A group of Sioux leaders is passing a petition claiming the Dakotas were not part of Louisiana, a French Colony established by the House of Bourbon, and thus null and voids the sale of Louisiana to the United States. As acting Regent of the Bourbon Kingdom of New France in America, I will honor this claim and grant the Dakotas to the Sioux people so that they may establish a sovereign nation.
Here is why the President of the United States should sell the former Louisiana Territory to me and my fiancé for $1:
1. It would reopen the U.S. Government and end the debt ceiling crisis by eliminating Republican Congressmen from the states of Arkansas, Oklahoma, Missouri, Kansas, Iowa, and Nebraska, as well as parts of Minnesota, South Dakota, North Dakota, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, and, of course, Louisiana. This would give the Democrats the majority in the House.
2. Once this is done, then I will arrest these Republican Anarchists and imprison them as un-desirable aliens.
3. I will then offer Mexico the State of Texas for $4,000,000,000 dollars. That’s four billion dollars.
King of Califoria
Regent of New France in America
Prince Jean d’Orléans, Duke of Vendôme, announced earlier this month that, at the age of 43, he will soon marry, with the hope of extending his royal line. His descendants would then be ready if the French monarchy — which was toppled by the bloody Revolution of 1789 — is ever brought back.
Prince Jean d’Orleans is undeterred by Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette’s untimely demise. He believes a monarch is just what France needs right now.
“Maybe one day the monarchy will be restored in France,” said Prince Jean as he strolled around the gardens of the Palais Royal in central Paris. “The prince can’t just sit back and wait. He must make his mark.”
The Louisiana Purchase encompassed close to one-third of the present continental United States including all of the present-day states of Arkansas, Oklahoma, Missouri, Kansas, Iowa, and Nebraska, as well as parts of Minnesota, South Dakota, North Dakota, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, and, of course, Louisiana.
American schools teach far too many untruths, such as one of the biggest lies of modern man – a $15 million dollar land acquisition called the Louisiana Purchase between France and the United States in 1803.
France did not own L/D/Nakota Territories. They had previously passed unhampered through L/D/Nakota territories and somehow – possibly through a ridiculous religious proclamation – falsely assumed ownership and fraudulently attempted to sell lands to the u.s.
Why does America, the U.N., and the World Court refuse to recognize the existence of Indigenous Nations and Peoples?
Educational awareness is needed to allow the truth to be told.
We the undersigned, demand that the United States government honor Article VI of the U.S. Constitution, immediately recognize the existence of the L/D/Nakota (misnomer Sioux) Indigenous Red Nation and their legitimate rights to nationhood, admit the fact that a so-called Louisiana Purchase is a fraudulent land transaction (France did not own L/D/Nakota Territories), and abide by and respect the supreme law 1851 Treaty of Fort Laramie.
The French colonial empire was constituted of the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 17th century onward. A distinction is generally made between the “First colonial empire”, that existed until 1814 and by which time most of it had been lost, and the “Second colonial empire”, which began with the conquest of Algier in 1830 and came to an end with the granting of independence to Algeria in 1962. By 1900, it had become the world’s second-largest colonial empire, albeit far behind the British Empire both in terms of population and size,. On the eve of WW II, it covered some 12,300,000 km² of land, with a population of 110 million (including France).
In rivalry with England, France began to establish colonies in North America, the Caribbean, and India, following the Spanish and Portuguese successes during the Age of Discovery. A series of wars with Great Britain during the 18th century and early 19th century, all of which France lost, stripped away most of its first empire.
Excursions of Giovanni da Verrazzano and Jacques Cartier in the early 16th century, as well as the frequent voyages of French boats and fishermen to the Grand Banks off Newfoundland throughout that century, were the precursors to the story of France’s colonial expansion. But Spain’s jealous protection of its foreign monopoly, and the further distractions caused in France itself in the later 16th century by the French Wars of Religion, prevented any constant efforts by France to settle colonies. Early French attempts to found colonies in 1612 at São Luís (“France Équinoxiale”), and in Brazil, in 1555 at Rio de Janeiro (“France Antarctique”) and in Florida (including Fort Caroline in 1562) were not successful, due to a lack of official interest and to Portuguese and Spanish vigilance.
The story of France’s colonial empire truly began on 27 July 1605, with the foundation of Port Royal in the colony of Acadia in North America, in what is now Nova Scotia, Canada. A few years later, in 1608, Samuel De Champlain founded Quebec, which was to become the capital of the enormous, but sparsely settled, fur-trading colony of New France (also called Canada).
New France had a rather small population, which resulted from more emphasis being placed on the fur trade rather than agricultural settlements. Due to this emphasis, the French relied heavily on creating friendly contacts with the local First Nations community. Without the appetite of New England for land, and by relying solely on Aboriginals to supply them with fur at the trading posts, the French composed a complex series of military, commercial, and diplomatic connections. These became the most enduring alliances between the French and the First Nation community. The French were, however, under pressure from religious orders to convert them to Catholicism.
Although, through alliances with various Native American tribes, the French were able to exert a loose control over much of the North American continent, areas of French settlement were generally limited to the St. Lawrence River Valley. Prior to the establishment of the 1663 Sovereign Council, the territories of New France were developed as mercantile colonies. It is only after the arrival of intendant Jean Talon in 1665 that France gave its American colonies the proper means to develop population colonies comparable to that of the British. But there was relatively little interest in colonialism in France, which concentrated rather on dominance within Europe, and for most of its history, New France was far behind the British North American colonies in both population and economic development. Acadia itself was lost to the British in the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713.
In 1699, French territorial claims in North America expanded still further, with the foundation of Louisiana in the basin of the Mississippi River. The extensive trading network throughout the region connected to Canada through the Great Lakes, was maintained through a vast system of fortifications, many of them centred in the Illinois Country and in present-day Arkansas.
Louisiana (French: La Louisiane; by 1879, La Louisiane française) or French Louisiana was an administrative district of New France. Under French control from 1682–1762 and 1802–04, the area was named in honor of Louis XIV, by French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle. It originally covered an expansive territory that included most of the drainage basin of the Mississippi River and stretched from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico and from the Appalachian Mountains to the Rocky Mountains. Louisiana was divided into two regions, known as Upper Louisiana (French: Haute-Louisiane), which began north of the Arkansas River, and Lower Louisiana (French: Basse-Louisiane). The present-day U.S. state of Louisiana is named for the historical region, although it occupies only a small portion of the territory claimed by the French.
French exploration of the area began during the reign of Louis XIV, while French Louisiana was not greatly developed, due to a lack of human and financial resources. As a result of its defeat, in the Seven Years’ War, France was forced to cede the eastern part of the territory in 1763 to the victorious British, and the western part to Spain as compensation for that country’s loss of Florida. France regained sovereignty of the western territory in the secret Treaty of San Ildefonso of 1800. But, strained by obligations in Europe, Napoleon Bonaparte decided to sell the territory to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, ending France’s presence in Louisiana.
The United States ceded part of the Louisiana Purchase to the United Kingdom in the Treaty of 1818, following the War of 1812. This section lies above the 49th parallel north in a portion of present-day Alberta and Saskatchewan.
Louis XIV (5 September 1638 – 1 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (le Roi-Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1643 until his death. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest of monarchs of major countries in European history.
Louis began his personal rule of France in 1661 after the death of his chief minister, the Italian Cardinal Mazarin. An adherent of the theory of the divine right of kings, which advocates the divine origin of monarchical rule, Louis continued his predecessors’ work of creating a centralized state governed from the capital. He sought to eliminate the remnants of feudalism persisting in parts of France and, by compelling many members of the nobility to inhabit his lavish Palace of Versailles, succeeded in pacifying the aristocracy, many members of which had participated in the Fronde rebellion during Louis’s minority. By these means he became one of the most powerful French monarchs and consolidated a system of absolute monarchical rule in France that endured until the French Revolution.
The divine right of kings, or divine-right theory of kingship, is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy. It asserts that a monarch is subject to no earthly authority, deriving the right to rule directly from the will of God. The king is thus not subject to the will of his people, the aristocracy, or any other estate of the realm, including (in the view of some, especially in Protestant countries) the Church. According to this doctrine, only God can judge an unjust king. The doctrine implies that any attempt to depose the king or to restrict his powers runs contrary to the will of God and may constitute a sacrilegious act.
Following the signature of the Peace of Basel, which put an end to the War of the Pyrenees between France and Spain, both countries maintained a military alliance embodied in the signing of the Second Treaty of San Ildefonso on 1796, which committed either party to go to war against a third country if attacked. It was this alliance that led to Spain’s entry into the war against Great Britain, leading to the loss of Trinidad and Menorca in 1798 and the attacks on Ferrol and Cadiz in 1800. Spain’s financial system was facing serious trouble—from 1780 banknotes were circulating as legal currency, as a new form of government bonds invented by Francisco Cabarrús. The British attacks on Spain’s colonies and her convoys back from America, along with Britain’s commercial blockade, added to an already worsening economic situation, with the national debt increasing eightfold between 1793 and 1798. Charles IV and Maria Luisa of Parma ruled Spain, with Manuel Godoy as prime minister.
At the end of the 17th century, Spain was an ailing empire facing declining revenues and the loss of military power. It was ruled by a weak King, Charles II of Spain, who would leave no successors. Even before the death of Charles II, the European powers were already positioning themselves to see which noble house would procure the Spanish throne with its vast empire. Louis XIV of France asked for, and gained, the Pope’s consent for his grandson, Philip of Anjou, a grand nephew of Charles II, to ascend the throne. On his deathbed Charles II willed the crown to this French-born successor.
The transfer of the Spanish Crown to the Bourbons, in 1700, did not go uncontested. In the ensuing War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1713), Spain had to surrender some of its European territories, and grant the monopoly of the valuable slave trade with the Americas to England. Philip V of Spain took measures intended to counter the decline of Spanish power. Even before the war the state of the Spanish empire was precarious. When Charles II died, the military was practically non- existent, consisting of one division, the treasury was bankrupt, and there was no promotion of commerce or industry. Philip V and his ministers needed to act quickly to reconstruct the empire.
The new Bourbon kings kept close ties with France and used many Frenchmen as advisors. Though French innovations in politics and social manners never fully replaced Spanish laws and traditions, they became an important model in both areas. As a result, there was an influx of French goods, ideas and books, which helped spread the ideas of the Enlightenment throughout the Spanish world. In a sense, all things French came into fashion during the subsequent century, and gave rise to a new type of person, the afrancesado, who welcomed this new influence. In addition, during the War of Succession the ports in Spanish America were blockaded by British and Dutch fleets. Spain turned to France for help with the export of its goods. This was the first time in Spanish colonial history that trade occurred with a foreign nation. This new commercial relationship stimulated the colonial economy, especially that of Chile.
On 14 January 1724, Philip abdicated the throne to his eldest son, the seventeen-year old Louis, for reasons still subject to debate. One theory suggests that Philip V, who exhibited many elements of mental instability during his reign, did not wish to reign due to his increasing mental decline. A second theory puts the abdication in context of the Bourbon dynasty. The French royal family recently had lost many legitimate agnates to diseases. Indeed, Philip V’s abdication occurred just over a month after the death of the Duke of Orléans, who had been regent for Louis XV of France. The lack of an heir made another continental war of succession a possibility. Philip V was a legitimate descendant of Louis XIV, but matters were complicated by the Treaty of Utrecht, which forbade a union of the French and Spanish crowns. The theory supposes that Philip V hoped that by abdicating the Spanish crown he could circumvent the Treaty and succeed to the French throne
The bulk of the changes in Spanish America came in the second half of the 18th century. Early reforms consisted primarily of creating one new viceroyalty to improve the administration of the overseas possessions. The Viceroyalty of New Granada was created in 1717, although it was suppressed just six years later and only permanently established in 1739. A second viceroyalty was created much later in 1776 in the Río de la Plata. In the same year an autonomous captaincy general was also established in Venezuela. Under Charles III colonial matters were concentrated in a single ministry, which took powers away from the Council of the Indies. Furthermore, the advances Americans (Criollos) had made in the local bureaucracy in the past century and a half, usually through the sale of offices, were checked by the direct appointment of (supposedly more qualified and disinterested) Spanish officials.
Charles III also initiated the difficult process of changing the complex administrative system of the former ruling family, the Habsburgs. (See José de Gálvez.) Corregidores were replaced with a French institution, the intendant. The intendancies had the desired effect of further decentralizing the administration at the expense of viceroys, captains general and governors, since intendants were directly responsible to the Crown, not to the former, and were granted large powers in economic and political matters. The intendancy system proved to be efficient in most areas and led to an increase in revenue collection. Intendency seats were mainly based in large cities and successful mining centers. Almost all of the new intendants were Peninsulares, that is people who were born in Spain, exacerbating the conflict between Peninsulares and Criollos, who wished to retain some control of local administration. Charles III and Charles IV also reversed the advances Criollos had made in the high courts (audiencias). Under the Habsburgs, the Crown had sold audiencia positions to Criollos. The Bourbon kings ended this policy. By 1807, “only twelve out of ninety-nine [audiencia] judges were creoles.”
With regards to the economy, collection of taxes was more efficient under the intendancy system. In 1778 King Charles III established the “Decree of Free Trade,” which allowed the Spanish American ports to trade directly with each other and with most ports in Spain. Therefore, “commerce would no longer be restricted to four colonial ports (Veracruz, Cartagena, Lima/Callao, and Panama).” Tax reductions were given to the silver mining industry. Tobacco proved to be a successful crop after state monopolies were expanded. Also during this time, many of the colonies began to produce an abundance of resources that became vital to many European powers and the British colonies in North America and the Caribbean, despite the fact that most of this trade was considered contraband, because it was not carried on Spanish ships. Most of the Bourbon kings tried to outlaw this trade through various programs like increasing the customs receipts, though the efforts provided little result.
Spanish America barely had an operational military before the Bourbon reforms, and what it did have was inconsistent and scattered. The Bourbons created a more organized militia and first used men deployed straight from Spain as officers, but soon this broke down, as locals took most positions. The colonial militias became a source of prestige for “status-hungry” Criollos. The hierarchy of the military was racially based. Militias were often created along race lines, with militias for whites, blacks and mixed race people. Almost all the higher officers were Spanish-born, with Criollos occupying the secondary levels of command.
The Bourbons also made the government more secular. The political role of the Church was diminished, though never removed completely. Unlike the Habsburgs, who often selected churchmen to fill political offices, the Bourbons preferred to appoint career military officers. This process reached a high point with the Suppression of the Society of Jesus in 1767. The Jesuits were one of the wealthiest religious orders and had been instrumental in the missionary work carried out in the Americas and the Philippines. Because they had major rivals in the other orders of the church, their dismissal was greeted with covert approval. The crown also tried to place the more secular clergy in the church hierarchy, reversing a trend since the beginning of the colonial period of having the regular clergy fill these posts. Overall, these changes had little effect on the Church as a whole. Towards the end of the Bourbon reign, on the “eve of independence, the crown attempted to confiscate church property, but the measure proved hard to enforce.”