Jewish Revolutionary War Hero

Francis Salvador was attacked and killed by Cherokee Indians, whom may be my kinfolk. Francis led an Exodus of Sephardic Jews from England to South Carolina, and was a leader of Reform Judaism who were anti-Zionists.

Smauel Roseman/Rosamond fought the Cherokee before he fought the British. He was a scout or Francis Marion who Mel Gibson played in the movie ‘The Patriot’. Mr. Martin owns a tomahawk that he came to own during the Cherokee wars. He had three sons that have the same name as my Rosamond kindred, Samuel, Benjamin, Nathan. Two Rosamonds took the name Francis Marion.

The Rosamond and Hodges family, intermarried. Dorothy Hodges was taken by a Cherokee chief, and had a son by him. Did this chief kill Salvador, who descends from King David?
The Hodges family owned some of the “Jews Land” owned by Salvador’s kindred. Our kindred, and their history are entwined in Biblical Hisotry and the mission of the Zionists.

Below is a photo of ‘Plantation Point’ where my acre of land promised to me by a descendant of King David, and kin of Salvador, is found. I believe the Sephardic Jews took an oath on this land that they would never return to Zion. One could say this a Thanksgiving.

I believe I am the Messiah of the Jews born four days after the Zionist tricked the President of the United States into believing he was Cyrus. God was furious at this deception. Thousands of stars fell from the heaven. I am born of the Dragon found in Rebelations.

Repent! And return in spririt to God’s Little Acre, for He is prepared to mend the rent in the three religions born of the Seed of Abraham.

Jon the Nazarite Judge

Jon the Nazarite

Early Reform Judaism was also anti¬Zionist, believing the Diaspora was necessary for Jews to be “light unto the nations.” Nevertheless, a number of Reform rabbis were pioneers in establishing Zionism in America, including Gustav and Richard Gottheil, Rabbi Steven S. Wise (founder of the American Jewish Congress) and Justice Louis Brandeis. Following the Balfour Declaration, the Reform movement began to support Jewish settlements in Palestine, as well as institutions such as Hadassah Hospital and the Hebrew University.

As the years passed, a reevaluation took place in which many members of the Reform movement began to question the “reforms” that were made. By 1935, the movement had begun to return to a more traditional approach to Judaism-distinctly Jewish and distinctly American, but also distinctively non¬Christian. Starting with the Columbus Platform in 1937, many of the discarded practices were reincorporated into the Reform canon, and constitute what is now called “Modern” Reform Judaism, or more succinctly, Reform Judaism. The platform also formally shifted the movement’s position on Zionism by affirming “the obligation of all Jewry to aid in building a Jewish homeland….”

By the time of the American Revolution, about 200 Jews lived in Charles Town. Most of them supported the patriot cause since they enjoyed greater religious and political freedom in the colonies than they had in England. Francis Salvador embraced these freedoms and became a staunch defender of independence.

The nephew of a wealthy merchant in London, Salvador came to South Carolina in 1773. By 1774, he had become a planter, acquiring land and thirty slaves. Although he had only recently lived in England, Salvador was a strong supporter of the colonists’ cause. He became a propagandist, traveling around the colony trying to convince farmers to support the colonies in their dispute with Mother England. He was chosen to serve in the first provisional congress in South Carolina in 1774; he remained in the state’s assembly after it had declared independence, helping to draft South Carolina’s constitution.

Salvador was the first practicing Jew to serve in a legislative body in America. When fighting broke out in South Carolina in 1776, the 29-year-old Salvador joined the local militia, but was soon killed by British-allied Indians (above). In City Hall Park in downtown Charleston, there is a memorial plaque for Salvador, which reads “An Englishman, he cast his lot with America; True to his ancient faith, he gave his life for new hopes of human liberty and understanding.”

Portrait of

ca. 1795 During the revolution, many of the young Jewish men of Charles Town fought for independence. In fact, so many Jews served in a particular company in the Charles Town Regiment, perhaps as many as 28, that it became known informally as the “Jew Company.” These companies were formed based on where the men lived, and since so many Jews lived around King Street, most ended up in the same company. Abraham Mendes Seixas was born in New York but moved to Charles Town in 1774. When the war broke out, he became a captain of a Charles Town militia company. After the city was captured by the British, Seixas was banished from Charles Town when he refused to sign a loyalty oath. Seixas went to Philadelphia and was soon followed by many other Charles Town Jews who were seeking to escape British control. After the war, Seixas and other Jews returned to the city that was now known as Charleston.

When the second Provincial Congress assembled in November 1775, Salvador urged that body to instruct the South Carolina delegation in Philadelphia to vote for American independence. Salvador played a leading role in the Provincial Congress, chairing its ways and means committee and serving on a select committee authorized to issue bills of credit to pay the militia. Salvador was also part of a special commission established to preserve the peace in the interior parts of South Carolina, where the English Superintendent of Indian Affairs was busily negotiating treaties with the Cherokees to induce the tribe to attack the colonists.

When the Cherokees attacked settlements along the frontier on July 1, 1776, massacring and scalping colonial inhabitants, Salvador, in an act reminiscent of Paul Revere, mounted his horse and galloped nearly thirty miles to give the alarm. He then returned to join the militia in the front lines, defending the settlements under siege. During a Cherokee attack early in the morning of August first, Salvador was shot. He fell into some bushes, where he was subsequently discovered and scalped. Salvador died forty-five minutes later. Major Andrew Williamson, the militia commander, reported of Salvador that, “When I came up to him after dislodging the enemy and speaking to him, he asked whether I had beaten the enemy. I told him ‘Yes.’ He said he was glad of it and shook me by the hand and bade me farewell, and said he would die in a few minutes.”

His friend Henry Laurens reported that Salvador’s death was “universally regretted,” while William Henry Drayton, later Chief Justice of South Carolina, noted that Salvador had “sacrificed his life in the service of his adopted country.” Dead at twenty-nine, never again seeing his wife or children after leaving England, Salvador was the first Jew to die waging the American Revolution. Ironically, because he was fighting on the frontier, he probably did not receive the news that the Continental Congress in Philadelphia had, as he urged, adopted the Declaration of Independence
Francis Salvador, along with the DaCosta family of London, hoped to settle poor Jews and their own family members in the New World. They sent 42 Jews to Savannah with the original settlers in 1733. When Spain attacked Georgia in 1740, most of the Jewish families fled to Charleston, fearing the Spanish Inquisition. Jews from London began arriving in Charleston in the 1730s, and were later joined by Jews from Germany, the Netherlands and the West Indies. Francis Salvador was the only Jew to settle on the frontier. The Salvador and DaCosta families in London bought 200,000 acres (810 km2) in the new district of Ninety-Six (known as “Jews Land”), and began to populate it.[2] The Salvador family was financially ruined by the Lisbon earthquake of 1755 and subsequent failure of the East India Company, retaining their land in South Carolina and little other wealth.[3] Francis Salvador bought 7,000 acres (28 km2), and moved there in 1773, intending to send for his wife, Sarah, and their children as soon as he was able.

20. Benjamin Rosamond was born 1790 in , Greenwood Co., Sc, and died BEF 16 May 1859 in Attala Co., Ms. He was the son of 40. James Rosamond and 41. Lettice, Mrs Rosamond.

21. Susannah Hill died 20 Oct 1828 in Abbeville Co., Sc.

Children of Susannah Hill and Benjamin Rosamond are:
10. i. James Rosamond was born ABT. 1808 in Abbeville District, Sc. He married Tobitha, Mrs Rosamond. She was born ABT. 1802 in South Carolina.
ii. John Rosamond was born ABT. 1809 in Abbeville District, Sc. He married Sarah Graham ABT. 1831 in South Carolina. She was born 23 Jun 1811 in Sc.
iii. Thomas Henry Rosamond was born 19 Oct 1811 in Abbeville District, Sc, and died 1886. He married Sarah Mays ABT. 1846, daughter of Matthew Mays and Lucretia Rogers. She was born 3 Apr 1825 in Abbeville District, Sc.
iv. Benjamin, Jr. Rosamond was born ABT. 1814 in South Carolina. He married Elizabeth, Mrs Rosamond, daughter of Alvin Phillip Rosamond and Jettie Bass.
v. Samuel Rosamond was born 1815 in Abbeville District, Sc. He married Frances C. Morrison. She was born ABT. 1822 in South Carolina.

vi. William Addison Rosamond was born 17 Sep 1819 in Abbeville District, Sc, and died 29 Nov 1900 in Weldon, Houston County, Texas. He married Martha Canzada Coleman in Kosciusko, Attala County, Mississippi. She was born ABT. 1828 in South Carolina, and died 2 Sep 1898 in Weldon, Houston County, Texas.
vii. Joseph Rosamond was born 1825 in South Carolina, and died AFT. 1870. He married Joseph1825, Mrs Rosamond.

viii. Nancy Narcissus Rosamond was born 20 Oct 1828 in Abbeville County, Sc, and died 17 Jun 1921 in , Choctaw Co,,Ms. She married William Wright Bowie 1844, son of Hezekiah Bowie and Lucinda Elizabeth Simms. He was born 3 Oct 1822 in , , Sc, and died 2 Feb 1910.

A Nathan Rosamond is known to been in Maryland in 1739, and there is a will for a Nathan Rosamond in Chester County, PA dated 1742.
The American Revolution in South Carolina
Capt. Samuel Rosamond*
Known Regiment(s) Associated With: Known Year(s) as a Captain:
Ninety-Six District Regiment 1777-1778
Upper Ninety-Six District Regiment 1778-1782

The Americanization of Reform Judaism
The introduction of Reform into American Judaism is usually associated with the arrival of intellectual German-speaking Jews fleeing Europe’s failed republican revolutions of 1830 and 1848, and with German-born rabbis such as David Einhorn of Baltimore and Isaac Mayer Wise of Cincinnati. However, the first stirrings of American Reform had native roots in Congregation K. K. Beth Elohim in Charleston, South Carolina.
In December 1824, led by Isaac Harby, forty-seven Charleston Jews petitioned the leaders of Beth Elohim for major changes in the Shabbat service. At that time, Beth Elohim followed the Spanish and Portuguese minhag (customary ritual), which the leadership saw as the service used by observant Jews since the time of the Second Temple. The dissidents asked that each Hebrew prayer in the service be immediately followed by an English translation; that new prayers reflecting contemporary American life be added; that the rabbi offer a weekly sermon – in English – that would explain the Scriptures and apply them to everyday life; and that services be shortened.
Descended from a Sephardic family that had fled Spain for Portugal then Morocco, London and Jamaica before moving to Charleston in 1782, Isaac Harby was an unlikely Reformer. Harby’s father Solomon married Rebecca Moses, the daughter of one of South Carolina’s leading Jewish families. Born in 1788, Isaac became a noted teacher, playwright, literary critic, journalist and newspaper editor.
Harby demonstrated little interest in religion in his younger years, but in the early 1820s he became alarmed by organized Protestant efforts to convert American Jews and the emergence of anti-Semitism in politics. Harby wanted his fellow Charleston Jews to defend Judaism from its critics and themselves from proselytizers, but worried that they knew too little about their religion, were ill-tutored in Hebrew or other languages, could not understand the traditional Spanish and Portuguese rituals at Beth Elohim and were thus defenseless against the Protestant challenge.
Harby and his fellow reformers thought that services at Beth Elohim had to become more “American” — frankly, more like services those in surrounding Protestant churches. They wished to worship no longer, as they put it, as “slaves of bigotry and priestcraft,” but as part of the “enlightened world.” The leaders of Beth Elohim refused to consider their petition, citing the congregation’s constitution, which required that at least two-thirds of the membership join in any call to amend synagogue rituals or practices. In response, the reformers created an independent “Reformed Society of Israelites for Promoting True Principles of Judaism According to Its Purity and Spirit.”
Meeting at a separate site, the Reformed Society of Israelites wrote its own prayer book, introduced music into the service and worshipped without head coverings. Harby became an active leader of the Society, serving as orator and, in 1827, as president. On the first anniversary of the reform petition, he delivered a lengthy and eloquent address explaining the Society’s goals, which he circulated widely as a pamphlet. Though understandably the pamphlet received a mixed reception within the Jewish community, many non-Jewish readers praised it. Even octogenarian Thomas Jefferson wrote to say that he found the reforms proposed “entirely reasonable,” though confessing that he was “little acquainted with the liturgy of the Jews or their mode of worship.”
While the Reformed Society of Israelites flourished for a few years, the leaders and loyal members of Beth Elohim never ceased their relentless criticism and ostracism of the reformers, and many members became discouraged as their families split apart on religious grounds. Harby left Charleston for New York in 1827, profoundly affected by the premature death of his wife that year (Harby himself died suddenly in 1828). Other reform leaders either died or drifted away. Although the Society never officially disbanded, it ceased to exist sometime after the mid-1830’s. Most members rejoined KKBE.
However, the spirit of reform in Charleston did not die with Harby. When an accidental fire destroyed Beth Elohim in 1838, the congregation met to plan its rebuilding. The remaining reformers seized their opportunity and thirty-eight members petitioned the trustees that “an organ be erected in the synagogue to assist in the vocal part of the service.” The “Great Organ Controversy,” as it came to be known, split the congregation as nothing previously. The synagogue leadership again turned down the request, claiming that playing the organ during services would violate the injunction against labor on Shabbat. Following the by-laws, the reformers convened a general meeting of the congregation. After much debate, a two-thirds majority reversed the leadership’s decision.
Beth Elohim became the first synagogue in America to install an organ. This break with the orthodox minhag opened the way for other changes in the ritual, many of which had been requested a decade earlier by the Reformed Society: confirmation classes for boys and girls, abandoning the second day of festival observances and, eventually, family seating rather than the separation of men and women.
This time, the defeated traditionalists split away to form a new congregation, which they called Shearith Israel, “the Remnant of Israel.” Beth Elohim thereafter evolved at the forefront of Reform Judaism in America.
The influences on Charleston’s reformers were clearly native, not imported from Germany. They sincerely believed that Judaism in America could not survive if it could not modernize to combat conversion. The traditionalists argued, in turn, that such a watered-down Judaism was itself assimilated bend recognition. The debate between American reformers and traditionalists begun in Charleston in 1824 continues.

About Royal Rosamond Press

I am an artist, a writer, and a theologian.
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