Frederick William unified the Calvinist and Lutheran Church. His wife, Queen Louise, is a legendary beauty who was used in Nazi propaganda as the finest example of German Womanhood. The Stuttmeisters may be her kindred. In the equestrian portrait of Frederick we see a church in the background. Is this a Evangelical church established when the Principality of Neuchâtel came under the rule of the House of Hohenzollern. The Rougemont family of Neufchatel was restored to the old nobility. Is it possible that Victor and Rosemary have common ancestors?
One day my daughter, Heather Hanson, will wake up from the terrible dream her mother shut her in when she stole her destiny, when she took my daughter out of my life. Surely the Stuttmeisters beheld the mausoleum where Princess Louise rest, and wanted the best for their kin, in Berlin, and Colma. Victor’s mother was, Melba Charlott Broderick, the daughter of Alice Stuttmeister.
|Mathilde(Mathilda) Oltmann’s parents. They were possibly from Philadelphia. She married in New York, 1844 to Friedrich Wilhelm Stuttmeister at the German Evangelical Lutheran Church..|
- Stadtmeister (Lord Mayor)
The title Governing Mayor of Berlin is the equivalent of Lord Mayor in the meaning of an actual executive leader.
As capital of the Kingdom of Prussia, Berlin received its first Lord Mayor (Oberbürgermeister) according to the Prussian reforms after the retreat of the Napoleonic occupation troops in 1809, approved by King Frederick William III. He served as head of the city council called Magistrat. The two-stage administration and the office of the boroughs’ mayors were implemented in the course of the wide-ranging incorporations by the 1920 Greater Berlin Act.
At the young age of 34, Queen Louise died on July 19 1810 while visiting her father in Strelitz. She was buried in the gardens of Charlottenburg Palace, over which a mausoleum was built. In 1814, her husband King Friedrich Wilhelm III established the Order of Louise, in tribute and remembrance of his wife.
Here is a letter from Bertha Stuttmeister who lived on 3 Berlinerstrasse (Berlin Street) and is buried at Dorotheen Friedhof.
From Evangelischer Friedhofsverband Berlin Stadtmitte I received confirmation that Hegwig Stuttmeister, Berlinerstrasse 3, Charlottenburg died, age 52 in 1908.
The DOROTHEENSTÄDISHCEN und Friedrichswerderschen geminden also had sent information about Johanna Stuttmeister, died in 1912. This is a mistake as the ‘Grabstein’ has Johannes, a male who died in 1912. Others were Hermann, Rentier, Berlinerstrasse 3, died 1890, Emma Pöhlig also Charlottenburg, died 1899, Felix. Landwirt, Zehlendorf, died 1899, Hugo Stuttmeister, Privatier died 1914, and Bertha Stuttmeister, dioed 1904. All are buried at Dorotheen Friedhof. Their tomb is quite impressive, but there is no more information concerning these ancestors. Is there a source, the correct archive where I can find out who these people were? Was this family involved with the development of Berlin?
In 1814 the Principality of Neuchâtel had been restituted to the Berlin-based Hohenzollern, who had ruled it in personal union from 1707 until 1806. In 1815 Frederick William III agreed that this French-speaking territory of his joined the Swiss Confederation (then not yet an integrated federation, but a mere confederacy) as Canton of Neuchâtel.
Frederick William III (German: Friedrich Wilhelm III) (3 August 1770 – 7 June 1840) was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840. He ruled Prussia during the difficult times of the Napoleonic Wars and the end of the old German Empire. Steering a careful course between France and her enemies, after a major military defeat in 1806, he eventually and reluctantly joined the coalition against Napoleon in the Befreiungskriege. Following Napoleon’s defeat he was King of Prussia during the Congress of Vienna which assembled to settle the political questions arising from the new, post-Napoleonic order in Europe. He was determined to unify the Protestant churches, to homogenize their liturgy, their organization and even their architecture. The long-term goal was to have fully centralized royal control of all the Protestant churches in the Prussian Union of churches.
In 1708 the parish of Jerusalem’s Church, meanwhile too small for the Calvinist and the Lutheran parishioners, was divided, when the New Church, another simultaneum, was opened and took over the northern part of the parish district. Both Calvinist and both Lutheran congregations of the New Church and of Jerusalem’s Church kept a kind of parish federation, e.g. maintaining common cemeteries, three of which are comprised – with cemeteries of other congregations – in a compound of an overall of six cemeteries.
They are among the most important historical cemeteries of Berlin. They are located in Berlin-Kreuzberg south of Hallesches Tor (Berlin U-Bahn) (Friedhöfe vor dem Halleschen Tor). With effect from 1 January 1710 Friedrichstadt (and thus the parish of Jerusalem’s Church) and four other cities were united to form the Royal Residence and Capital City of Berlin (German: Königliche Haupt- und Residenzstadt Berlin).
She was Prussia’s Princess Di of the early 19th century: When Queen Louise died in the summer of 1810 at the age of just 34, she was immediately declared the patron saint of Prussia. Her mausoleum in the park of Charlottenburg Palace became a national pilgrimage site.
The neon-colored phrases leaps out from the exhibition posters: “Working Mom,” “It-Girl” and “Fashion Victim.” At first glance, the application of such modern labels to Queen Louise comes across as little more than slick marketing. But they are more than that: The slogans convey in contemporary terms just how the monarch was held up and misappropriated as a figure of national identification for more than a century after her relatively early death.
Louise’s sudden passing on July 19, 1810 triggered a wave of grief unparalleled in German history. No one wanted to know about her serious lung infection; in the public perception, she died of a broken heart. It was said that she never came to terms with Prussia’s devastating defeat by Napoleon’s troops four years earlier, and the French occupation of large areas of the kingdom. Her sacrifice cast the queen as a martyr in the battle against France. “Louise equals revenge” was a common expression during the wars of independence from 1813 to 1815.
Two centuries after Louise’s death, an anniversary exhibition at Charlottenburg Palace in Berlin focuses on the contradictions between “The Life and the Legend of the Queen.” What was actually known about the Princess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, born in 1776 and married in 1793 to Crown Prince Frederick Wilhelm III, who was six years her senior? And how did future generations – out of naïve admiration or intentional manipulation – embellish her legacy? More than 350 paintings, sculptures, prints and documents help to address these questions.
In analyzing the figure of Louise, the distinction between reality and myth is somewhat blurred. That begins with the countless portraits. While more portraits exist of her than of any other woman at the time, paradoxically it is difficult to form an accurate idea of her physical appearance from the huge number of paintings and drawings. Contemporaries raved about her graceful beauty, her beguiling charm. Particularly famous is Josef Grassi’s painting of 1802, a work depicting the queen’s much-vaunted qualities as a cheerful, spirited and dainty creature. Other pictures show her as a plumper, more mature woman bearing the signs of her many pregnancies: Louise bore 10 children between 1794 and 1809 – three of them died in infancy.
The Prussian Union of Churches (known under various names during its existence) was a major church body which emerged in the 1817 from a series of decrees by Frederick William III of Prussia that united the Lutheran Church and the Reformed (Calvinist) Church in Prussia.
It became the biggest independent religious organisation in the German Empire and later Weimar Germany, with about 18 million parishioners. The church underwent two schisms (one permanent since the 1830s, one temporary 1934–1948), due to changes in governments and their policies. After being the favoured state church of Prussia in the 19th century, it suffered interference and oppression at several times in the 20th century, including the persecution of many parishioners.
One year after he ascended to the throne in 1798, Frederick William III, being summus episcopus (Supreme Governor of the Protestant Churches), decreed a new common liturgical agenda (service book) to be published, for use in both the Lutheran and Reformed congregations. The king, a Reformed Christian, lived in a denominationally mixed marriage with the Lutheran Queen Louise (1776–1810), which is why they never partook of the Lord’s Supper together. A commission was formed in order to prepare this common agenda. This liturgical agenda was the culmination of the efforts of his predecessors to unify these two Protestant churches in Prussia and in its predecessor, the Electorate of Brandenburg, becoming later its core province.
In 1814 the Principality of Neuchâtel had been restituted to the Berlin-based Hohenzollern, who had ruled it in personal union from 1707 until 1806. In 1815 Frederick William III agreed that this French-speaking territory of his joined the Swiss Confederation (then not yet an integrated federation, but a mere confederacy) as Canton of Neuchâtel. The church body of the prevailingly Calvinist Neuchâtelians did not rank as state church but was independent, since at the time of its foundation in 1540, the ruling princely House of Orléans-Longueville (Valois-Dunois) was Catholic. Furthermore, no Lutheran congregation existed in Neuchâtel. Thus the Reformed Church of Neuchâtel Canton (de) was not object of Frederick William’s Union policy.
In January 1817 the cult and public instruction section was hived off as the Prussian Ministry of the Spiritual, Educational and Medical Affairs (de), usually called Cult Ministry (Kultusministerium). Karl vom Stein zum Altenstein was appointed as minister. The Reformed churches and the Lutheran church were thus administered by one department within the same ministry. The ministry introduced the preaching gown (German: Talar) as the usual clerical clothing.
On 27 September 1817, Frederick William announced through a text written by Eylert that on the 300th anniversary of the Reformation Potsdam‘s Reformed court and garrison congregation, led by Court Preacher Rulemann Friedrich Eylert (de), and the Lutheran garrison congregation, both using the Calvinist Garrison Church would unite into one Evangelical Christian congregation on Reformation Day, 31 October. Already the day before Lutherans and Reformed Christians celebrated together the Lord’s Supper in Berlin’s Lutheran St. Nicholas’ Church.
On 7 November Frederick William expressed his desire to see the Protestant congregations around Prussia follow this example, and become Union congregations. Lutherans, previously forming the Lutheran state church of Nassau-Saarbrücken, and Calvinists in the southerly Saar area had formed a church united in administration already on 24 October (Saarbrücken Union (de)). However, because of the unique constitutive role of congregations in Protestantism, no congregation was forced by the King’s decree into merger. Thus, in the years that followed, many Lutheran and Reformed congregations did follow the example of Potsdam, and became merged congregations, while others maintained their former Lutheran or Reformed denomination.
Originally a Roman Catholic church, the Church of St. Nicholas became a Lutheran church after the Protestant Reformation in the Electorate of Brandenburg in 1539. In the 17th century, the prominent hymn-writer Paul Gerhardt was the minister of this church, and the composer Johann Crueger was musical director. The prominent Lutheran theologian Provost Philipp Jacob Spener was the minister from 1691 to 1705. From 1913 to 1923 the minister at the Church of St. Nicholas was Wilhelm Wessel, whose son Horst Wessel later became famous as a Nazi: the family lived in the nearby Jüdenstraße.
The French preacher Guillaume Farel brought the teachings of the Protestant Reformation to the area in 1530. When the house of Orléans-Longueville became extinct with Marie d’Orléans-Longueville‘s death in 1707, the Principality of Neuchâtel (German: Fürstentum Neuenburg) somehow passed to the Protestant King Frederick I in Prussia of the Berlin-based Hohenzollern dynasty, who then ruled Neuchâtel in personal union. However, after 1707, the rightful heiress in primogeniture from Jeanne de Rothelin was the Catholic Paule de Gondi, Duchess of Retz.
The people of Neuchâtel chose Princess Marie’s successor from among fifteen claimants. They wanted their new prince first and foremost to be a Protestant, and also to be strong enough to protect their territory but based far enough away to leave them to their own devices. Louis XIV, actively promoted the many French pretenders to the title, but the Neuchâtelois people in the final decision in 1708 passed them over in favour of King Frederick I of Prussia, who claimed his entitlement in a rather complicated fashion through the House of Orange and Nassau, who were not even descended from Jeanne de Rothelin.
In 1781 Frederick William, then prince of Prussia, inclined to mysticism, had joined the Rosicrucians, and had fallen under the influence of Johann Christoph von Wöllner and Johann Rudolf von Bischoffwerder. On 26 August 1786 Wöllner was appointed privy councillor for finance (Geheimer Oberfinanzrath), and on 2 October 1786 was ennobled. Though not in name, he in fact became prime minister; in all internal affairs it was he who decided; and the fiscal and economic reforms of the new reign were the application of his theories. Bischoffswerder, too, still a simple major, was called into the king′s counsels; by 1789 he was already an adjutant-general.
Napoleon Bonaparte deposed King Frederick William III of Prussia as prince of Neuchâtel and appointed instead his chief of staff Louis Alexandre Berthier. Starting in 1807, the principality provided Napoleon’s Grande Armée with a battalion of rangers. The rangers were nicknamed Canaris (i.e. Canaries) because of their yellow uniforms.
Queen Louise was revered by her subjects as the “soul of national virtue”, and some historians have written that Louise was “Prussian nationalism personified.” According to Christopher Clark, Louise was “a female celebrity who in the mind of the public combined virtue, modesty, and sovereign grace with kindness and sex appeal, and whose early death in 1810 at the age of only thirty-four preserved her youth in the memory of posterity.” Her reputation as a loving and loyal supporter of her husband became crucial to her enduring legacy; the cult that eventually surrounded Louise became associated with the “ideal” feminine attributes: prettiness, sweet nature, maternal kindness, and wifely virtue.
On the anniversary of her birth, in 1814, the widowed King Frederick William instituted the Order of Louise (Luisenorden) as a complementary decoration for the Iron Cross. Its purpose was to be given to those women who had made a significant contribution to the war effort against Napoleon, though it was subsequently awarded to future members of the House of Hohenzollern unrelated to the French emperor, such as her granddaughter-in-law, Empress Victoria of Germany, and her great-granddaughter, Queen Sophia of Greece. In 1880 a statue of Queen Louise was erected in the Tiergarten in Berlin.
Louise inspired the establishment of a conservative women’s organization known as Königin-Luise-Bund, often shortened to Luisenbund (“Queen Louise League“) in which her person achieved an almost cult-like status. The group’s main purpose was to promote patriotic feelings among German women, and it emphasized the family and German morality. The Königin-Luise-Bund was active during the time of the Weimar Republic and the first years of the Third Reich. Despite having actively supported the National Socialist movement since its early stages all through their accession to power in 1933, the Queen Louise League was nonetheless disbanded by the Nazis in 1934, as they viewed it as a hostile organization.
Significantly, Louise and Maria Theresa of Austria were the only two historical women used in Nazi propaganda, as the regime felt Louise was the “personification of womanly qualities,” which the government was trying to integrate into German schools. While the queen’s resistance and defiance of the French kept the “Prussian spirit” alive, her husband was cast as a “pathetically embarrassing” king who would rather have lived in peace than revenge himself on Napoleon.
The character of Queen Louise was the popular subject of countless films released in German cinema. These included Der Film von der Königin Luise (1913), Die elf schillschen Offiziere (1926), and Vivat – Königin Luise im Fichtelgebirge (2005), Luise – Königin der Herzen (2010 documentary). She was played by Mady Christians in the 1927 silent film Queen Louise, by Henny Porten in Louise, Queen of Prussia (1931) and by Ruth Leuwerik in the 1957 film Queen Louise.
She was also briefly portrayed in an extremely reverential manner in the 1945 propaganda film Kolberg. The German warship sunk in Lake Victoria in the film The African Queen is called the Königin Luise (the “Queen Louise”).
Louise became the subject of a series of novels by nineteenth century German historical fiction writer Luise Mühlbach, which included Louisa of Prussia and her Times and Napoleon and the Queen of Prussia.
7. AGNES EMMA HEDWIG STUTTMEISTER – International Genealogical Index / GE
Gender: Female Christening: 06 SEP 1856 Sankt Petri, Berlin Stadt, Brandenburg, Preussen
8. ALBERTUS FRIEDERICH STUTTMEISTER – International Genealogical Index / GE
Gender: Male Christening: 11 JUL 1745 Jerusalem, Berlin Stadt, Brandenburg, Preussen
9. DOROTHEA SOPHIA STUTTMEISTER – International Genealogical Index / GE
Gender: Female Christening: 03 AUG 1807 Jerusalem, Berlin Stadt, Brandenburg, Preussen
10. EMILIE FRIEDRICKE STUDTMEISTER – International Genealogical Index / GE
Gender: Female Christening: 26 JAN 1806 Sankt Nikolai, Berlin Stadt, Brandenburg, Preussen
11. AMALIE CHARLOTTE JOHANNE ELISABETH STUTTMEISTER – International Genealogical Index / GE
Gender: Female Christening: 06 MAR 1860 Sankt Petri, Berlin Stadt, Brandenburg, Preussen
12. FRIEDRICH HEINRICH STUTTMEISTER – International Genealogical Index / GE
Gender: Male Christening: 30 JAN 1862 Sankt Elisabeth, Berlin Stadt, Brandenburg, Preussen
13. JOH. CARL STUTTMEISTER – International Genealogical Index / GE
Gender: Male Christening: 20 AUG 1747 Jerusalem, Berlin Stadt, Brandenburg, Preussen
14. JOHANNES HERMANN STUTTMEISTER – International Genealogical Index / GE
Gender: Male Christening: 04 MAY 1826 Friedrichswerder Berlin, Brandenburg, Preussen
15. CARL HEINRICH STUTTMEISTER – International Genealogical Index / GEDr.
Gender: Male Christening: 15 APR 1805 Sankt Nikolai, Berlin Stadt, Brandenburg, Preussen
16. CATHARINA DOROTHEA STUTTMEISTER – International Genealogical Index / GE
Gender: Female Christening: 02 AUG 1743 Jerusalem, Berlin Stadt, Brandenburg, Preussen
17. VICTOR EMANUEL FELIX STUTTMEISTER – International Genealogical Index / GE
Gender: Male Christening: 07 MAR 1861 Sankt Petri, Berlin Stadt, Brandenburg, Preussen