Pope Adrien launched a Anti-Reformation, I suspect with help of his good friend, Gottschalk Rosemondt, the Master of Leuven, and the Falcon Art College. Adrien stipulated in his Will (that Rosemondt was the Executor of) that he wanted a residential college so poor students could come study Theology and the Arts. This was in answer to the Pope’s in Rome, and the Medici Bankers, who Adrien, and I assume, Rosemondt, saw as threat to the Papacy. I suspect Rosemondt is the founder of the Dutch Renaissance that produced Hieronymus Bosch, a member of the Swan Brethren, as were members of the Roesmont family. Bosch destroyed the idea of Decorative Art – as intended. His work is full of messages – from God – that can not be ignored! This is Dutch Bohemianism with roots in Humanism as promoted by Erasmus. It may have its roots in the Poor Knight of Christ, who may have convinced Adrien to save Rhodes, and launch another Crusade.
The institution of the papacy underwent attacks by many Protestant reformers, including Martin Luther (Pope Leo X planned the initial church reaction against Luther until his death in 1521), John Calvin, Thomas Cranmer and John Knox identified the Roman Papacy as the Antichrist. The Centuriators of Magdeburg, a group of Lutheran scholars in Magdeburg headed by Matthias Flacius, wrote the 12-volume “Magdeburg Centuries” to discredit the papacy and identify the pope as the Antichrist. The fifth round of talks in the Lutheran-Roman Catholic dialogue notes,
- In calling the pope the “antichrist,” the early Lutherans stood in a tradition that reached back into the eleventh century. Not only dissidents and heretics but even saints had called the bishop of Rome the “antichrist” when they wished to castigate his abuse of power.
Adrian came to the papacy in the midst of one of its greatest crises, threatened not only by Lutheranism to the north but also by the advance of the Ottoman Turks to the east. He refused to compromise with Lutheranism theologically, demanding Luther‘s condemnation as a heretic. However, he is noted for having attempted to reform the Catholic Church administratively in response to the Protestant Reformation. His efforts at reform, however, proved fruitless, as they were resisted by most of his Renaissance ecclesiastical contemporaries, and he did not live long enough to see his efforts through to their conclusion. He was succeeded by the Italian Medici pope, Clement VII.
The Medici became leaders of Christendom through their two famous 16th century popes, Leo X and Clement VII. Both also served as de facto political rulers of Rome, Florence, and large swaths of Italy known as the Papal States. They were generous patrons of the arts who commissioned masterpieces such as Raphael‘s Transfiguration and Michelangelo‘s The Last Judgment; however, their reigns coincided with troubles for the Vatican, including Martin Luther‘s Protestant Reformation and the infamous sack of Rome in 1527.
In November 1506 Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Savoy, became Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands and chose Adrian as her advisor. The next year Emperor Maximilian I appointed him also tutor to his seven-year-old grandson, and Margaret’s nephew, who in 1519 became Emperor Charles V. By 1512 Adrian was Charles’s advisor and his court obligations were so time consuming that he quit his positions at the university.[4
He immediately entered upon the path of the reformer. The 1908 edition of the Catholic Encyclopedia characterised the task that faced him:
- “To extirpate inveterate abuses; to reform a court which thrived on corruption, and detested the very name of reform; to hold in leash young and warlike princes, ready to bound at each other’s throats; to stem the rising torrent of revolt in Germany; to save Christendom from the Turks, who from Belgrade now threatened Hungary, and if Rhodes fell would be masters of the Mediterranean – these were herculean labours for one who was in his sixty-third year, had never seen Italy, and was sure to be despised by the Romans as a ‘barbarian’.
Adrian VI was not successful as a peacemaker among Christian princes, whom he hoped to unite in a war against the Turks. In August 1523 he was forced into an alliance with the Empire, England, and Venice against France; meanwhile, in 1522 Suleiman the Magnificent (1520–66) had conquered Rhodes.
Adrian VI died in Rome on 14 September 1523, after one year, eight months and six days as pope. Most of
The pope was mocked by the people of Rome on the Pasquino, and the Romans, who had never taken a liking to a man they saw as a “barbarian”, rejoiced at his death.
Pope’s College or Pope Adrian VI College in Leuven was a college for theology students at the Old University of Leuven, founded by Pope Adrian VI in 1523. At the suppression of the old university in 1797 the college became public property. It is now a hall of residence of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, rented from the city council (which still owns the buildings).
College De Valk: history
The last pedagogy
Shortly after the start of the university, the pedagogy de Valk was founded by Jan Stockelpot (professor of the arts, † 1465), more specifically in the house de Valk located in the Penninkstraat (the current Savoyestraat). In the 15th century the foundation expanded rapidly into the Hoelstraat (now the Tiensestraat) to purchase the house the Ketel (Cacabus), to which the pedagogy was also called.
De Valk is actually an old pedagogy rather than a lecture. There was a distinction at the old Leuven university: a college was a building that served to house students. Usually a college was founded by a wealthy patron who opened it to less fortunate students from a particular faculty or from a particular region. Although disputes took place in the lectures as an extension of the lessons, the residential function was central.
The four pedagogies of the Artesfaculty (de Lelie, de Valk, the Burcht, the Varken) were first and foremost educational institutions. They not only provided room and board, the students (young students from the Faculty of Arts) also received almost all lessons. The combination of residential and educational function made pedagogies more closely related to the famous colleges in Oxford and Cambridge than to the lectures in Leuven. The notion of confusion becomes even greater when we see that the current pedagogies, usually called ‘pedas’, have the same function as the current lectures, namely providing accommodation for students.
In the ancien regime , the pedagogies naturally also had their own coat of arms. That van de Valk was gold, with a falcon on a branch, probably in natural color. The motto was : volitat super omnia falco , “the falcon eats everything”.
Pieter-Jan Minckelers († 1824), the inventor of light gas, studied in Falcon Pedagogy. The famous Maastricht scholar received his doctorate there in 1766 and was professor of philosophy from 1771 to 1788.
De Valk is the only pedagogy that has not disappeared from the cityscape. Nothing remains of the medieval building in the Savoyestraat. The impressive classicist ensemble at the Tiensestraat is a 19th-century reconstruction to the 18 th -century concept of Claudio Fisco (1736-1825). Fisco is the Leuven architect of the Brussels Martelarenplein, where the ministries of the Flemish government are now located. In 1783, according to Fisco’s plans, the left wing, the rear section and the Valk portal were built. Only the gatehouse was preserved, because the other buildings went into flames in 1866. During the reconstruction in 1873, Fisco’s original plans were used.
The building in brick and sandstone has a U-shaped floor plan. The main wing is marked by a middentravee, which is crowned with a triangular pediment. This middle section is rhythmized by piers walking through the two floors. The 19 th -century architecture historian AG Schayes ( Histoire de l’architecture and Belgique , 1849) found it one of the finest Leuven university buildings.
In contrast to other buildings, the Falcon was not sold after the dissolution of the university in 1797. From 1801 until the fifties of last century the building functioned as a military hospital for the Leuven garrison. Around 1960 the Falcon came back into possession of the university. The Falcon is now the seat of the Faculty of Law. The old building was restored in 1960-1962 by the famous professor RM Lemaire and was extended in 1966 (architects P. Felix and G. Pepermans). The building was restored again in 2013.
Historic background of the College of the Falcon
Former Pedagogy ‘De Valk’: from its foundation until modern times (early 15th c – 1962)
In between 1781 and 1783, the construction of the current left wing, middle wing and gateway building at the Tiensestraat started. Military engineer Claude Joseph Antoine Fisco was appointed as architect. On 14 August 1782, the Austrian government lent a loan to the pedagogy for the construction of the left and middle wing. These works were finished for about seventy-five percent at the end of 1784. In 1853, A.G.B. Schayes described the buildings of Pedagogy ‘De Valk’ as being full of grandeur and positively royal.
‘To achieve this, the architect of the noble monument has used columns nor pillars. It is because of the grandeur of the mass and the perfect combination of all these aspects that he sought and succeeded to give the monument a striking character with grandeur and kingship. (…) The four corners of the square building that they from, is completely constructed except for the right wing that is completely missing. Especially the façade is very remarkable and the ornaments reminds of the style of the Palace of Luxembourg in Paris.’
A drawing by Van Petegem from 1782, published in Van Even, shows the new left wing in three floors and three bays. The building reached all the way into the gateway’s walls of the Tiensestraat and is placed on two panels left from the entrance gate. The building phase however was interrupted by political troubles that reflected upon the existence of the university. On 15 September 1793, already in the French Republic, all colleges and universities were forced to close down. The Old University of Leuven closed its colleges permanently on 9 November 1797. The movable goods and especially its rich library with 80.000 books was transferred to the “École centrale du département de la Dyle” (Central School of the Dijle Department) in Brussels. The Paedagogium Falconis from then ceased to exist as such.
From pedagogy to military hospital (1797-1962)
In between 1801 and 1814, the building of the former pedagogy ‘De Valk’ was used as a convalescent hospital for French soldiers. ‘De Valk’ got incorporated into a large group of ‘Hôtels des Invalides’ together with several (former) colleges, like the Winckeliuscollege, Baiuscollege (across the street), Pauscollege, Veteranencollege and Koningscollege, supplemented with fourteen individual houses in the Bériotstraat. The military hospital of the Tiensestraat could provide for four hundred beds. From 1814, the building complex became a military hospital for first French, then Dutch and finally Belgian soldiers (after the Independence of 1831).
In 1857, a new building phase started by city architect Edward Lavergne (1815-1878), based upon plans from 1781. A part of the right wing that was still the original construction from 1631 was demolished and reconstructed after the original eighteenth century plans from architect Fisco, and under the supervision of colonel Meyers. Just a decade later, on 12 June 1866, the building complex burnt down almost entirely. Van Even mentioned that only the gate building and a part of the reconstructed right wing were spared. The reconstruction of the damaged buildings commenced in 1873. The left wing was reconstructed after Fisco’s original plan and shortened with about fifteen meters until its current length. The right wing followed this example and thus the building complex was transformed from a partly open square to a T-shape with a portal building and continuous wall.
The building complex was continuous in use as a military hospital until 1962. The complex was bought by the Catholic University of Leuven in 1953 but the function of military hospital remained a few more years afterwards.
College De valk (1953-2015): entering (post-)modern times
Construction phase by P. Felix and G. Pepermans: functionality versus authenticity (1957-1963)
In order to house the new faculties of Law and Theology in the former historic pedagogy buildings, more space was required. For the construction of surplus auditoria, the KU Leuven turned to two of its own talented professors namely engineer-architects Paul Felix and Georges Pepermans.
The first plans by Eng. P. Felix and Eng. G. Pepermans show a new infill where previously the garden was. The rational lay-out of these plans demonstrated an understanding of the International Style (functionalism). The design in uncomplicated and is copied across the different levels. Spaciousness and the feeling of cleanness is reached by the use of large windows, not only in the auditoria but also in the staircases. Decoration and colour was kept to a minimum. The colours white and blue dominated on the interior while naked concrete and red bricks were alternately visible at the exterior.
Although Felix and Pepermans employed a different idiom of modernism, they compromised into a functional design with a clear geometry and sober use of materials. Both architects were masters in the constructive use of armed concrete. Pictures from 1961 from the university archive show this technique very clear. The building is made out of prefab armed concrete slabs that were afterwards filled in with brickwork on strategic esthetical levels. In this way, the new building could be constructed in a fairly short amount of time (1961-1963).
College ‘De Valk’ and its post-modern phase (1968-1983)
College ‘De Valk’ was reinstated as a part of the University of Leuven by welcoming the Faculties of Law, Canon Law and Religious Studies in the academic year of 1963-1964. By 1967 however, due to a shortage of space the Faculty of Theology and Religious Studies was relocated to the Maria-Theresiacollege (Sint-Michielsstraat, Leuven). To accommodate the increase amount of students, Pepermans was again appointed in 1968 to construct a new building, south east of the historic building, in collaboration with architectural bureau Delrue and Konings. The building was placed on the plots of five houses at the Herbert Hooverplein that were already acquired by the university in 1961. The historic houses however were reused and incorporated into the Faculty of Law. Currently they house i.a. LINC, a specialised institute for criminology (Leuvens Instituut voor Criminology).
The new construction was likewise functional in design, incorporating a skeleton structure out of reinforced concrete. The outside of the structure was solely finished with prefabricated concrete elements. Inspired by Le Corbusier, Perpermans did not choose however to use pilotis but the idiom is reflected into the open ground floor level structure (12m wide). In this hall Alma shortly used to have a restaurant (from 1986). The first floor level was divided into auditoria by means of brick walls. The aspect of an adaptable and modular architecture returns in the interior concept of the upper floors. Here a grid was used as a guide to create separate square desk spaces of 1,20 metres. In this novel lay-out, professors were not confined anymore to their own separated rooms and spaces.
In 1980, the first adaptations were carried out in the modernistic building by Felix and Pepermans. In order to comply with the modern technical evolutions (like the introduction of the microphone), acoustic panelling had to be installed in the auditoria. Also, new curtain boxes were installed. The works were supervised by Eng. J.P. De Clerck. The plans by W. Vandeput show the insertion of the acoustic false ceiling on top of the previous naked concrete ceiling. Due to these changes, the intended aesthetical purposes of the naked concrete by Felix and Pepermans has (temporarily) disappeared for the sake of comfort and acoustics. The works were completed in 1982.
In 1982-1983, an extension of the library took place after the design of architect Paul Van Aerschot. The library was extended onto the first and second floor level of the historic middle wing and a part of the left wing. The professors’ lounge, offices and no less than six (smaller) auditoria and seminary rooms had to disappear. Van Aerschot provided a narrow entrance hall with a cloakroom, to open up onto a large room with alternating book shelves and desks. Overall, the idiom was kept tight and functional, alternated with curved elements like the entrance hall and parts of the ceiling. In pictures from 1987, the entity appeared very clear and organised.
Adapting to the twenty-first century: recent interventions and adaptations (1999-2015)
At the dawn of the new millennium, intervention works by Van Aerschot continued at College ‘De Valk’. In 1999, a building permit was approved for the extension of the library with ca. five hundred square meters. Extensions to the lateral wings was not possible without compromising the historic wooden staircases. It was decided to insert a new building on pilotis on the parking lot, in the north-west adjoining the current Museum M. The structure was placed on high columns and was thus levelled with the current location of the library, the first and second floor. This height ensured the parking space and a possible passage for a fire truck. To connect the new construction with the historic building, two eighteenth century windows were sacrificed. In his report, the architect does not even mention the aspect of conservation regarding the loss of these windows. It is clear that the new intervention had priority. The passage was finished with wooden panelling as a contrast with the red exposed bricks of the historic former pedagogy building. The implementation of this intervention has counteracted article 5 of the 1985 ‘Granada Convention for the Protection of Architectural Heritage of Europe’. The article ‘prohibits the removal, in whole or in part, of any protected monument, except when the material safeguarding of such monuments makes removal imperative.’
A next phase in the Van Aerschot chapter, was the renewal of the back entrance building in 2002. In his design, Van Aerschot decided to change the orientation of the building and stairs one hundred and eighty degrees to be more welcoming and functional. The composition is an alternation of a triangle motive with straight lines, in light grey and dark blue. A special elevator for visitors in a wheelchair were added in between the stairs and the building. Anno June 2015, these lifts were no longer in function.
In 2003, the Technical Services of the university started a renovation of the façades, the naked concrete and the exterior frames of the windows of the addition by Felix and Pepermans. According to documents of the archive of the Technical Services, especially the naked concrete was in need of repair and conservation. However, it was decided, because of the many cracks and visible remnants of the repairs, to paint over the naked concrete structure elements with a light grey paint. By using this light grey colour, it was reminiscent of the colour of the original concrete structure. On one hand it is understandable to prefer an aesthetic uniform exterior and to cover up the decay of the concrete. However, the revolutionary use of the reinforced concrete that was and still is a part of the character of the building is thus (temporarily) covered up. It is thus conserved but out of sight. The original wooden windows were painted in white and the underlying structure in dark blue. After renovation, the complete window frames were painted white.
The most recent restauration and conservation phase of the historic building ‘De Valk’ took place in between 2012 and 2013. The initiative came from the Technical Services of the university, supported financially by the Flemish government, the province of Flemish-Brabant and the City Council of Leuven. The slate and sink covered roofs were completely renewed. De dark exterior of the facades was cleaned patiently by a system of long term water misting. The masonry was checked out and repaired where necessary. Some bricks were replaced while cracked natural stones were repaired with mortar where necessary. The outer window frames were restaured and repainted. The large entrance gate was repainted in the original 19th century bronze green. In pictures from the 1980’s and later, it is clear that the door was painted in white. Together with the exterior works, changes were made to the building’s interior. The library was completely repainted and a new carpet and light fixtures were installed. The historic oak staircase was restaured as well. A lounge for students was installed in the entrance hall at the ground level on the historic middle wing. A similar lounge for professors was installed in the portal buildings. The faculty of Law has been investing since some years in a portrait gallery of prominent legal experts and jurists from Leuven. The valven are now home for a series of (historic) photographs, portraits and cartoons.
I believe The Falcon was a contribution made by a Habsburg Monarch, thus the name. The Habsburg Castle was named “hawk’s castle” and falcon’s castle.
“Count Radbot builds himself a castle, in 1020, on a promontory overlooking the river Aar to the west of Zürich. Perhaps because of its high position, it becomes known as Habichtsburg – ‘hawk’s castle’. From this fortress Radbot’s family later acquire their name, as the Habsburgs.”
I believe I have been ordained to reconcile the split between the Protestant and Catholic religions so that God can do battle with His enemies. The Swan Brethren admitted members of the new Protestant religion. A life-size statue of William ‘The Silent’ graces the façade of their meeting hall. Godschalk Rosemondt was the executor of Pope Adrian and built ‘The Pope’s College’ as his good friend instructed. Adrian came to believe only poor boys should be raised up to rule the Vatican. He hated the excesses of the Medicis. Pope Francis is the embodiment of this humble vision that my ancestor carried forth.
My Democracy was not founded as a sanctuary for the Rich, as is the claim of the false Evangelical cosmology invented in Ireland in 1840 by John Darby. Our Democracy was grounded upon the ideal of Pope Adrian, that was inspired by the teaching of Jesus;
“The meek shall inherit the earth.”
There are four colleges that make up Louvain. I believe Pope Adrien bid the heads of noble houses to build and fund buildings made for the education of ‘The Poor of the World’. Above is my kindred’s book ‘Confessionals’ that is signed with the image of a rose followed by “mondt”. The seller of this rare book describes the other image as a Habsburg cote of arms with “The Falcon” written under it. The Habsburg Family were great patrons of the arts. This may be proof they competed with the Medicis for this title. If so, you are reading one of the greatest cultural discoveries in the West. That the people of Holland voted against a populist, believing his ilk were out to destroy Dutch and European culture, is the cultural event of the ages, as you will see.
President: Royal Rosamond Press
Two centuries later Radbot’s descendants are counts of Zürich, with extensive rights over the entire region around Lake Lucerne – comprising the territories of Schwyz, Uri, Unterwalden and Lucerne. These Swiss cantons, the original heart of the Habsburg inheritance, are gradually lost from 1291. But by then a Habsburg count, Rudolf, has won more extensive territories for the family.
The ‘College de Valk’ is located in the center of Leuven. It was founded shortly after the University itself (1425), by Jan Stockelpot († 1465), professor of arts, at House De Valk, located in the Penninkstraat (now called ‘Savoiestraat’, a street off the Tiensestraat). De Valk is actually an old pedagogy rather than a college. At the University of Leuven, colleges were initially buildings used for student housing, usually founded by a rich patron who invited less wealthy students from specific faculties or regions to live there. ‘De Valk’ is one of the four pedagogies of the Arts Faculty (de Lelie, de Valk, de Burcht, het Varken; or, in English: the Lily, the Falcon, the Fortress, and the Pig), however, primarily functioned as teaching institutions. Today De Valk houses the Faculty of Law.
‘College de Valk’ is composed of an auditorium ‘Auditorium Zeger Van Hee’ with a capacity of 200 people and other smaller conference rooms. Our symposium’s morning plenary sessions will be held in the ‘Auditorium Zeger Van Hee’ whereas the afternoon sessions in two parallel conference rooms located nearby (2 min of walk). Next to the conference rooms and the ‘Auditorium Zeger Van Hee’, the session breaks and lunches will be held on the same location as the poster session and the exhibitors’ boots.
Ooms, Jean Baptiste a Belgian mystical writer, was born at Ghele, in Brabant, near the middle of the 17th century. He studied at Falcon. College, Louvain, and became professor of theology at Ghent. He was made archpriest of the deanery of that city June 18, 1694, and confessor of the Capuchin nuns.
During the ancien régime, each of these pedagogies had its own coat of arms. The Falcon’s was made of gold and represented a falcon, probably depicted in its natural color, sitting on a branch. Its motto was: “volitat super omnia falcothe” (falcon soars over everything).
If you are interested in the beautiful and long history of the ‘College de Valk’, more information can be found here.
How to get to the venue
By bus and/or on foot from the train station
- By bus and on foot – take one of the buses nr 1 or 2 (from Peron 6) towards the center of Leuven. Get off (at the second bus stop) at “Rector De Somerplein”. Then walk along the Tiensestraat for about 3 min and you’ll reach the venue.
- On foot (15 min) – walk along the Bondgenotenlaan for 500 m, then turn left onto Jan stasstraat. Walk for about 120 m then continue straight onto Monseigneur Ladeuzeplein for about 120 m. Keep on walking onto Monseigneur Ladeuzeplein until you reach Tiensestraat. Walk on Tiensestraat until the street number 41.