The city of Roseville, founded by my kindred, Ezekiel Rose, is in dire trouble. It is dying! I am still working on my letter to Ed Ray. I am going to challenge him and his university to do a study on how to save Roseville. Here is the Crawford-Wallace legacy.
Here is the remarkable diary of David Zeisberger a Moravian minister that tried to save America. He failed! However, there is a Hidden Seed born in Bohemia.
This official says says Rosevillites want a laundry-mat. Those who want to go back to these simpler times, must read David’s diary. The Moravian system depends on there being no increase in the population. Here is the account of the recovery of the Heil children. My great great grandfather, John Heil, was a member of the Moravian church in Pennsylvania,
“Catherine was born around 1746 to Johann Nicholas Heil and Maria Marguerite Theisen. She had five siblings: Johann, Jonathan, Susannah, Mary Elizabeth and Mary Margaret. A Moravian Church Diary entry from 1/26/1756 stated that Catherine was abducted by Indians (Native Americans) at the age of ten and presumed killed. She was released after an unknown amount of time and went on to marry into the Silvius family, marrying Nicholas Silvius, who had also been captured by natives when he was 12, until the age of 18. They had over 10 children together: Barbara, Nicholas Jr, Johann Henrich, Maria Elizabeth, Jonas, Anna Maria, Catherine, Margaret, Susanna and Christina.”
John ‘Born Again Prophet of the Hidden Seed’
“The fight with the English took a severe toll on the Wallaces and Crawfords. William’s father and both brothers were killed by the English. Most his maternal uncles and cousins likewise lost their lives. The heritable position of Sheriff of Ayr and the title and lands of Loudoun passed on to the Campbells with the marriage of the heiress and last survivor of the line, Susanna Crawford, daughter of Sir Reginald, the Fifth Sheriff of Ayr, to Duncan Campbell. Hugh, an uncle of Susanna, does appear to have survived, or at least one of his offspring did, and it is into this line that the Crawford Chieftainship passed. Hugh Crawford also was the progenitor of the Crosbie line. For his valor at Bannockburn he was rewarded by Robert the Bruce with a heritable grant, being given the estate at Auchenames, which became the residence of the Crawford Chiefly line and gave its name to that cadet.
The principal legacy of William Wallace for us Crawfords is his kinship to our House. His mother was a Crawford and thus the Wallaces recognize us as kin, as we do them. We also, through the centuries, have shared with him his love of liberty learned from bitter life lessons and at his uncle’s knee. Sir Reginald is said to have inspired his at the time very young nephew William with the statement:
Dico tibi verum, libertas optima rerum: Nunquam Sanville sub nexu vivito, fili.
Freedom is best, I tell you true, of all things to be won: Then never live within the bond of slavery, my son.
As a leader of his country and people, William Wallace is said to have oft repeated this phrase to inspire them in their resistance to the English. William Wallace is Scotland’s greatest hero, a man of integrity, but also a man of his day — violent and vengeful. His determination to free his country from a foreign yoke left a legacy manifest in many prominent historical documents related to the struggle for independence, among them the Scottish Declaration of Arbroath and the American Declaration of Independence.”
Stanza Fourteen also contains a typo. “Captain Rase” is actually a reference to Captain Ezekiel Rose. It’s not entirely unlikely that the author may have been referring to Gustavus Heinrich de Rosenthal, who served under the name “John Rose.” However, Rosenthal was elected adjutant with the rank of Major, not Captain. Ironically, Cowan’s “Southwestern Pennsylvania in Song and Story” contains yet another typo. It incorrectly lists a “Captain Ross” instead of Captain Rose.
David Zeisberger (April 11, 1721 – November 17, 1808) was a Moravian clergyman and missionary among the Native Americans in the Thirteen Colonies. He established communities of Munsee (Lenape) converts to Christianity in the valley of the Muskingum River in Ohio; and for a time, near modern-day Amherstburg, Ontario.
Zeisberger was born in Zauchtenthal, Moravia (present day Suchdol nad Odrou in the Czech Republic) and moved with his family to the newly established Moravian Christian community of Herrnhut, on the estate of Count Nicolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf in the German Electorate of Saxony in 1727. However, when his family migrated to the newly established English colony in Georgia, Zeisberger remained in Europe to complete his education. In 1738, he came to Georgia in the United States, with the assistance of governor James Edward Oglethorpe. He later rejoined his family in the Moravian community at Savannah, Georgia. At the time, the United Brethren had begun a settlement, merely for the purpose of preaching the gospel to the Creek nation. From there he moved to Pennsylvania, and assisted at the commencement of the settlements of Nazareth and Bethlehem.
In 1739, Zeisberger was influential in the development of a Moravian community in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, and was there at its dedication on Christmas Eve 1741. Four years later, at the invitation of Hendrick Theyanoguin, he came to live among the Mohawk. He became fluent in the Onondaga language and assisted Conrad Weiser in negotiating an alliance between the English and the Iroquois in Onondaga (near present-day Syracuse, New York). Zeisberger also produced dictionaries and religious works in Iroquoian and Algonquian.
Zeisberger began as a missionary to Native American peoples following his ordination as a Moravian minister in 1749. He worked among the Lenape (Delaware) of Pennsylvania, coming into conflict with British authorities over his advocacy of Natives’ rights and his ongoing efforts to establish white and native Moravian communities in eastern Ohio. He was the senior missionary of the United Brethren (as the Moravians sometimes referred to themselves) among the Indians. His relations with British authorities worsened during the American Revolutionary War and in 1781 he was arrested and held at Fort Detroit. While he was imprisoned, ninety-six of his Native converts in Gnadenhutten, Ohio were brutally murdered by Pennsylvania militiamen, an event known as the Gnadenhutten Massacre.
After Zeisberger was released, violent conflicts with other Native tribes and the expansion of white settlement forced many Moravian Christian settlements to relocate to present-day Michigan and Ontario. A large group of Munsee moved there in 1782, but Zeisberger later returned to live the rest of his life among the Native converts remaining near the village of Goshen (in present Goshen Township, Tuscarawas County, Ohio). Zeisberger spent a period of 62 years, excepting a few short intervals, as a missionary among the Indians. He died on November 17, 1808 at Goshen, Ohio, on the river Tuscarawas, at the age of 87 years. Zeisberger is buried in Goshen.
William Crawford (2 September 1722 – 11 June 1782) was an American soldier and surveyor who worked as a western land agent for George Washington. Crawford fought in the French and Indian War and the American Revolutionary War. He was tortured and burned at the stake by American Indians in retaliation for the Gnadenhutten massacre, a notorious incident near the end of the American Revolution.
In 1722, Crawford was born in Spotsylvania County, Colony of Virginia, at a location which is now in Berkeley County, West Virginia. He was a son of William Crawford and his wife Honora Grimes, who were Scots-Irish farmers. After his father’s death in 1736, his mother married Richard Stephenson. Crawford had a younger brother, Valentine Crawford, plus five half-brothers and one half-sister from his mother’s second marriage.
In 1742 Crawford married one Ann Stewart and she bore him one child, a daughter also named Ann, born in 1743. Apparently she died in childbirth or soon after, and on 5 January 1744 he married Hannah Vance, said to have been born in Pennsylvania in 1723. She bore him a son named John (20 April 1744 – 22 September 1816; he married one Effie Grimes) and at least two daughters, Ophelia “Effie” (2 September 1747 – 1825, who married Captain William McCormick who was born Feb 2, 1738, and died August 15, 1816), and Sarah (1752–10 Nov 1838, who married 1)Major William Harrison [c 1740–13 June 1782], and 2) Lt. Col Uriah Springer [18 Nov 1754–21 Sep 1826]}. There may also have been another daughter, Nancy, born in 1767, who had apparently died when he wrote his will in 1782.
In 1749, Col. William Crawford became acquainted with George Washington, then a young surveyor somewhat younger than Crawford. He accompanied Washington on surveying trips and learned the trade. In 1755, Crawford served in the Braddock expedition with the rank of ensign. Like Washington, he survived the disastrous Battle of the Monongahela. During the French and Indian War, he served in Washington’s Virginia Regiment, guarding the Virginia frontier against Native American raiding parties. In 1758, Crawford was a member of General John Forbes’s army which captured Fort Duquesne, where Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania now stands. He continued to serve in the military, taking part in Pontiac’s War in 1763.
In 1765 Crawford built a cabin on the Braddock Road along the Youghiogheny River in what is now Connellsville, Fayette County, Pennsylvania. His wife and three children joined him there the following year. Crawford supported himself as a farmer and fur trader. When the 1768 Treaty of Fort Stanwix with the Iroquois opened up additional land for settlement, Crawford worked again as a surveyor, locating lands for settlers and speculators. Governor Robert Dinwiddie had promised bounty land to the men of the Washington’s Virginia Regiment for their service in the French and Indian War. In 1770 Crawford and Washington travelled down the Ohio River to choose the land to be given to the regiment’s veterans. The area selected was near what is now Point Pleasant, West Virginia. Crawford also made a western scouting trip in 1773 with Lord Dunmore, Governor of Virginia. Washington could not accompany them because of the sudden death of his stepdaughter.
At the outbreak of Dunmore’s War in 1774, Crawford received a major’s commission from Lord Dunmore. He built Fort Fincastle at present Wheeling, West Virginia. He also led an expedition which destroyed two Mingo villages (near present Steubenville, Ohio) in retaliation for Chief Logan‘s raids into Virginia. During the expedition, Crawford’s men rescued two captives held by American Indians, killing six and capturing 14 Indians.
Crawford’s service to Virginia in Dunmore’s War was controversial in Pennsylvania, since the colonies were engaged in a bitter dispute over their borders near Fort Pitt. Crawford had been a justice of the peace in Pennsylvania since 1771, first for Bedford County, then for Westmoreland County when it was established in 1773. Arthur St. Clair, another Pennsylvania official, called for Crawford to be removed from his office, which was done in January 1775. Beginning in 1776, Crawford served as a surveyor and justice for Virginia’s short-lived Yohogania County.
When the American Revolutionary War began, Crawford recruited a regiment for the Virginia Line of the Continental Army. On 11 October 1776, the Continental Congress appointed him colonel of the 7th Virginia Regiment. Crawford led his regiment in the Battle of Long Island and the retreat across New Jersey. He crossed the Delaware with Washington and fought at the battles of Trenton and Princeton. During the Philadelphia campaign, he commanded a scouting detachment for Washington’s army.
After the war on the western frontier intensified in 1777, Crawford was transferred to the Western Department of the Continental Army. He served at Fort Pitt under Generals Edward Hand and Lachlan McIntosh. Crawford was present at the Treaty of Fort Pitt in 1778, and helped to build Fort Laurens and Fort McIntosh that year. Resources were scarce on the frontier, however, and Fort Laurens was abandoned in 1779. In 1780, Crawford visited Congress to appeal for more funds for the western frontier. In 1781, he retired from military service.
In 1782, General William Irvine persuaded Crawford to come out of retirement and lead an expedition against enemy Indian villages along the Sandusky River. Before leaving, on 16 May he made out his will and testament. His son John Crawford, his son-in-law William Harrison, and his nephew and namesake William Crawford also joined the expedition.
After his election as commander of the expedition, Crawford led about 500 volunteers deep into American Indian territory with the hope of surprising them. However, the Indians and their British allies at Detroit had learned about the expedition in advance, and brought about 440 men to the Sandusky to oppose the Americans. After a day of indecisive fighting, the Americans found themselves surrounded. During a confused retreat, Crawford and dozens of his men were captured. The Indians executed many of them in retaliation for the Gnadenhutten massacre earlier in the year, in which 96 peaceful Christian Indian men, women, and children had been murdered by Pennsylvanian militiamen. Crawford’s execution was brutal; he was tortured for at least two hours before he was burned at the stake. His nephew and son-in-law were also captured and executed. The war ended shortly thereafter, but Crawford’s horrific execution was widely publicized in the United States, worsening the already strained relationship between Native Americans and European Americans.
In 1982, the site of Colonel Crawford’s execution was added to the National Register of Historic Places. In 1994, the Wyandot County Patriotic Citizens erected an 8.5 ft (2.6 m) Berea sandstone monument near the site. The Ohio Historical Society also has an historical marker nearby.
Crawford County, Ohio, Crawford County, Pennsylvania, Crawford County, Michigan and Crawford County, Indiana are named for William Crawford. So too is Colonel Crawford High School in North Robinson, Ohio.
There is a replica of Crawford’s cabin in Connellsville, Pennsylvania.
Colonel William Crawford captured by Indians burned at the stake
Colonel William Crawford (1722-1782) was born in Westmoreland County, Virginia, raised near Winchester, Virginia, and lived in western Pennsylvania. He was a farmer, surveyor, soldier and friend of George Washington. Colonel Crawford distinguished himself during the Revolutionary War and in the Indian wars along the frontier. As a partisan he was very active and successful. He took several Indian towns, and did great service in scouting, patrolling and defending the frontiers. He was captured and burned at the stake just north of Upper Sandusky, Ohio, on June 11, 1782.
He was a brother of Valentine Crawford, Jr. (1724-1777); the CRAWFORD brother some southern CRAWFORD families’ claim links with. Both CRAWFORD brothers are the subjects of Allen W. Scholl’s book, “The Brothers Crawford”.
Most of the following material comes from “The Frontiersmen” by Allan W. Eckert published in 1970. Eckert used “hidden dialog” as a means of writing history. This technique has been termed “documentary fiction”; Alex Haley called it “faction” and he used it in “Roots”. “The Frontiersmen” is comparable to “Son of the Morning Star” and to “Roots”. A great balance between academic and popular writing. Really illustrates the dark side of humanity.
On June 10, 1782 Colonel William Crawford was captured with several of his command by hostile Indians and marched to a large village about eight miles above the Sandusky River. Soon the prisoners, all except Crawford and army surgeon Dr. Edward Knight, were murdered and scalped. Dr. Knight was held captive but Colonel Crawford was taken by the Indians, stripped of all clothing and led to a thick post projecting fifteen feet from the ground. Bound at the wrists he was tethered with a rawhide cord to the post. In this way he was able to walk around the pole, stand, sit, even lie down, but was unable to move more than four feet in any direction from the pole.
Soon a crowd of Indians rushed up with sticks and switches and beat Crawford unmercifully, withdrawing only when his body was badly welted and bloodstained and he appeared on the verge of unconsciousness. The Indians then raced over to where Dr. Knight was tied and subjected him to the same punishment.
Colonel Crawford was then informed that his captors planned to burn him. A foot-high circle of kindling was placed all the way around Crawford’s stake, at a distance of about five yards. About a hundred dry hickory poles, each an inch or so thick and upwards of twenty feet in length, were placed so that they lay with one end atop the kindling and the other stretching outward, away from the circle.
Crawford was surrounded by a milling mass of Indian warriors and squaws, all of whom carried flintlock rifles. Into the barrels they poured extra-large quantities of gunpowder but no balls, and shot at Colonel Crawford pointblank. The grains of powder and saltpeter still burning peppered his body; and imbedded just beneath his skin. Crawford screamed until he was hoarse and whimpering. More than seventy powder charges had struck him everywhere from feet to neck, but the greater majority had been aimed at his groin, and when, they were finished the end of his penis was black and shredded and still smoking.
As Dr. Knight watched in horror one of the Indian leaders stepped up to Colonel Crawford and sliced off his ears. From where he sat watching Dr. Knight could see blood flowing down both sides of Crawford’s head, bathing his shoulders, back and chest.
Now came the squaws with burning brands and they lighted the kindling all the way around the circle, igniting the material every foot or so until the entire circle was ablaze. The poles quickly caught fire on their tips and the heat became intense, causing the closest spectators to fall back. Crawford made a peculiar cry and ran around the post in a frenzy trying to escape the flames, finally falling to the ground and wrapping his body around the stake. After the better part of an hour the fire died down, leaving behind a fanned-out ring of long poles, each with one end a glowing spike.
Crawford’s back, buttocks and the skin on the back of his thighs had blistered and burst and then curled up into little charred crisps. The sounds he made were fainter. The torture continued as Indians selected poles and jabbed the glowing ends onto Colonel Crawford’s skin where they thought it would give most pain. Dr. Knight thought Crawford near death by this time, but was amazed to see the colonel scramble to his feet and begin stumbling about the stake, attempting to avoid the glowing ends, that hissed and smoked whenever they touched him. One of the glowing points was thrust at his face and as he jerked to avoid it he ran into another which contacted his open eye, causing him to shriek loudly.
When the poles had all been used and tossed on a pile to one side, some of the squaws came up with wooden boards and scooped up piles of glowing embers to throw at him until soon he had nothing to walk upon but coals of fire and hot ashes. As Colonel Crawford circled the stake he began to plead coherently for someone to shoot him, to kill him. Most of the Indians did not understand what Crawford was saying, but the beseeching tone of the colonel’s voice pleased them and they clapped their hands and shouted aloud in triumph at having forced the white chief into this outburst.
When there was no answer to his pleads; Crawford began a shuffling walk round and round the stake as if in a trance, scarcely flinching as he stepped on the hot coals. Finally he stopped and slowly raised his head and loudly and clearly prayed for God to end his suffering.
Once more he began the same shuffling walk until at last, two full hours after having been prodded with the glowing poles, he fell on his stomach and lay silent. At once an Indian chief stepped over the ring of ashes and cut a deep circle on the top of Colonel Crawford’s head with his knife, wrapped the long dark hair around his hand and yanked hard. The pop as the scalp pulled off was clearly audible to Dr. Knight.
The chief now stepped clear of the circle and advanced on the captive doctor. He held the dripping scalp in front of Dr. Knight’s eyes and taunted him. With rapid strokes he whipped the fleshy portion of the scalp back and forth across Knight’s face, stopping only when there came a deep murmur from the crowd behind him.
A squaw had entered the circle of ashes with a board heaped full of glowing coals, and these she scattered on Crawford’s back and held them with the board against the officer’s bare skull. The murmur that had arisen was occasioned by what seemed wholly unbelievable; Colonel Crawford groaned faintly and rolled over and then slowly drew up his knees and raised himself to a kneeling position. For perhaps two minutes he stayed like this and then he placed one foot on the ground and stood erect again, beginning anew a shuffling walk around the stake. A few squaws touched burning sticks to him but he seemed insensitive to them, no longer even attempting to pull away. It was the most appalling sight Dr. Knight had ever witnessed and, unable to control himself any longer, he suddenly vomited and then screamed at his captors, cursing them and calling them murderers and fiends and devils.
Squaws now heaped armloads of fresh kindling in a pile near the stake and lighted it. When the fire reached its peak, two warriors cut the rawhide cord that bound the still shuffling Crawford and, one on each side let him shuffle toward the fire. When the heat became too intense for them to advance closer, they thrust him from them and he sprawled into the blaze. His legs jerked a few times and one arm flailed out but then, as skin and flesh blackened, living motion stopped and all that remained was a gradual drawing of arms and legs close to the body in the pugilistic posture characteristic in persons burned to death.
So ended the life of Colonel William Crawford. Dr. Knight, who had witnessed Crawford’s sufferings was later turned over by the Delaware to the Shawnees, from whom he later escaped. Dr. Knight eventually reached safety in a white settlement and gave a report of the events. Later he published his famous narrative, which described the sad end of Colonel Crawford.
Because of the obvious errors in the published rolls, there is a need for locating more reliable sources on the Sandusky expedition. One source unknown to Butterfield and Egle is the journal of John Rose. 21 Like Lafayette and von Steuben, this Russian nobleman of Baltic German extraction — whose true name was Gustavus Heinrich de Rosenthal — came to the aid of the American colonies in their revolt against England. Following a series of land and sea adventures including imprisonment at New York for a time, John Rose found himself at Fort Pitt in 1782 as an aide to General William Irvine,the fort’s commander. When Colonel Crawford asked for help, Irvine sent Rose on the campaign as Crawford’s aide-de-camp. Welleducated, Rose wrote daily journal entries throughout the campaign. Afterwards he added endnotes in which he evaluated the expedition’s officers and made recommendations as to how to improve acomparable force in the future. Rose took the journal withits endnotes withhim when he returned to his homeland in 1784. Today his journal and notes would be unknown on this side of the Atlantic except for a great-grandson who sent a copy to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania in 1893 for publication. 22 The original journal and notes are evidently now in an official archival institution in the Estonian S.S.R. in the Soviet Union.23 The military pension applications at the National Archives in Washington are a rich source ofinformation. In1823 Congress passed the first comprehensive pension act which provided an annual grant to soldiers who served six months or more during the Revolution. Widows married at the time of the war were also eligible. As of this writing, eighty pensions of expedition volunteers or their widows have been identified. The pension files reveal a different picture of Crawford’s army than is commonly supposed. The typical picture