincing the public and lawmakers that Kavanaugh, Barrett and Gorsuch should be removed because of perjury could be difficult because their comments could be interpreted in different ways.
According to Factcheck.org, Gorsuch in his 2017 hearing said Roe was a “precedent” that deserves standing but also refused to say how he would rule on a case challenging it.
“If it looks like I am giving hints or previews or intimations about how I might rule, I think that is the beginning of the end of the independent judiciary, if judges have to make, effectively, campaign promises for confirmation,” Gorsuch said.
During his confirmation hearing in 2018, Kavanaugh said Roe was an “important precedent” that has been “reaffirmed many times,” including through 1992’s Casey v. Planned Parenthood.
“That makes Casey precedent on precedent. It has been relied on,” Kavanaugh said, according to Factcheck.org.
Kavanaugh also said he would be open to new arguments on any case, adding that he has an “open mind” and that a justice should “listen to all arguments.”
Barrett in her 2020 hearing said she would follow the doctrine of stare decisis, which means following a precedent, but she also said Roe was not a “super precedent.”
“Scholars across the spectrum say that doesn’t mean that Roe should be overruled, but descriptively, it does mean that it’s not a case that everyone has accepted and doesn’t call for its overruling,” she told the Senate.
Impeachment is typically reserved for perjury, fraud, gross misconduct, conflict of interest or high crimes.
Since 1804, 15 federal judges have been impeached and a majority of them removed from office, with three of them impeached and convicted for perjury.
Alcee Hastings, who served on the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Florida, was impeached and removed in 1989 after he was accused of soliciting a bribe to reduce the sentences of two mobsters. He was also accused of lying and falsifying evidence at the trial.
Judge Walter Nixon on the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Mississippi was impeached and removed from office in 1989 after he lied to a grand jury about his attempt to influence the prosecution of a business associate’s son.
More recently, Thomas Porteous Jr. on the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana was impeached and removed in 2010 for corrupt conduct and for lying to the Senate and the FBI to obtain a federal judgeship.
“In his opinion, Thomas called for the court to revisit rulings on cases that had affirmed the right to privacy, including access to contraceptives and LGBTQ rights.”
“By far, Presbyterians delivered the most formal defenses of slavery in America, and published the most writings. Presbyterians represented one-third of all pro-slavery clergymen.”
Ginni and Clarence Thomas, as well as Ed Meese and Blackwell, do not condemn the Proud Boys, Oath Keepers, and Three Percenters – who WEAPONIZED JESUS – and empowered the Neo-Confederates. These Right-wing Republicans For King David Trump, made Bob Jones, and Paul Wyrich’s vision for America – come true. They invented the Pro-life Movement to DESTROY the Civil Rights Movement, and the power of the Black Church.
It was white Anti-Slavery Clergy who eventually emancipated the slaves, but, not before Treacherous White Clergy in those Red States ENCOURAGED Southern men to take up arms – AND SECEDE FROM THE UNION! Tens of thousands of Americans died – OVER RELIGIOUS ARGUMENTS! The black race that Clarence Thomas and Blackwell belong to – did not take part in these arguments. No educated black man formed a militia. It was the RADICAL REPUBLICANS who founded an Abolitionist Party, and, they helped create the Union Army – that FREED THE SLAVES! White soldiers made it possible for Blacks to run for office – and not Neo-Confederate Ministers of God and Jesus.
I, God, and Jesus – have drawn a clear line in the sand – for every Liberated Liberal Democrat to follow! I have taken Jesus and God from the Red State Republicans – and their Devious Clergy! You do not have to believe in Jesus, or not believe in Jesus – to own good talking points – like the ones Ginni Thomas has worked on in the many think tanks she belongs to. To say her husband did not help her – is unbelievable. How much help did she get from Ed Meese who titles the Black Panthers a GANG, and signs a letter the DECLARES – the Proud Boys – DID NOTHING! Ginni signed the same letter that PARDONED the Oath Keepers – and QAnon! Have these groups – CALLED FOR ANOTHER CIVIL WAR? Does anyone want to help me investigate? Are you too – AFRAID?
Clarence and his ilk just made it easy to introduce religion into public schools. How long will it take before school prayers are weaponized, a hidden camera scanning each child – for the right amount of sincerity. Lack of enthusiasm might indicate the child is a friend of the LGBTQ community, or, is on his/her way to becoming a Communist Enemy of Jesus. Is there any legal precedent for this kind of evil? Study Putin and Kirill’s EXCUSE for bombing Ukraine cities into rubble and murdering people who don’t going along with their Anti-Lesbian programs.
For Thomas to call for a “revisit” makes him what he wants to be, The Top Cop behind The Top Cop. Clarence has turned the Supreme Court into….The Ministry of Love For Emperor Jesus! Jesus, and, The Big Black Brother – are watching you! And….threatening you! If no “revisit” is made, THE REAL THREAT will be made fresh for a thousand years, and – get Thomas, a thousand pats on the back.
“In his opinion, Thomas called for the court to revisit rulings on cases that had affirmed the right to privacy, including access to contraceptives and LGBTQ rights.”
Side altar at the Antoniter church, 1935
The greatest obstacle for Christian anti-Semites has always been Christ’s Jewishness. Or so it would have seemed. As Susannah Heschel shows in her unsettling new book, Protestant theologians in Nazi Germany worked hard in a well-organized effort to deny that Christ was Jewish. Heschel’s archival journey takes her back to 1939 and the founding of a theological research institute with the frank name, Institute for the Study and Eradication of Jewish Influence on German Church Life
In the dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949), by George Orwell, the Thought Police (Thinkpol) are the secret police of the superstate of Oceania, who discover and punish thoughtcrime, personal and political thoughts unapproved by Ingsoc‘s regime. The Thinkpol use criminal psychology and omnipresent surveillance via informers, telescreens, cameras, and microphones, to monitor the citizens of Oceania and arrest all those who have committed thoughtcrime in challenge to the status quo authority of the Party and the regime of Big Brother. Orwell’s concept of “policing thought” derived from the intellectual self-honesty shown by a person’s “power of facing unpleasant facts”; thus, criticising the dominant ideology of British society often placed Orwell in conflict with ideologues, people advocating “smelly little orthodoxies”.
“What makes this type of thing so engaging, I think, for conservative news consumers is that it puts all the focus on questioning the motives of liberal media and political figures,” Anthony Nadler, an associate professor of media and communication studies at Ursinus College in Pennsylvania, wrote in an email.
It’s a dynamic that also points to how the ongoing culture war around abortion can quickly become about anything other than the people at the center of these stories.
The clip featuring the self-proclaimed supporter of the far-right group was posted online by actor and blogger Walter Masterson and took place during a Trump rally in Staten Island, New York.
The Proud Boys supporter, who is not identified, describes how the group are “not brawlers” despite being known for their violent rallies and altercations with left-wing groups and movements such as antifa.
The Supreme Court Has Ushered In a New Era of Religion at School
Adam Laats – 2h ago
Religious conservatives have been fighting for years to get prayer back into America’s schools, and this year, the Supreme Court gave them what they wanted. In Kennedy v. Bremerton, the six conservative justices affirmed a coach’s right to offer a prayer.
But what is really astonishing is that this decision will over time prove to be less monumental than the Court’s other big religion decision this term. In Maine’s Carson v. Makin, the Court ruled 6–3 that a state could not exclude private religious schools from receiving public funding only because of their religion. In prospect, it opens up a vast new world of publicly funded religious schools—using tax money, potentially—to teach kids that dinosaurs walked with humans, that girls primarily come into this world to grow up and bear children, or that only heterosexuals deserve rights. Maine quickly passed a law to keep public money away from avowedly anti-LGBTQ schools, but legislators will only be able to play anti-discrimination whack-a-mole for so long. Carson, not Kennedy, is the decision that could reshape the relationship of Church and school in America—even though prayer in school has long been the symbolic victory conservatives were intent on winning.
The Real Origins of the Religious Right
They’ll tell you it was abortion. Sorry, the historical record’s clear: It was segregation.
By RANDALL BALMER
May 27, 2014Continue to article content
Randall Balmer is the Mandel family professor in the arts and sciences at Dartmouth College. His most recent book is Redeemer: The Life of Jimmy Carter.
One of the most durable myths in recent history is that the religious right, the coalition of conservative evangelicals and fundamentalists, emerged as a political movement in response to the U.S. Supreme Court’s 1973 Roe v. Wade ruling legalizing abortion. The tale goes something like this: Evangelicals, who had been politically quiescent for decades, were so morally outraged by Roe that they resolved to organize in order to overturn it.
This myth of origins is oft repeated by the movement’s leaders. In his 2005 book, Jerry Falwell, the firebrand fundamentalist preacher, recounts his distress upon reading about the ruling in the Jan. 23, 1973, edition of the Lynchburg News: “I sat there staring at the Roe v. Wade story,” Falwell writes, “growing more and more fearful of the consequences of the Supreme Court’s act and wondering why so few voices had been raised against it.” Evangelicals, he decided, needed to organize.
Some of these anti- Roe crusaders even went so far as to call themselves “new abolitionists,” invoking their antebellum predecessors who had fought to eradicate slavery.
But the abortion myth quickly collapses under historical scrutiny. In fact, it wasn’t until 1979—a full six years after Roe—that evangelical leaders, at the behest of conservative activist Paul Weyrich, seized on abortion not for moral reasons, but as a rallying-cry to deny President Jimmy Carter a second term. Why? Because the anti-abortion crusade was more palatable than the religious right’s real motive: protecting segregated schools. So much for the new abolitionism.
Today, evangelicals make up the backbone of the pro-life movement, but it hasn’t always been so. Both before and for several years after Roe, evangelicals were overwhelmingly indifferent to the subject, which they considered a “Catholic issue.” In 1968, for instance, a symposium sponsored by the Christian Medical Society and Christianity Today, the flagship magazine of evangelicalism, refused to characterize abortion as sinful, citing “individual health, family welfare, and social responsibility” as justifications for ending a pregnancy. In 1971, delegates to the Southern Baptist Convention in St. Louis, Missouri, passed a resolution encouraging “Southern Baptists to work for legislation that will allow the possibility of abortion under such conditions as rape, incest, clear evidence of severe fetal deformity, and carefully ascertained evidence of the likelihood of damage to the emotional, mental, and physical health of the mother.” The convention, hardly a redoubt of liberal values, reaffirmed that position in 1974, one year after Roe, and again in 1976.
When the Roe decision was handed down, W. A. Criswell, the Southern Baptist Convention’s former president and pastor of First Baptist Church in Dallas, Texas—also one of the most famous fundamentalists of the 20th century—was pleased: “I have always felt that it was only after a child was born and had a life separate from its mother that it became an individual person,” he said, “and it has always, therefore, seemed to me that what is best for the mother and for the future should be allowed.”
The list: American clergymen who defended slavery [Message: Includes prominent Southern Baptist Calvinists]
OCTOBER 9, 2017
By Ron F. Hale
David Hacker, a demographic historian from Binghamton University in New York, conducted research on newly digitized census data from the 19th century recalculating the death toll of the Civil War. The historic death tally has been approximately 620,000 men for over 100 years. Hacker’s new count reaches 750,000 men, and upwards to the
staggering possibility of 850,000 men. 1
Who bears part of the blame for this red river of blood and the lingering costs and consequences of American slavery?
This article will shed light on those who defended the institution of chattel slavery in America. Their writings, speeches, and sermons left a traceable trail. If you are a student of history or theology many of the names on the list will shock you!
How could some of the most sophisticated people in America not see that the sin of slavery denied the self-evident truth “that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness?”
Larry E. Tise is a noted historian, researcher, archivist, author, and professor at Binghampton University. He has served as State Historic Preservation Officer in both North Carolina and Pennsylvania. He helped found the National Council on Public History and the National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers. This article leans on his painstaking research and the writing of his book Proslavery: A History of the Defense of Slavery, 1701-1840, 1987. He holds two degrees from Duke University and a PhD from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Based on extensive studies of pro-slavery books, pamphlets, speeches, biographical collections 2 , and a quest to discover and explain the racism found in the many defenses of slavery, Tise judges that most historians have treated pro-slavery ideology morally rather than historically 3 .
Like finding the tail of a long serpent protruding from a dark hole, Tise slowly but surely extracts the American ideology of pro-slavery from its shadowy history and into the light by studying those who wrote in the defense of American slavery.
Surprisingly, Tise erases the old myth that pro-slavery arguments began in the Old South in the nineteenth century. He shows that beginning in 1701, pro-slavery ideology was prevalent during the colonial and revolutionary years – first in New England.
Chapter Six has Tise pinpointing the America defenders of Slavery from 1790-1865. The length of this article will be extended by his list of 275 pro-slavery clergymen from the North and South who wrote, taught, and preached as ideological defenders and sociopolitical leaders of American slavery.
This group represents the elite of both ministry and American society, some of the most superbly educated, socially aware, and powerfully stationed in our nation. Almost half of all defenses of slavery published in America came from these pro-slavery ministers. 4
Tise discovered that pro-slavery clergymen came from every state and many European countries. Men from the North and New England dominated the first generation (born before 1800) of pro-slavery clergymen. 5 According to their birth years, he found three separate cohorts of men: 82 were born before 1800; 87 were born between 1801-1815; and 93 born between 1816-1839.
The first generation reached maturity prior to the rise of abolitionism; the second group near the peak of the first abolition crisis of the 1830s; and the latter during the last decade before the Civil War. 6
Of those born overseas: Germany, England, and Ireland loom largest. 7 Massachusetts produced as many pro-slavery clergymen writing in the defense of slavery as Georgia. 8 Charleston gave birth to more pro-slavery preachers than any city in the nation, with fourteen. 9
Tise indicates that four Protestant denominations gave our nation the most pro-slavery ministers. In fact, 77 percent of them grew up as Presbyterians, Episcopalians, Congregationals, or Baptists. The author states that, “over one-half (60.2 percent) were from the three major Calvinist churches.” 10
By far, Presbyterians delivered the most formal defenses of slavery in America, and published the most writings. 11 Presbyterians represented one-third of all pro-slavery clergymen. 12
Sixty percent of all pro-slavery clergy graduating from an American college or university received their degrees from schools north of the Mason and Dixon’s Line 13 ; Yale University educated the most pro-slavery pastors, with South Carolina College second, and Princeton University coming in third. 14 Of seminary educated clergy, Princeton Theological Seminary graduated more men who led in these three areas: formal defenses of slavery, pro-slavery writings, and pro-slavery and war sermons. 15 In an age when few Americans benefited from extended educational opportunities, pro-slavery ministers were among the best educated in American society. 16
As social influencers, pro-slavery clergymen sat in the editor’s chair of at least 121 separate periodicals or newspapers. 17 By 1861, many pro-slavery clergymen had moved to the highest ecclesiastical positions in America; 16 percent were serving at the highest office in their church, while another 10 percent were in positions of denominational leadership. Almost 15 percent had assumed faculty or administrative positions at colleges and universities. More than one-half worked their way into influential city pulpits. 18
Before listing the 275 pro-slavery clergymen, it should be stated that most ministers did not write in the defense of slavery. It cannot be determined how many held pro-slavery convictions and spoke and preached them. Tise is dealing with men who wrote defending the institution of slavery and its perpetuation on American soil.
An example of ministers who were not “men of their times” or driven by monied interests were the Sandy Creek Baptists in South Carolina. Their Baptist Association voted in 1835 to condemn the practice of slavery as inconsistent with the spirit of the Gospel of Christ and voted to exclude members who would not abandon the practice of slavery. 19 Many other clergymen never supported slavery and many joined and led the abolition movement started by the great Christian leader, William Wilberforce in Great Britain.
Days before dying, the great Methodist revivalist John Wesley wrote encouraging William Wilberforce to depend totally on the Lord as he fought to end the slave trade and the practice of slavery. Wesley called slavery “that execrable villainy, which is the scandal of religion” and “unless God has raised you up for this very thing, you will be
worn out by the opposition of men and devils.” 20
Dr. Tise lists those ordained clergymen who had published a book, a pamphlet, or a periodical article defending slavery as an indefinite perpetuation of servitude. Tise has no pretension that this list represents all such men. 21
John Bailey Adger
Samuel James Pierce Anderson
James Osgood Andrew
George Dodd Armstrong
Joseph Mayo Atkinson
Isaac Stockton Keith Axson
Rufus William Bailey
Samuel John Baird
Joseph S. Baker
Samuel Davies Baldwin
William Hazzard Barnwell
Otto Sievers Barten
Henry Biddleman Bascom
Archibald John Battle
George Addison Baxter
Daniel Perrin Bestor, Sr.
George Washington Blagden
Albert Taylor Bledsoe
Joseph Luke Blitch
James Pettigru Boyce
William Theophilus Brantly
William Tomlinson Brantly
William Henry Brisbane
Iveson Lewis Brookes
William Gannaway Brownlow
Samuel J. Bryan
William Calmes Buck
John Lansing Burrows
William C. Butler
John Calkins Coit
Moncure Daniel Conway
William Carey Crane
Nathaniel Macon Crawford
Moses Ashley Curtis
Lucious Cuthbert, Jr.
Robert Lewis Dabney
John Leadley Dagg
William Tucker Dickinson Dalzell
William C. Dana
Amos Cooper Dayton
Thomas Lockwood DeVeaux
Andrew Flinn Dickson
David Seth Doggett
Daniel Isaiah Dreher
Thomas Sanford Dunaway
James Alexander Duncan
William Woodward Eells
James Habersham Elliott
Charles Andrews Farley
Benedict Joseph Fenwick
Jesse Babcock Ferguson
Isham Randolph Finley
Theophilus Fisk or Fiske
George Washington Freeman
James Clement Furman
Christopher Edwards Gadsden
Christopher P. Gadsden
John Lafayette Girardeau
Richard S. Gladney
William Henry Green
James K. Gutheim
William T. Hamilton
John F. Hoff
Jonathan M. Hoffmeister
Moses Drury Hoge
William James Hodge
Adam Tunno Holmes
John Henry Hopkins
Samuel Blanchard How
William Bell White Howe
Robert Boyte Crawford Howell
Jeremiah Bell Jeter
Charles Colcock Jones, Sr.
James Ryland Kendrick
Francis Patrick Kenrick
Lender Ker or Kerr
Ulrick Vilhelm Koren
John Michael Krebs
James Sanford Lamar
Peter Laurentius Larsen
Joseph Spry Law
William T. Leacock
Leroy Madison Lee
Andrew Agate Lipscomb
Augutus Baldwin Longstreet
John Chase Lord
William Wilberforce Lord
James Adair Lyon
John B. McFerrin
William Henry McIntosh
James Alphonsus McMaster
Samuel Brown McPheeters
Holland Nimmons McTyeire
Charles Dutton Mallory
Adolphus Williamson Mangum
Basil Manly, Jr.
Basil Manly, Sr.
Auguste Marie Martin
Thomas Francis Meagher
Patrick Hues Mell
Alexander Gardiner Mercer
Maximillian J. Michelbacher
James Warley Miles
Charles Frederic Ernest Minnigerode
James Cake Mitchell (born James
Thomas Vernor Moore
Philip P. Neely
Jacob Aall Ottesen
Benjamin Morgan Palmer
Benjamin Morgan Palmer (nephew of
Thomas Ephraim Peck
Napoleon Joseph Perche
George Foster Pierce
Henry Niles Pierce
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney
William Swan Plumer
Edward Albert Pollard
Abner A. Porter
Rufus Kilpatrick Porter
Jehu G. Postell
Nathaniel Alpheus Pratt
William Otis Prentiss
Herman Amborg Preus
James Beverlin Ramsey
Alfred Magill Randolph
Morris Jacob Raphall
John Jefferson DeYampert Renfroe
Nathan Lewis Rice
Richard Henderson Rivers
Frederick Augustus Ross
William Henry Ruffner
John Andrew Scott, Sr.
William Anderson Scott
William H. Seat
Robert Newton Sledd
James A. Sloan
Jacob Henry Smith
William Andrew Smith
Ichabod Smith Spencer
Urbane C. Spencer
Edward Josiah Stearns
Joseph Clay Stiles
- F. Sturgis
Thomas Osmond Summers
Henry H. Talbird
Samuel Kennedy Talmage
A. W. Thomas
Thomas C. Thornton
James Henley Thornwell
Isacc Taylor Tichenor
Henry Holcombe Tucker
Joel W. Tucker
Henry Allen Tupper
Henry Jackson Van Dyke
Charles Stuart Vedder
William H. Vernor
Carl Ferdinand Wilhelm Walther
Ebenezer Wills Warren
Jared Bell Waterbury
William Hamilton Watkins
Benjamin Joseph Webb
Nathaniel Sheldon Wheaton
William Spotswood White
John Thomas Wightman
William May Wightman
Calvin Henderson Wiley
Richard Hooker Wilmer
John Leighton Wilson
Joseph Ruggles Wilson
Joshua Lacy Wilson
Samuel Ramsey Wilson
Edwin Theodore Winkler
Thomas Sumner Winn
Isaac Mayer Wise
My driving-factor in writing this article can be blamed on my 4th grade teacher. She was a mass-paddler. Our wholesale dose of deliberate pain usually happened as we (the boys) marched single-file to or from the cafeteria. One wrong step or juvenile giggle and her swift justice ran through us like veal through a meat grinder.
Regretfully, since every boy got paddled, no one clearly knew “who” committed the initial transgression.
Clearly these 275 men participated and prolonged the sin of slavery in America.