The Rose Among The Woodwose
Everyone from the Court of Anjou was afraid to go into the woods with Wild King Henry the Second. It was the green outfit he wore. It was of felt, cut to look like leaves. Henry painted his face green, and wore a green hat with a red feather. To top it off, his guests could hear the roar of wild animals. Henry had a zoo at Woodstock in the tradtion of his grandfather King Henry Beauclerc and his father, William the Conqueror.
“Who will go with me into the woods? Are you all cowards?”
“I’ll go with!” came a beautiful voice in back of the captured audience. And, she need not step foreward, because as one, they got behind her.
“Oh my! Yes. You will do!” Henry tried to muffle the sound of his heart beating by launching into one of his long rhetorical speeches on the lost rituals of the celts and druids. No one could grasp where the Green Man came from. It sounded like his grandmother, Empress Matilda of Scotland, had something to do with – it – but she was so pious. Why then did the Green Man appear on so many of the churches she had built?
“Come here my beauty, and let me put these tiny antlers on you, and this bushy tail. You will make a lovely Fawnflower of the Forest. What is your name?”
“I am Joan Clifford.”
“May I call you – Rosamond?”
“Why? That is not my name!”
“Why! Because it amuses me! You will be The Rose of the World. I will build a Labyrinth around you, ringed with apartments. There will be a stream running thru them. We will pass messages to one another, written on twigs. This will be so much fun! Have you heard of Ogmios? Do you know his Ogham?”
“I have not!” Joan answered, her curiosity peeked, for no one argued about Henry being the most clever person in the whole world, and the most educated. He knew everything about everything. This is why she came to – view him! Henry was a freak – of nature.
Henry had red hair after his mother and grandmother. King Malcom of Scotland was his great grandfather. For reasons not full explained, Henry did not want to go on Crusade. His wife could not wait to go. when she was seventeen, she rode to Jerusalem with a force of two hundred Amazon Women in armor. Henry thought she was crazy. She was married to King Louis of France, and, it was Henry’s wish to see the whole Frankish line go – to their doom!
Henry’s mother had laid claim to much of Anjou, Maine, and Aquitaine. A new kind of Law and Order would unite all of Europe, who had no business in the Holy Land. Henry’s friend, Beckett found religion, and knew his best friend was the King of the Celts and Pagans. He did not bother to hide this truth – that he flaunted every day!
And now he was about to corrupt Fair Rosamond, take her into the woods, alone, like an old debauch! It took a week for Eleanor to learn her husband had a new Forest Plaything! There were squeals of delight coming from out the deep woods, followed by Human Grunts and Roars that made good Christians quake in their boots. Christians are masters at hiding the truth their imaginations are running wild – every waking minute of the day! This is why they struggle to be The Sane Ones!. Henry saw them as the jackals come to wrest away………….The Kill of the Lion!
“A man of reddish, freckled complexion, with a large, round head, grey eyes that glowed fiercely and grew bloodshot in anger, a fiery countenance and a harsh, cracked voice. His neck was poked forward slightly from his shoulders, his chest was broad and square, his arms strong and powerful. His body was stocky, with a pronounced tendency toward fatness, due to nature rather than self-indulgence – which he tempered with exercise.
Like his grandfather, Henry I of England, Henry II had an outstanding knowledge of the law. A talented linguist and excellent Latin speaker, he would sit on councils in person whenever possible. He dressed casually except when tradition dictated otherwise and ate a sparing diet.
According to contemporary chronicler of court gossip Walter Map, Henry was modest and mixed with all classes easily. “He does not take upon himself to think high thoughts, his tongue never swells with elated language; he does not magnify himself as more than man”. His generosity was well-known and he employed a Templar to distribute one tenth of all the food brought to the royal court amongst his poorest subjects.
Henry also had a good sense of humor and was never upset at being the butt of the joke. Once while he sat sulking and occupying himself with needlework, a courtier suggested that such behavior was to be expected from a descendant of the bastard son of a tanner’s daughter (referring to his great-grandfather William the Conqueror being the son of Herleva, daughter of Fulbert a tanner from the Norman town of Falaise). The king rocked with laughter and even explained the joke to those who did not immediately grasp it.”
I was debating whether or not to post what you just read, but, then I turned on the news and saw Lindsey Graham of South Carolina doing the most Scary Coverup Look I have ever seen. He said he would not read Mueller’s report. No one is above the law in any real Democracy. Green Henry is a Founding Father of Democracy when he chartered the Assizes Laws so everyone can have a fair trial – including our President! To run for office is to submit oneself, throw oneself, on The Mercy of the Law and the idea of a Fair Trial.
Hark! Whose horns do I hear, coming this way, accompanied with the wail of her greyhounds? Tis the Huntress, The Faire Rose of the World, Our Green Lady of the Law and Liberty, who guards New York from the Traitors of our Democracy!
John ‘The Seer’
Superficially the Green Man would appear to be pagan, perhaps a fertility figure or a nature spirit, similar to the woodwose (the wild man of the woods), and yet he frequently appears, carved in wood or stone, in churches, chapels, abbeys and cathedrals, where examples can be found dating through to the 20th century. The earliest example of a green man disgorging vegetation from his mouth is from St. Abre, in St. Hilaire-le-grand, c. 400 AD.
The tradition of the Green Man being carved on to Christian churches exists across Europe, including examples such as the Seven Green Men of Nicosia in Cyprus, a series of seven green men carved in the thirteenth century on to the facade of St Nicholas Church in Nicosia.
Oberon’s status as king of the fairies comes from the character of Alberich (from Old High German alb- “elf” and -rîh-, “ruler”, “king”), a sorcerer in the legendary history[which?] of the Merovingian dynasty. In the legend, he is the otherworldly “brother” of Merowech, whose name is the eponym of the Merovingians but whose actual existence is unproven. Alberich wins for his eldest son, Walbert, the hand of a princess of Constantinople. In the Nibelungenlied, a Burgundian poem written around the turn of the 13th century, Alberich guards the treasure of the Nibelungen, but is overcome by Siegfried.
John “The Highwayman” Rosamond who arrived in Annapolis, Maryland in 1725. He was sentenced to be transported into 14 years servitude for robbery from the Oxford Assizes.
The Assize of Clarendon was an 1166 act of Henry II of England that began a transformation of English law and led to trial by jury in common law countries worldwide, and that established assize courts.
Prior systems for deciding the winning party in a case, especially felonies, included trials by ordeal, by battle, or by compurgation to an evidentiary model, in which evidence, inspection, and inquiry was made under oath by laymen, knights or ordinary freemen. After the Assize of Clarendon trial by jury developed, though some historians say beginnings of the jury system predate this act. The Assize of Clarendon did not lead to this change immediately; recourse to trial by combat was not officially rescinded until 1819, though by then it had fallen out of use.
Problems addressed by the assize
In 1154, Henry II inherited the throne of a troubled England. In full swing were the Crusades, a military endeavour that kept noble landowners away from their castles for years at a time. Unoccupied and unclaimed land invited squatters; since there was no central recording office for real property in England at the time, and sorting out who owned what fief was entrusted to human memory, disputes arose when aristocrats returned, or died thousands of miles from home.
Another, even more serious was the aftermath of The Anarchy, a disastrous civil war between King Stephen and the Empress Matilda. The two factions had hired mercenary soldiers, and when there was no one left to pay them, many resorted robbery and other forms of violence as a profession. Crime followed the breakdown of local authority. The quarrel between the King and the Empress created more property troubles; as communities were divided, both factions were happy to reward their supporters with the lands of the local opponents.
Finally, there was the long-standing difficulty involving the Catholic Church, which culminated in the murder of Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury. The problem for the King was that the Church acted like an imperium in imperio, a “kingdom within a kingdom”, only partially subject to Henry’s laws if at all. The church operated its own court system, which answered not to Henry but to the Pope; it was a large landowner and a powerful vested interest. Henry wished to establish a system of justice that would enlarge the power of the Crown at the expense of the clergy.
Henry therefore promulgated various assizes (i.e. courts that convened in a town periodically, rather than being permanently established). The primary and most general one, the Assize of Clarendon was issued in 1166. Others, the “petty” assizes known respectively as the assize of novel disseisin, of mort d’ancestor, and of darrein presentment gave more specific relief. The most popular one became the assize of novel disseisin, which in Law French meant something close to the “assize of recent dispossession”. Those who had been recently put out of their lands could recover the beneficial use of them by resort to this assize, which led to a then innovative method of trial. Twelve “of the more lawful men” of the locality were summoned by the king’s sheriff to determine, upon their own knowledge, who was entitled to the property. This innovative method of proceeding, the origin of the civil petit jury at common law, was aimed at the chaos introduced into property rights by crusade and civil war.
Henry’s true measure of cleverness, though, is on display in his innovations in criminal justice. Henry appointed “justices in eyre,” the counterpart of circuit judges, to travel from town to town. When they arrived, they too called upon the sheriff to summon twelve free men from the surrounding areas. These twelve free men were a prototype of a grand jury. They were called to report under oath any accusations of crime they were aware of in the community. In theory, then as (in the United States and Liberia) now, the grand jury only brought accusations; it did not find guilt or innocence. The crimes to be investigated were specified in the Assize of Clarendon to be robbery, murder or theft or anyone who had harboured a robber, murderer, or thief. To these the Assize of Northampton (1176) added counterfeiting, forgery, and arson. Minor crimes were specifically excepted so the new assizes concerned themselves with what would later be labeled “felonies“.
This new assize did away with the old form of trial known as “compurgation” in accusations brought by the grand jury. Under compurgation, an accused person who swore he did not commit the crime, and who found a sufficient number of his neighbours to swear that they believed him, was acquitted. Compurgation was no longer available in charges brought by the grand jury.
The only trial available to the defendant remained the traditional trial by ordeal, specifically in the Assize of Clarendon, “the ordeal of water.” Nevertheless, Henry did not put much faith in the results of the ordeal. The unfortunate felon who was convicted through the ordeal was typically executed. However, the Assize of Northampton (1176) provided that the loss of the right hand shall be added to a previous punishment of the loss of one foot for those who failed the ordeal. This implies that execution was not the inevitable result of conviction. But even if the indicted culprit was acquitted in the ordeal, he was banished from the kingdom. In other words, the proceedings by the grand jury were the actual trial; everyone it accused was punished in some way, and the community was rid of the malefactor, one way or another, as adjudicated “by the oath of twelve knights of the hundred—or, should knights not be present, by the oath of twelve lawful freemen.”
Effects of the assize
These proceedings did much to transfer power out of the hands of local barons and into the hands of the royal court and its judges. In 1215, moreover, the Fourth Lateran Council forbade clergymen from participating in trial by ordeal. After this date, trials after indictment by the grand jury were conducted by juries as well.
The large changes wrought in the English system of justice did not go unchallenged. The dispute over jurisdiction over the one-sixth of the population of England who were clergy was the chief grievance between the king and Becket. Disgruntled peers attempted to undo Henry’s reforms by the Magna Carta forced on King John, but by that time the reforms had progressed too far—and their superiority over the system they had replaced was too obvious—for the forces of reaction to gain much ground. Henry II’s reforms laid the groundwork for the system of trials in common law.