Ursuala von der Leyen lived in California from 1992 to 1996. She born five children in the Golden State, including twins, Victoria and Johanna. She went to Standford which is about six miles from Belmont where my German ancestors lived. These five children are Citizens of the United States of America.
No one – BUT NO ONE – advocated a World Unified German Peoples. Most people subscribe to easy black and white judgements, including the Register Guard, who I showed I own the history of their newspaper. Being taken prisoner by BLM and homeless advocates, they dare not write anything that looks like White Power. They have to believe this is what I am promoting. when they read I am anti-Trump and anti-white Evangelical. Putin has several think tanks that has played with the stupidity we read in the Register Guard – who took the lazy way of journalism – and missed the greatest story of my lifetime. I was born in 1946. I own thousands of hours of dialogue about the actions of Germany that changed the world forever. This world is ready for a transforming awareness.
Three days after Russia ordered troops into Ukraine, German Chancellor Olaf Scholz stood before the Bundestag, the federal Parliament in Berlin, and addressed the lawmakers in a special Sunday session. “Feb. 24, 2022, marks a watershed moment in the history of our continent,” he said, calling the Russian invasion a Zeitenwende, an epoch-changing event.
Scholz, who had taken office only a couple of months earlier, met this historic moment with a response that would overturn decades of military policy—and with it, a crucial part of postwar German identity. He announced a €100 billion plan to boost the country’s notoriously depleted armed forces, promised to end reliance on Russian fossil fuels, and, for the first time since the Second World War, declared Germany would send weapons to a conflict zone. “The issue at the heart of this is whether power is allowed to prevail over the law,” Scholz told his Parliament, “or whether we have it in us to set limits on warmongers like Putin.”
For the last two days I have been looking at way to join Americans with German roots into a political block. Then, I awoke to this.
Above is a photo of the Miller brothers, Melvine, George, and Joaquin who lived above the Suttemeister-Brodericks who had a fruit orchard in Fruit Vale.
|Death:||circa 1726 (39-47)|
probably en route to Virginia
|Immediate Family:||Husband of Mary Goodwin|
Father of Daniel Miller and Daniel Miller
“The formidable executive powers of the president, notably in foreign policy, remain untouched,” Norbert Roettgen, head of the foreign affairs committee in the German Bundestag, told Deutschlandfunk radio.
“We need to prepare for the possibility that Trump’s defeat (in the House) fires him up, that he intensifies the polarization, the aggression we saw during the campaign.”
Peter Trubowitz, director of the United States Center at the London School of Economics, said: “I would look for him to double down on China, on Iran, on the Mexican border.”
“I think that the incentive structure now has changed for him and he will invest even more time on the foreign policy front as we move forward to 2020,” he added.
Today I will be placing flowers on the grave of George Melvin Miller, and his father, Hulings Miller. When was the last time anyone visited these graves? George declined to have a plaque honoring him attached to the Siuslaw River Bridge in Florence, Oregon. It was his baby, his dream to connect Florence and her Rhodies to the City of New York. George was titled ‘The Prophet of Lane County’.
In the late fifties, we Presco children would give Georges niece a call. Juanita Miller was known as the ‘White Witch’. She lived close by in the Oakland Hills where we dwelt for almost ten years. Juanita gave advise to the Love Lorne on the phone. At thirteen, Christine would try to be much older then she was. She would make up horrific stories about her dysfunctional boyfriend or husband. Juanita did her best to sort out the mess.
As fate would have it, two terrible biographies, and two movie scripts were authored about Christine Rosamond Benton, one written by our kindred, Carrie Fisher. Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor and I share the same great, great, great grandfather. Much of what is written about Christine by outsiders, is fabricated. Is this the curse of the White Witch?
Elizabeth Maude “Lischen” or “Lizzie” Cogswell married George Miller. Lizzie was the foremost literary woman in Oregon. On Feb. 6, 1897, Idaho Cogswell, married Feb. 6, 1897, Ira L. Campbell, who was editor, publisher and co-owner (with his brother John) of the Daily Eugene Guard newspaper. The Campbell Center is named after Ira.
The Wedding of John Cogswell to Mary Frances Gay, was the first recorded in Lane County where I registered my newspaper, Royal Rosamond Press. Idaho Campbell was a charter member of the Fortnightly Club that raised funds for the first Eugene Library.
George Melvin Miller was a frequent visitor to ‘The Hights’ his brothers visionary utopia where gathered famous artists and writers in the hills above my great grandfather’s farm. The Miller brothers promoted Arts and Literature, as well as Civic Celebrations. Joaquin’s contact with the Pre-Raphaelites in England, lent credence to the notion that George and Joaquin were Oregon’s Cultural Shamans, verses, he-men with big saw cutting down trees.
Six years ago I founded a blog named after Joaquin’s newspaper the Eugene City Democratic Register ‘The Bohemian Democratic Register’. That blog crashed several year ago, and was replaced by Rosamond Press.
The name, Rhododendron, means ‘Rose Tree’. With the union of the Miller and Cogswell family we have the Sleeping Beauty Princess, Rosamond, awake alas, in a Progressive State that once celebrated it ties to Europe. It’s time to rewrite Oregon’s INCLUSIVE history, and bid folks from all over the world to behold our Rose Tree heritage.
President: Royal Rosamond Press
Rhododendron (from Ancient Greek ῥόδον rhódon “rose” and δένδρον déndron “tree”) is a genus of over 1,000 species of woody plants in the heath family, either evergreen or deciduous. Most species have showy flowers.
Lane County Historical Society records of the period note that “coastals” (as they were called by city folk in Eugene) were “looked down on.” To earn respect—and much needed tourist dollars—an idea was born. “I don’t know who or how, but someone thought we could attract visitors and tourists with our colorful rhododendrons,” explained Laura Johnson Miller in a 1975 recorded interview. Johnson Miller, at 15, was crowned “Queen Rhododendra” in the first festival in 1908. In later years, she became the wife of George Melvin Miller, one of the Florence pioneers who helped start the festival.
During that first festival, Miller recalls a clam bake on the beach, a big parade, and a Grand Ball, as well as a “royal fleet of boats” to carry the “royal party” down the Siuslaw River to Old Town for the official crowning of the queen. George P. Edwards was mayor of Florence at the time, and he presented the new queen with the key to the city that was carved out of rhododendron wood.
“I think I made it by just two votes,” said Miller, thinking back to the “bright sunny day when I, little Laura Johnson, was made queen. I’ll never forget it. My future uncle, Joaquin Miller, who was famous in our parts, was picked to open the festival as the Grand Marshall.” Historical records note that Joaquin Miller brought much needed respect to the event because he had just earned, in 1908, the title “Poet of the Sierras.”
In his address, Miller complimented the city on choosing the rhododendron: “I congratulate you with all my heart for having chosen this flower from your fields and dooryards. I believe that this flower, which we celebrate, has come directly from the Garden of Eden. I want you to remember that the secret of happiness and contentment is the love and appreciation of beauty.”
Over the years, there have been many other notable grand marshals, including Oregon author Ken Kesey. In fact, the theme of the 1979 Rhododendron Festival was the same as the title of Kesey’s book Sometimes a Great Notion.
This house in the Rural Gothic style, mentioned in last Fridays post, was built in early 1884 by John Cogswell for his daughter DeEtta on the corner of 3rd and Pearl at the foot of Skinners Butte, next to the Dr. Thomas Shelton property. DeEtta became ill and died in early 1885 at age 25. Her sister and brother-in-law, Lischen and George M. Miller, purchased the house in August, 1885. George was a brother of Joaquin Miller, famous “Poet of the Sierras”. Educated as a lawyer, George also became a real estate developer who became known as the “Prophet of Lane County” He advocated a trans-continental highway from New York to Florence, Oregon; designed a flying machine in 1892; platted the town of Fairmont; and laid out the road to and founded the coastal towns of Acme and Florence. The house was moved by horses, on log rollers in 1909 to its current location, at 246 East 3rd Ave., where it has been beautifully restored, decorated and maintained.
This is an other Cogswell house, built in 1892 for Clara Cogswell and her husband E.H. Ingram. It is one of the earliest Queen Anne style structures in Eugene and retains much of its original detailing. As can be seen in the early photo the house originally had a smaller porch with Eastlake/Queen Anne detailing. A corresponding side porch on the east side of the house still remains. The larger craftsman style porch was added circa 1910 greatly increasing the visual impact of the house. In later years the house was owned by Emil Koppe who was President of the Eugene Woolen Mills. The original carriage house circa 1895, still stands behind the house and was shared by Emil’s son Paul who built the house due east of his parents home in 1926.
MRS. GEORGE MEL, VI N MILLER SIC
CUMBS AT EUGENE.
Former Editor of Pacific Monthly
Never Recovera Health After ‘
Death of Only Daughter.
EUGENE, Or., Sept 20. (Special.)
Mrs. George Melvin Miller, one of the
best-known literary women on the
Pacific Coast, died at 2 o’clock today at
the home of her sister, Mrs. Idaho
Campbell, after an illness of four
months. Mrs. Miller had not been well
for the last seven years, and, accord
ing to her friends, had not recovered
her full health since the death of her
only daughter. Miss Mary Miller, who
resided in Portland 13 years ago.
Mrs. Miller was born on a farm be
tween Leaburg and Thurston, on the
McKenzie River, and always had lived
in Oregon with the exception of a
two-year tour of Europe. She was
formerly editor of the Pacific Monthly
in Portland and contributed largely to
the Sunset Magazine.
Mrs. Miller had contributed to The
Oregonlan in Portland and had charge
of the women s department of a Eu
gene paper until her recent illness.’ She
was the author of many poems and fic
tion stories and is mentioned in prac
tically every compilation of literary
people on the Coast. Mrs. Miller was
an active member of the Fortnightly
Club. Her full name was Lichen Maud
Cogswell Miller, and she wrote under
her maiden name.
She is survived by her husband.
George Melvin Miller, of Eugene; two
sisters. Mrs. Idaho Campbell, of Eu
Mary Frances Gay and her groom, John Cogswell, on their wedding day, October 28, 1852. Theirs was the first marriage recorded in Lane County, Oregon. Mary’s father brought her wedding dress from Portland. Friends came from as far away as fifty miles in a rainstorm to attend the wedding.
Mary Gay Cogswell Pioneer Cemetery
MARY FRANCES GAY COGSWELL, for whom this cemetery is named, was the eldest daughter of Lane County, Oregon pioneers Martin Baker Gay and Ann Evans (Stewart) Gay. Mary Frances Gay was born in Missouri and traveled the Oregon Trail in a wagon train with her family in 1851. She married native New Yorker John Cogswell on October 28, 1852. Theirs was the first recorded marriage in Lane County. They had nine children, with just four living to adulthood. Their two young daughters, Florilla and Mary Anne, were the first two burials in the cemetery in the fall of 1857.
This cemetery is located between Eugene and Creswell, “in the shadow of Spencer Butte mountain.” The Mary Gay Cogswell Cemetery is mentioned in the book by Lois Barton entitled, “One Woman’s West: Recollections of the Oregon Trail and Settling of the Northwest Country.” This book was based upon the diaries of Martha Ann (Gay) Masterson, who was Mary (Gay) Cogswell’s younger sister.
The great-great-granddaughter of David Green Gay, Pam Wirkkala, has requested that the directions and GPS coordinates to this cemetery be removed from this page. She maintains that, “The “Mary Cogswell cemetery is a private family cemetery still in use, and as such the family prefers that the location not necessarily be so vividly described on the Web.” This is despite the fact that the information is available elsewhere on the Internet, as that is where it was obtained for this page originally. However, unless other Cogswell/Gay/Masterson descendants request otherwise, this lone person’s opinion and request has been honored.
Elizabeth Maude “Lischen” or “Lizzie” Cogswell Miller
Jun. 23, 1858
Sep. 20, 1915
The third child and third daughter of John Cogswell and Mary Frances (Gay) Cogswell. She married George Miller on May 28, 1885.
John Cogswell (1814 – 1907)
Mary Frances Gay Cogswell (1831 – 1887)
George Melvin Miller (1853 – 1933)
The Register-Guard is a daily newspaper published in Eugene, Oregon, United States. It was formed in a 1930 merger of two Eugene papers, the Eugene Daily Guard and the Morning Register. The paper serves the Eugene-Springfield area, as well as the Oregon Coast, Umpqua River Valley, and surrounding areas
George J. Buys and A. Eltzroth purchased the paper in December 1869, and six months later bought out Eltzroth. Buys sold the paper eight years later to John R. and Ira Campbell, who would remain owners for 30 years. In 1890, the Eugene Guard became a daily newspaper. Charles H. Fisher took over the paper in 1907 and published it until 1912 when E. J. Finneran purchased the paper. Finneran bankrupted the newspaper in 1916, partly due to the purchase of a perfecting press that proved too expensive for such a small newspaper. The University of Oregon’s journalism school briefly ran the paper during the receivership under the guidance of Eric W. Allen.
In 1893 a group of enthusiastic women formed an organization called the Fortnightly Club with the object of bringing together others interested in cultural pursuits.
The first of their projects was the donation of an assortment of books and the acquisition of a vacant room in a downtown store building where they opened Eugene’s first reading room. This project blossomed into a plan to establish a library.
They succeeded in interesting Andrew Carnegie, industrialist and philanthropist, and with the help of private gifts and the City of Eugene, the project came to great success with the establishment of Oregon’s first Carnegie Library at the corner of 11th Avenue and Willamette.
The Fortnightly Club’s 657 volumes became the nucleus of the Eugene Public Library collection. The Club continued to be important in gathering public support when the crowded and cramped Carnegie Library was replaced in 1959 with Eugene’s second library at 13th Avenue and Olive Street. The Fortnightly Club also funded the Library’s first bookmobile in 1959.
The Fortnightly Club continues to fund memorial books for the new Eugene Public Library and recently gifted a major window for the Library. Today’s library users thank the Fortnightly Club and those enthusiastic women from 1893 who began the planning for our community library in Eugene. They would be pleased with what they helped us build.
The Fremont family spent much time in Europe. I believe Elizabeth Fremont burned the reason why. John and Jessie had a bodyguard made up of foreigners. They feared a foreign invasion, and Lincoln was aware of this;
“President knew we were on the eve of England, France and Spain recognizing the South: they were anxious for a pretext to do so; England on account of her cotton interests, and France because the Emperor dislikes us.”
Above is a photo of Germans reenacting Civil War battles. This is because 200,000 Germans fought in this bloody war. Many of them were Turners. My Prussian and German ancestors were Turners in the Bay Area and had to know what role they would play before my kindred in South Carolina went to war with the Union.
I suspect Carl Janke was part of an effort to make California a colony of the German Unification, if not the Liberal Prussian Capital of a revolt that was taking place throughout Europe led by the Forty-Eighters who made up the Radical Republicans, who nominated John Fremont as their first candidate for office of President of the United States. Lincoln could not have become President without the Germans who must have backed the Fourteenth Amendment so their children could be recognized Citizens of the U.S.A.
In Sunshine magazine, Jessie Fremont says Britain was getting ready to import (deport) thousands of pesky Irish Catholics to California, who could be made into an army to fight for the Confederacy. If the Union fell, I suspect Fremont was prepared to declare a Nation of the West, and launch a European front to defeat the foreign allies of Slave Masters Consider ISIS Slave Masters recruiting Europeans to come take young girls slaves, and rape them. Mary Confederate Generals raped young black slaves.
When Janke brought six portable house around the Cape and erected them in Belmont, it is said he did so to provide housing for gold miners who struck it rich. But gold had not been discovered. I believe these homes were made for leaders of the Prussian Unification and founding of the Prussian State of California and a United West, that was not a part of the Union. I suspect John Fremont gave much of his gold to this Nation Building.
Donald Trumps grandfather came from German and appeals to the racism of whites. He promises to force Mexico to build His Wall along the California border with Mexico. Is he forgetting that the Republican Neo-Confederate Conspiracy is for the strengthening of State Rights? Perhaps a reporter should remind him, and, suggest his desire for a Wall of Triumph be approved by California Voters.
Let me give a special shout-out to Hayato Tokugawa who removed my post ‘Trump – Get Out’ from his San Francsico Politics FB group I was invited to join. He got me banned from this group, and possibly from the ‘California History’ group I belonged to where I just posted photos of the Rosamond sisters and informed this group my sister was a famous artist. Hayato is a cartoonist and author, who did a painting of the Lone Cypress. This couple seem to enjoy dual citizenship. I consider this a cyber-attack. Hayato will be in my book ‘Capturing Beauty’. Does he know Minuro Isutani who owned Pebble Beach Golf Course and the Lone Cypress? Did Hayota pay his fee in order to paint the cypress that my kindred, Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor, made famous in the movie ‘National Velvet’.
I am going to found a new Vigilante Committee in order to thwart these usurpers of our American Culture. I challenge this ex-cop to a debate. Obviously he wanted to be the big shot artist and writer in town, and he and his wife the ruling Creative Family. Remember Pearl Harbor – and Ellwood! Japan used American soldiers as slave labor, and made slaves of other peoples they conquered.
For an artist to censor and blackball another artist, betrays all Creative Codes – and angers the Muses! I think Hayota is good with a bamboo stick. His paint brush falls short. His spiny finger on the delete button, is his BIG MOUTH!
I appeal to all German-American to not support the Fascist and Racist rant of Donald Trump, and look to the Turners for political and moral guidance.
After Carter announced his cancer had spread, Fox News sent a negative tweet about his presidency, “Our country has not been as aimless & lost as it is today since, I think, Jimmy Carter.” Taking the criticism ever further was conservative commentator Debbie Schlussel, who tweeted out “A cancer has a cancer. Oops, I mean Jimmy Carter has cancer. Same diff.” Jimmy Carter
Hayato Tokugawa, a former San Francisco police officer, is a well-known journalist, editor of books on Japan, author, artist, and photographer. He and his wife, noted illustrator and writer Aoi Tokugawa make their home in both San Francisco and in Japan.
New from East Meets West Fine Arts this week is this moody, shin-hanga print based on an original oil painting by H. Tokugawa of the famed “Lone Cypress” on the Monterey Coast of California. Visit us for framed wall art, posters, greeting cards and other home decor items featuring this great painting, in our “What’s New” section at:…
The Bombardment of Ellwood during World War II was a naval attack by a Japanese submarine against United States coastal targets near Santa Barbara, California. Though damage was minimal, the event was key in triggering the West Coast invasion scare and influenced the decision to intern Japanese-Americans. The event also marked the first shelling of the North American mainland during the conflict.
German-Americans in the American Civil War were the largest ethnic contingent to fight for the Union. More than 200,000 native Germans served in the Union Army, notably from New York and Ohio. Thousands also served in the Confederacy, being primarily descended from Pennsylvania German ancestors who had migrated to the Carolinas in the 18th century and early 19th century, along with Swabian, Swiss, and Austrian immigrants who arrived directly in the South.
Another famous German American, George Armstrong Custer, fought against the Confederate cavalry of Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart and Heros von Borcke at Hanover and Hunterstown, on the way to the main event at Gettysburg.
The widespread – mainly German – revolutions of 1848–49 sought unification of Germany under a single constitution. The revolutionaries pressured various state governments, particularly those in the Rhineland, for a parliamentary assembly that would have the responsibility to draft a constitution. Ultimately, many of the left-wing revolutionaries hoped this constitution would establish universal male suffrage, a permanent national parliament, and a unified Germany, possibly under the leadership of the Prussian king. This seemed to be the most logical course since Prussia was the strongest of the German states, as well as the largest in geographic size. Generally, center-right revolutionaries sought some kind of expanded suffrage within their states and potentially, a form of loose unification. Their pressure resulted in a variety of elections, based on different voting qualifications, such as the Prussian three-class franchise, which granted to some electoral groups — chiefly the wealthier, landed ones — greater representative power.
On 27 March 1849, the Frankfurt Parliament passed the Paulskirchenverfassung (Constitution of St. Paul’s Church) and offered the title of Kaiser (Emperor) to the Prussian king Frederick William IV the next month. He refused for a variety of reasons. Publicly, he replied that he could not accept a crown without the consent of the actual states, by which he meant the princes. Privately, he feared opposition from the other German princes and military intervention from Austria or Russia. He also held a fundamental distaste for the idea of accepting a crown from a popularly elected parliament: he would not accept a crown of “clay”.
Immigrants of the nineteenth century had generally shunned slavery and the areas where it was prevalent. Without showing a particular fondness for Blacks, most Germans were appalled by “the peculiar Institution” and could not reconcile its existence with the lofty ideals of America. Yet there were few German abolitionists before politically articulate Forty-Eighters made emancipation their own cause. These men, in the forthright manner of crusaders, unhampered by considerations of the practical politics of compromise, stumped the backwoods and beerhalls of Missouri, Wisconsin and Iowa to enlist German votes for the new Republican Party. Many formerly Democratic stalwarts of an earlier wave of immigration joined in this new movement. John Bernhard Stallo, an Oldenburg-born judge in Cincinnati, Gustav Koerner, Lieutenant Governor of Illinois, and Frederick Muench, pioneer “Latin farmer” in Missouri, all threw their energies into local campaigns.
The new German wing of the Republican Party initially favored New Yorker William Seward for the presidency in 1860. But it willingly followed Abraham Lincoln after he endorsed a liberal homestead law and an anti-nativist “Dutch plank,” written by Forty-Eighter Carl Schurz, a member of the platform committee. The party was well aware of the crucial importance of the German vote in many localities. Abraham Lincoln shrewdly bought the German newspaper Illinois Staatsanzeiger, press and all, before he set out for the national convention in Chicago and the Republicans employed German orators to stress German issues throughout the campaign.
The election campaign of 1860 was an unusual one, of course, because not only the presidency, but the very existence of the nation was in question. German audiences, even Catholics and other loyal Democrats, were generally receptive to arguments in favor of national unity. Of the 265 German language newspapers in the country in 1860, only three -all Southern weeklies- favored secession.
When secession, and later, hostilities ensued, President Lincoln’s calls for volunteers met an enthusiastic response among German-Americans, especially from well-trained Turner and rifle clubs, whose members were among the first to report for duty. Turners and students of St. Louis’ Humboldt Institute, the medical school founded by Forty-Eighter Adam Hammer, sped into action even before the call to arms, saving the local arsenal from takeover by Southern sympathizers. Turners from Washington, D.C., were among the first to man the defenses of the capital and the colorful United Turner Rifles, the Twentieth New York Regiment, quickly marched off to its first assignment. Some 6,000 German volunteers in New York, another 6,000 in Illinois and 4,000 in Pennsylvania enlisted immediately. Boston quickly dispatched two companies. Wisconsin, Indiana, Iowa and, above all, Ohio sent large contingents. Some rural sections In the Midwest, especially in Wisconsin, were less ready to contribute troops, but these were the exception. German communities, in general, staged elaborate farewell ceremonies for their fighting men, not least because they wanted to demonstrate German participation in the war to those who had so recently been questioning their Americanism.
SPAN200 by Klaus Wurst and Norbert Muehlen. Published in behalf of Institut für Auslandsbeziehungen, Stuttgart
What about Germany?
If it suits the Presidents convenience will he name a time this evening to receive them — or at some early hour tomorrow.”10 President Lincoln told her to come “Now”. Judge Edward Cowles escorted the short distance from Willard’s Hotel to the White House, where they were show into the Red Room near midnight. It was a cold confrontation, as Mrs. Frémont related it. She gave him the letter from her husband, which the President read. “I have written to the General and he knows what I want done,” responded Mr. Lincoln to which Mrs. Frémont said that her husband “feels he is at the great disadvantage of being opposed by people in whom you have every confidence.” She later recounted the conversation:
‘Who do you mean?’ he said, ‘Persons of differing views?’ I answered: ‘The General’s conviction is that it will be long and dreadful work to conquer by arms alone, that there must be other consideration to get us the support of foreign countries – that he knew the English feeling for gradual emancipation and the strong wish to meet it on the part of important men in the South: that as the President knew we were on the eve of England, France and Spain recognizing the South: they were anxious for a pretext to do so; England on account of her cotton interests, and France because the Emperor dislikes us.’ The President said ‘You are quite a female politician.’
I felt the sneering tone and saw there was a foregone decision against all listening. Then the President spoke more rapidly and unrestrainedly: ‘The General ought not to have done it; he never would have done it if he had consulted Frank Blair; I sent Frank there to advise him and to keep me advised about the work the true condition of things then, and how they were going.’ The President went on almost angrily – ‘Frank never would have let him do it – the General should never have dragged the negro into the war. It is a war for a great national object and the negro has nothing to do with it.’11
Mrs. Frémont not only delivered a letter from her husband about military developments, but attempted to argue at length the political reasons for his order emancipating slaves in his theater of the Civil War. When she pressed for an answer to the general letters, President Lincoln responded, according to her” Maybe by to-morrow…I have a great deal to do – to-morrow if possible, or the next day.” She said she would call for the letter but he insisted he would send it to her at Willard’s hotel. The President told John Hay two years later: “She sought an audience with me at midnight and taxed me so violently with many things that I had to exercise all the awkward tact I have to avoid quarreling with her. She surprised me by asking why their enemy, Montgy Blair, had been sent to Missouri. She more than once intimated that if Gen. Fremont should conclude to try conclusions with me he could set up himself.”12
German-American army units
Approximately 516,000 Union soldiers, or 23.4% of all Union soldiers, were immigrants; about 216,000 of these were born in Germany. New York supplied the largest number of these native-born Germans with 36,000. Behind the Empire State came Wisconsin with 30,000 and Ohio with 20,000.
Scores of individual regiments, such as the 9th Ohio, 74th Pennsylvania, 32nd Indiana (1st German), and the 9th Wisconsin Infantry, consisted entirely of German Americans. Major recruiting efforts aimed at German Americans were conducted in Cincinnati, St. Louis, and Milwaukee, among many other cities.
Commonly referred to as “Dutchmen” by other Union soldiers, and “lopeared Dutch” by Confederates, German-American units in general earned a reputation for discipline.
German-American commanders of note
A popular Union commander and native German, Major General Franz Sigel was the highest ranking German-American officer in the Union Army, with many Germans enlisting to “fight mit Sigel.” Sigel was a political appointment of President Abraham Lincoln, who hoped that Sigel’s immense popularity would help deliver the votes of the increasingly important German segment of the population. He was a member of the Forty-Eighters, a political movement of the revolutions in German states that led to thousands of Germans emigrating to the United States. These included such future Civil War officers as Maj. Gen. Carl Schurz, Brig. Gen. August Willich, Louis Blenker, Max Weber, and Alexander Schimmelfennig.
Schurz was part of the politico-social movement in America known as the Turners, who contributed to getting Lincoln elected as President. The Turners provided the bodyguard at Lincoln’s inauguration on March 4, 1861, and also at Lincoln’s funeral in April 1865.
Other prominent n generals included Edward S. Salomon, Frederick C. Salomon, August Kautz, Felix Salm-Salm, and Peter Osterhaus. Hundreds of German-born officers led regiments during the war, including Col. Gustav Tafel, Col. Paul A. Frank, Col. Friedrich Hecker, Col. Leopold von Gilsa, and Maj. Jurgen Wilson. Among the very best Union artillerists was German-born Capt. Hubert Dilger, who had been trained at the Karlsruhe Military Academy.
Veteran Prussian military officer Heros von Borcke slipped through the Union blockade into Charleston Harbor and eventually became one of Confederate Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart‘s closest confidants and his Chief of Staff and Adjutant. In 1866, he became one of the few former Confederate officers to fight in the Austro-Prussian War.
While trying to unify the various German states under its banner, Prussia was involved in the American Civil War. There were several members of the military elite of Prussia that served as both officers and enlisted men in both armies. There were also official military observers sent to the North American continent to observe the tactics of both armies, which were later studied by future military leaders of Prussia and unified Germany.
Among the effects Prussia had on the war was the new saddle used by the Union cavalry: Union General George McClellan had studied Prussian saddles and used them as a basis for his McClellan saddle.
- 1848: Revolts across the German Confederation, such as in Berlin, Dresden and Frankfurt, forced King Frederick William IV of Prussia to grant a constitution to the Confederation. In the meantime, the Frankfurt Parliament was set up in 1848 and attempted to proclaim a united Germany, but this was refused by William IV. The question of a united Germany under the Kleindeutsch solution (to exclude Austria) or the so-called Großdeutsch (to include Austria) began to surface.
- 1861: King Wilhelm I became King of Prussia and he appointed Otto von Bismarck as the Chancellor, who favoured a ‘blood-and-iron’ policy to create a united Germany under the leadership of Prussia.
A common language may have been seen to serve as the basis of a nation, but as contemporary historians of 19th-century Germany noted, it took more than linguistic similarity to unify these several hundred polities. The experience of German-speaking Central Europe during the years of French hegemony contributed to a sense of common cause to remove the French invaders and reassert control over their own lands.