Diary Wieneke

Fink’s Cigar Store

finks2 finks3 finks4Rosamonds 1919 June, Bonnie & Mary

Henry Wieneke owned Fink’s Cigar Store. Is that my kin leaning on the wooden Indian?



Fink’s Cigar Store next to the University Book Store

Photographer: Frederick W. Kent

Top Photo Source: http://digital.lib.uiowa.edu/cdm/ref/collection/ictcs/id/274

Fink’s Bazaar, Cigar, and Notion Store, Iowa City, Iowa, was in the St. James Hotel building on Clinton Street.  Henry J. Wieneke was the manager of the store, which was located the first door south of the post office, according to the 1883 History of Johnson County. This photo was taken ca. 1890.


Here is the Diary of a possible relative.



Based on the Diaries and Letters of
Henry J. Wieneke

Edited by Mildred Jhrone*

A phase of the Civil War which received little notice at the time, or since,
was that of the frontier posts of the western territories. There a handful of
soldiers dragged out a weary existence, enlivened only now and then by
brushes with the Indians, while they counted the days until their enlistments
would be over and read with envy the exploits of their friends and neigh-
bors fighting the “rebels” in the South. The regular army troops stationed
at the frontier posts to protect settlers against Indian raids were needed in
the eastern theater of the war; therefore, companies of the newly recruited
volunteers from the states closest to the frontier were sent west to relieve
them. The first Iowa troops sent to Dakota Territory were Companies A,
B, and C of the 14th Iowa Infantry, mustered in at Iowa City on October
23 to 25, 1861. They left Iowa City on November 2 for Fort Randall,
Dakota Territory. 1

In September of 1862 these three companies, numbering 267 men, were
detached from the 14th and designated the 41st Iowa Infantry Battalion;
still later (April, 1863) they were transferred to the 7th Iowa Cavalry
as Companies K, L, and M. Another Iowa cavalry regiment, the 6th, also
served in Dakota, arriving there in the spring of 1863. 2

Fort Randall, one of several military posts in Dakota Territory was lo-
cated on the Missouri River near what is now the border between Nebraska
and South Dakota. The site had been selected in 1856 by Major General
William S. Harney, who had been conducting an expedition against the
Sioux. In 1861 five companies of the Fourth Artillery were stationed at
Randall; in May, three companies were sent east, while two remained in

*Mildred Throne is associate editor of the State Historical Society of Iowa.

1 Roster and Record of Iowa Soldiers in the “War of the Rebellion … (6 vols.,
Des Moines, 1908-1911), 2:721. (Hereafter cited as Roster and Record .)

2 7 bid., 4:1115, 1253; 5:1159-60.




Dakota, nnder command of Captain John A. Brown, a native of Maryland,
who soon deserted his post to join the Confederacy. For six months the
two companies, commanded by Second Lieutenant T. R. Tannatt, remained,
seemingly forgotten. Then, in the middle of December, 1861, die three
Iowa companies of the 14th regiment arrived to relieve the regulars, who at
once departed for the more exciting scenes in the east. 3

The first year of service in Dakota was a period of dull routine. Then, in
August of 1862 the Indian massacres in Minnesota aroused the whole fron-
tier. In 1863 a joint military expedition from Minnesota and Dakota failed
to trap die Indians who had fled from Minnesota into Dakota Territory.
A bitter Dakota winter immobilized both the soldiers and the Indians, but
in the summer of 1864 another expedition, under Brigadier General Alfred
Sully, w T ent as far north and w’est as the confluence of the .Missouri and the
Yellow’stone rivers. Following the expedition, most of the Iowa soldiers,
their three-year enlistment over, returned to Sioux Gty to be mustered out.

The following documents relating the experiences of the Iowa troops in
Dakota during 1861-1864 consist of diaries and letters of Henry J. Wieneke
of Iowa Gty, a member of Company B, 14th Iow r a, and of numerous letters
from various members of the regiment published in the Iowa City papers.
Together, these documents, arranged chronologically, tell a story of the
monotony of a frontier army post, give accounts of the Indians, both friend-
ly and hostile, and reflect the disappointment of men far removed from the
real war.

Henry J. Wieneke was bom in Ohio of German parentage in 1837. His
parents moved to Johnson County, Iowa, in 1844. As a young man, Henry
established a bakery in Iowa City, tried the cabinet trade for a while, then
returned to the bakery business until his enlistment in the fall of 1861.
Meanwhile, in 1857 he had married Caroline Kembel. After the war Henry
Wieneke, his health impaired by the exposure and hardship of his army
experiences, sought some lighter work than baking or cabinet making, and
he opened a store handling cigars and stationery, continuing in that business
until his death in 1923. 4 In 1922 Wieneke revised a part of his 1864 diary

3 Frederick T. Wilson, “Tort Pierre and Its Neighbors,” South Dakota Historical
Collections, 1:293-4 (1902).

4 Biographical sketch of Wieneke in Clarence Ray Aumer, Leading Events in John-
son County 3owa History (2 vols., Cedar Rapids, 1913), 2:651-3.



for publication in the Journal, together with the diary and letters of Amos
R. Cherry, a sergeant of Company B. 5

Several years ago the complete Wieneke diaries and letters were turned
over to the State Historical Society of Iowa. The relevant parts of the
diaries and letters are here reproduced, interspersed with letters from other
members of the regiment, to give as complete a story as possible of the
Iowans in Dakota.

[Wieneke Diary]

Wednesday] Oct 23rd 1861 Sworn in to U. S. service. Cold that I
could hardly finger the fiffe. 6 . . .

Monday Oct 28th This day we commenced Cooking for the Co. . . .
Sat Nov 2nd Started from Clark’s mill Camp and Camped at Camp
Douglass on Douglass farm. . . .

Sunday Nov 3rd 1861 up to within 3 miles of Marengo. . . . headache
very bad took medicine in the evening, traveled 18 miles

[Letter in Iowa City Republican, Nov. 6, 1861, signed Asa Ruckman.] 7

Homestead, November 3, 1861

Messrs, editors : — Companies A, B and C, of the 1 4th regiment, are all
right, have just eaten their dinner, and are moving westward. They are as
good boys as ever trod terra firma and should they ever have a chance on
the bloody field of battle, they will add new laurels to the honored name of
Iowa. The Ladies of Clear Creek township came to “camp Washburn” last
evening, and presented this portion of the Iowa 14th with a magnificent
Flag. Mr. Evans, in behalf of the Ladies, made an appropriate speech, and
was responded to by Capt. Pattee and Lieut. Luse. 8 The most captivating

5 “Iowa Troops in the Sully Campaign,” Iowa Journal of History and Politics,.
20:364-443 (July, 1922). See note 121.

6 Companies A, B, and C, 14th Iowa, rendezvoused at Iowa City and were sworn
into the service on Oct. 23-25, 1861. By an order of the War Department, these
three companies were then detached from the 14th and ordered to Fort Randall, Da-
kota Territory. Roster and Record, 2:721. Wieneke is listed in the regiment as a
drummer, but, as will be seen in the diary, he played a fife, or a flute, and was also
company cook. Ibid., 753.

7 Asa Ruckman is not listed as a member of the 14th Iowa; probably, he was a
resident of Johnson County, traveling a short distance with the troops.

8 Capt. John Pattee of Co. A, a native of Canada and resident of Iowa City. As
senior captain, he was in command of the men marching to Dakota. First Lieut. Mar-



and patriotic address I ever listened to, was delivered by Miss Washburn of
Iowa City. Patriotic songs were sung by Prof. Kelly 9 and others. The
Professor is one of the cleverest men in Iowa, and in his new position of
Orderly Sergeant, will sing a different song, provided he is ever permitted
to have a class of secessionists to deal with. . . .

[Wieneke Diary]

Monday nov 4th 1861 Spent a miserable night verry strong fever, head
felt like bursting, went into Ma[rengo] and bought Crackers &c and Car-
ried crackers until dinner time when I caught up with the team we traveled
13 miles Encamped on mud Creeke.

Tuesday 5th Went ahead with team and Begged Bread had enough to
feed them for dinner. Rested about 3 miles from Brooklyn went in town
and loafed until 4 oclock camped north of town on big Bear Creek

Wednesday Nov 6th Started at Six this morning and traveled 18 miles
to grinel Powsheik Co went ahead of the train and begged Bread enough
for Supper the Country this day was all prarie and you could travel for
[illegible] Hours without seeing a house, had another attack of fever this
evening being the third got medicine from the Surgeon must Start at six
tomorrow morning ahead of the train

Thursday Nov 7 Started in good time but on the wrong road and trav-
eled 3 miles when I had to go overland or under land for it was all through
sloughs for about 2 miles I traveled purety fast and made Newton by 2
oclock P. M. in the evening went up town with 200 wt [weight] of flour
and took it around to different houses for baking, then unhitched on an
open lot and went to sleep

Friday Nov 8 Capt Mahanna 10 arrived this morning at 5 oclock went

vin R. Luse, Co. B, a native of Pennsylvania, was also a resident of Iowa City.
Roster and Record, 2:744, 747. Luse, an auctioneer and later a merchant in Iowa
City, was the son-in-law of Capt. Bradley Mahana of Co. B. History of Johnson
County, Jowa . . . (Iowa City, 1883), 867-8.

9 William Kelly of Iowa City, Second Sergeant of Co. A, Roster and Record, 2:743.

10 Bradley Mahana of Iowa City, Capt. of Co. B, ibid., 2:745. Mahana was bom
in 1806 in Pennsylvania, came to Iowa City in 1855 after considerable military ex-
perience in Pennsylvania. He served in Co. B of the 1st Iowa Infantry, the 100-day
regiment which fought at the battle of Wilson’s Creek. After the 1st Iowa was dis-
banded, Mahana raised another company for the 14th Iowa — Co. B. He was a
Democrat, which may account for part of his personal conflict with Capt. Pattee, a
Republican and brother-in-law to Iowa’s Governor S. J. Kirkwood. See History of
Johnson County, 869-70.



around and gathered Bread got about 150 Lbs went down to Camp and
went out on the State road Stopped at a farm house and Eat Dinner Went
on made 20 miles this day the Sandiest road I ever saw Capt Mahanna
gave me a letter from Carie 11 this evening it did me more good than if
someone had given me 50 D[olIars] am very tired this evening about 5
miles of the road was verry bad all sand the Horse Could hardly travel
over it. . . .

Sat 9th 1861 Started ahead again and made 15 miles to Des Moins by
12 Oclock had a hard snow Storm this morning but cleared up by noon
Camped about half past 3 oclock in the forks of the Des moin and Skunk
[sic. Raccoon] Rivers Des Moins is about as large as Iowa City

Sunday Nov 10th we did not move from here this day 1 man in Co
C verry sick, not expected to live. . . .

Monday Nov 11th 1861 Member of Co C Died last night 12 We
staid in Camp all day he was Buried with Millitary Honors at 2 oclock
P. M. it has been Cool and windy all day froz V 2 inch in our kettles last
night. . . .

Nov 12th 1861 Started at 9 Oc[lock] and traveled 14 miles and camped
for the night Weather verry fine all day such weather is verry pleasant
Camping out if it only stays so until we get to the fort I feel better this
eve than I have since leaving the City

Wednesday Nov 1 3 Camp No 1 1 Marched 22 miles and waded Skunk
River [sic. Raccoon] Camped on west Bank went ahead today and Bought
1 V 2 Bushel potatoes they are verry scarce the farmers say the season
was too dry the Country was verry pleasant and fine today large farms
and good houses passed through Adell 11 miles from last nights camp
and Irish town is on the other side of Skunk from our Camp

Thursday Nov 14 Camp 12 Cool all day with verry sharp wind
Country for 5 miles this morning verry hilly and rough we traveled for
7 miles without seeing a house they have been having a verry large fire
through here burning Bams &c we came 22 miles today a verry hard
tramp for the Boys Camped on high ground without wood and must Carry
water half mile

Friday Nov 15th Camp No. 12 [sic] Traveled 18 miles and Camped

^Wieneke’s wife, Caroline.

12 This was Wilson S. Maxwell of Wapello, Louisa County. See “Iowa Troops in
the Sully Campaign,” 386-7.



on [blank space] Creek a pleasant place the road this day was verry
Rough up and down hill the boys went out this evening and found a
Bee Tree and brought in about 40# of Honey Baked Bread until 12
oclock P. JM. had a verry bad Head ache all day and still the toothache
the weather purety cold this night, it friezes the Dough stiff for us. a
hard life

Sat Nov 16th 1861 Camp No. 13 morning verry cold and windy
Started and went 17 miles Camped U /2 miles East of the village of Louis
[sic. Lewis] on [Nishnabotna] Creek, commenced Sleating as we went
into Camp the tent wagon of Co C went ahead and it was 5 oclock [when]
it Came back to Camp we had hard times to Cook supper The Slap
Jacks were wet and like Dough no difference how long we baked them,
this is a new side to Camp life, and a hard one. If we were only in the
fort it would be all right then everry tooth in my mouth is sore and
aching and has been for a week or more. I went into a store in the town
of Lewis this afternoon and it was so warm it made my head ache right
away I could not stand it. did not wash the dishes this evening as it was
so wet. it is a little cold this evening but I do not feel it I have got so
much used to the Cold I do not think I could stand it in a house with a
fire now it would do as it did to me this evening in that store Went to
bed at 8 oclock this eve

Sunday Nov 17th 1861 got up at 2 Oclock and went to work, baked and
cooked and started at Half past Sevon the roads were bad being wet
and frozen went 25 miles this day and camped on the west side of [blank
space] creek the day was verry pleasant if the roads had only been good,
expect to get into Council Bluffs tomorrow I am very anxious to get
there so that I can hear from home I have been verry homesick this
day. . . .

Monday Nov 18th 1861 this morning was waked up by the Cry of
fire fire The Co B Comissary Wagon is on fire why in the Hell don’t you
holler fire, and other such cries as the above one I was out of the wagon
in less time than I ever went out before the wagon was all lit up I
sprung for it and pulled up the cover then I pulled at the potato bag
but it came out in pieces the Bean bag did the same flour Coffee, Beans
potatoes and every thing else was mixed up we pulled out about 300#
of flour 16# of Coffee HV 2 Bush potatoes peck of Beans and some



other things [several words illegible] we scouped them out on the ground
and put out the fire when I happened to think that my feet were burned
and verry cold Started on and marched on 23 miles

Tuesday Nov 19th went into town this morning and got a letter from
my wife the child has been unwell the rest are all well came back and
brought 100 of Com meal with me that I Bought there, about 3 odock
it turned up verry stormy the wind viered around from South to north-
west and it rained until about 8 oclock in the evining when it deared up
it is purety cold now

Wednesday Nov 20 Clear this morning but a little cold got up at
about half past 4 oclock and cooked breakfast the day was verry
pleasant, staid in camp all day cooked dinner at half past 3 this even-
ing. … no news from home am verry anxious to hear from home again
how my Dear wife and children are if I only had them near enough to
see them once every day I would be satisfied but it cannot be. the men
are all verry much Dissatisfied with Pattee and getting more so all the
time 13 . . .

Monday Nov 25th Started at 7 Oc ahead of the train with Lieut Leuse
and went on to Soux City 46 miles and got in the City at half past 7
odock and stopped at the Heagy house got a good Supper I wish I
could only get a letter from home then I would be all right.

Tuesday Nov 26th 61 this morning it looked like rain and about 12
oclo it commenced by 3 PM the wind viered round to the northwest
and began to get Cold men came in stragling by 3 s or 4s at once this
evening it is verry cold more so than any day since we started the old
horse is not well had to trade off a pair of goggles to get him some medi-
dne as I did not have a cent of money at five Oclock started with the
team and flour and took it around to the different houses to have it baked

Wednesday Nov 27 the train Started at 1 1 A. M. leaving 1 team and
several men at town myself amongst the rest to get what Bread the women
had baked for us we waited until 3 Oc when we started …. we went
around and gathered Bread until 6 oclock when we started out with about
600 lbs the teamster who was an Irishman got so drunk this afternoon
that we left him in a Stable when we Started for the Bread and he only

13 The food supply was very short, and the men blamed it on Capt. Pattee. For
their attitude toward him and the feud between Pattee and Mahana, see Amos R.
Cherry’s account in “Iowa Troops in the Sully Campaign/’ pp. 384ff.



Caught up when we had started, still stupid we drove out on a verry
rough road over bluffs as rough as any we have been on yet — and got
off of the road — when we were about 4 miles off from town and Sargent
Trask 14 and myself went ahead and hunted until we got to the ferry
when we had to go back for the team headed by the ferryman and got
into Camp at 9 Oclock. . . .

Friday Nov 29th 61 this morning it is Clear but Cold the thermometer
must be about 15 Deg below Zero we started and marched to Vermillion
the Seat of Government of Dacotah Teritory here we had a verry good
Camping ground with plenty of water I forgot to mention that last night
we had to Carry all of Our water from one well half mile from Camp and
had not enough to Cook Coffee. . . .

Sat Nov 30th 1861 Cold this momg but no wind looked as though it
would rain also like snow marched 22 miles one man in our Company
named Cannon 15 an Irishman stopped at a house on the side of Gim 16
river and Sold a blanket that he had stolen from one of his mess mates and
traded it off for 1 qt whisky the officers sent a Corporal and 6 men back
with him to the house and made him get the blanket and bring it home and
then got a board & marked it with Chalk (stole a Blanket and trade it off
for whiskey) then parraded him through the whole Camp.

Sunday Dec 1st Cold, Cold, verry Cold got up and started at Sevon
Oclock the wind blowing sharp from north west traveled 17 miles the
day was the Coldest we have had some of the Boys froze their fingers
hands & Ears, was sick with the Diarraeh had the home sickness more this
day than any since we left the City. . . .

Tuesday Dec 3rd this the 4th anniversary of my Wedding opened up
verry fine warm and pleasant as a morning in April Started and travelled
22 miles into the Indian Reserve — 2 miles back from our Camp we came
across lodges of Indians in a Deep hollow. The Squaws & Children Crawled
through the grass looked like a flock of quail we did not get down to
them as we wanted to get on and camp our camp this evening is in a verry
lovely spot the pleasantest since we have left the City it is on a flat [il-
legible] north east with the back toward a run on the opposite side of which

14 Eugene F. Trask of Iowa City, Second Sergeant of Co. B. Roster and Record ,

15 Edward Cannon, aged 40, native of Ireland, resident of Iowa City. Ibid., 2:736.

16 The Janies, or Jim, River in South Dakota.



were verry high Bluffs covered with Cedar ash and Other kinds of trees
the run was not frozen and the bottom pebbly I could have spent a week
there verry pleasantly in such weather as we had

Wednesday Dec 4th still verry pleasant and warm this mom Started at
sunrise and made the station by noon 17 miles the station as it is called is
situated on the river Bottom and Consists of a large warehouse sawmill and
lot of Indian Cabbins here you could see the natives in all states from those
who were dressed in their skins to those who lived in houses and dressed
better than I can here the Captain received orders to Cross the river and
take up the west side but the teams would not do it as they feared that the
Ice would break. I vollunteered to cross with my horse & wagon and did
so after I had crossed the Captain reed another order brought by an Indian
from Pattee 17 that we were to Keep on up this side for sevon miles further
and then Cross so I had to go back we then marched up 2 miles and
camped on the Bottom this evening our Camp was crowded with Indians
until the guard had to drive them out. . . .

Thursday Dec 5th 61 Started and made 7 miles up the river 7 mi &
Crossed the river on the Ice went up 2 miles when we met Pattee & were
marched off to the right of the post on the river Bottom & camped

Friday Dec 6th 61 this morning is verry nice again Gear & warm
this afternoon I went into the fort [Randall] it is situated on a bott[om]
the Seccond Bottom from the River on the west is a high Bluff the fort is
on as good ground as can be wished for our quarters are good

Sat Dec 7th 1861 Started into the fort at 12 oclock the Cooking Qrts
are verry Dirty made Dinner by 4.30 boys all verry well satisfied reed
2 letters from home and am verry much relieved to hear that my family is
all well. . . .

[Letter signed f< W. A. M” 18 in Iowa City State Press , Jan. 22, 1862.]

Fort Randall
Dec 28, 1861

… We arrived here about three weeks ago; in good health and fine
spirits. We had a pretty hard march of it, I tell you; but after all our trials,

17 When the troops camped on Dec. 3rd, Capt. Pattee had taken the stage and
gone ahead to Fort Randall, where the two companies of the 4th Artillery were
eager to leave. John Pattee, ff Dakota Campaigns/’ South Dakota ‘Historical Collec-
tions, 5:275-6 (1910).

18 Possibly William A. McCaddon, private, Co. B, 14th Iowa. Roster and Record ,



and troubles, we have at last reached our place of destination, and found
everything in much better order than we expected. We have just as good
and comfortable quarters as any of us could wish. We have had splendid
weather in our corner of the world, until within the last few days when it
turned in very cold and stormy. How did you all spend Christmas at home?
I expect you had line times; for my part I stood guard all day but had a
splendid dinner that one of the citizens prepared expressly for our mess.
You wished to know what kind of a place we sleep in and what we have to
eat and also how we get our washing done. In the first place I will tell you
how we sleep. We have large comfortable mess rooms with bunks in each
one, to accommodate 16 men. We have plenty of bed clothing, a large stove
and plenty of wood to each room. I will just give you our bill of fare and
you can judge for yourself as to whether we have enough to eat or not. —
We have plenty of bread, coffee, beef, bacon, beans, rice, soup, &c. We are
allowed fresh beef only two days in a week, and the rest of the time have
bacon that I think was killed when Adam was a boy; it has actually been
killed so long that its day of resurrection has come and it is all coming to
life again. Some of it is able to crawl now. I expect we will have it to
butcher over again before it is all used up, as we have about twenty tons of
it yet. There are about 20 of the regulars* wives here to wash for us besides
the women that came along with us. The regulars left here the day after we
arrived, their families will probably stay here ’till next summer.

We have organized a debating society and have fine times. We also have
a sabbath school and Good Templar’s association. Capt. Mahanna is super-
intendent of the Sunday School. We also have a theatre once a month.
There is a large theatre hall here large enough to seat four hundred persons;
it is fitted up in style, with a splendid set of scenery. We have good times
here if we are away out in the world, but it would be considerable better if
there were about 500 girls here. They are a very scarce article about these
diggings. There is any number of the true American ladies here but they
don’t exactly suit my style. There are about fifteen hundred of the red
devils about the country here, and about two hundred hanging around the
fort all the time. They are the dirtiest, laziest, lousiest, set of creatures I
ever saw; I dont see how they live at all. There is no game around here for
them to kill. I believe they just live on what little they get around the fort.

W. A. M.



[Letter signed A. R. C. [Amos R. Cherry], 19 in the Iowa City State Press ,
Feb. 19, 1862.]

Fort Randall,
Feb. 5, 1862.

MR. editor: As I was a resident of Iowa City and acquainted with many
in that place and vicinity, and was an occasional reader of your paper, per-
haps a few lines from me would not be out of place, for the greater portion
of our company is from Iowa City or from Johnson county. . . . The sol-
diers in Ft. Randall have written a great many communications for the Re-
publican but for some cause they are not published. Mr. Republican, why
is this? But I think I can answer the question, and save the precious time
of the ones that run that party -machine. 20 The soldiers here being Union
men, uttering their true sentiments, irrespective of party, perhaps did not
suit the style of that partizan sheet. Perhaps their letters censured some of
their party friends who are in position in the battalion, and if they did so, I
have no doubt but they gave a truthful representation of affairs here, and of
our usage and misusage on the march to this place. . . .

We arrived here on Dec. 5th, very much worn down by our long march;
remained in camp two days outside the garrison to give the regulars time to
get moved out of the quarters; took possession on the 7th; and we had al-
most forgotten how to keep house after living so long in tents. All the trou-
ble we had was how to occupy all the room. Having been so long accus-
tomed to sleeping four deep and mixing up so thick in our six by seven
mansions, it seemed very odd to us to spread out and live like white men
once more. The quarters here are excellent, and provided with plenty to
eat, which is cooked up in fine style by our friend, and accommodating
cook, Julius Winekie [sic]. The members of Co. B are all well; not a man on
the sick list from our company; and we are having very easy times during
the cold weather. Since it became so severe, we have not drilled much; in
fact not at all out of doors, but four hours each day in our rooms. Co. B is
well drilled in the manual of arms, and I think not inferior to any company

19 Amos R. Cherry of Iowa City was Fifth Sergeant of Co. B. See “Iowa Troops
in the Sully Campaigns/’ 374-440.

20 This reflects the party animus of the times. The Iowa City “Press was a Demo-
cratic paper, the Iowa City “Republican , naturally, Republican. It is very possible that
letters written to the Republican , criticizing officers who may have been prominent
Republicans, would not have been published by the organ of that party. Likewise,
the Press would probably have suppressed letters attacking Democratic officers.



that ever left Iowa City for the war. We have been drilling some in the
skirmish drill, since we came here. This is fine exercise and the men take a
deep interest in it, and of course learn very fast indeed.

And now a word concerning our officers. Capt. Mahanna is well and
looks finely. He is the best captain that ever had the command of a com-
pany of brave men; beloved by every man in his company. Whenever we
parade for inspection or drill, he has some good advice and counsel to give
us, and I assure you it is taken and acted upon by the men. I often heard
it said by men in Iowa City that they would never go to Ft. Randall with
him, and that they had no confidence in him as a military man, and many
other unpleasant remarks were made concerning him, which were all gross
misrepresentations. He exercises no unnecessary authority over his men,
and only such as a father exercises over his children; for their good and
comfort seems to be his whole study and aim. And if he has not the confi-
dence of the cowardly stay-at-homes in Iowa City, who are jealous of him
in his proud position, he certainly has both the respect and confidence of
the men he has the honor to command; and if his enemies have anything to
say disrespectful of him before any member of this company, it will be re-
sented as soon as if it was concerning ourselves.

Lieut. Luse is one of the best officers in the battalion, universally re-
spected by the whole command. I often heard it remarked before we left,
that he would be very nice until we were in his power and then he would
show us the cloven foot. This was the most unjust remark that ever was
made concerning a decent man. Lieut. Luse is one of the best fellows I ever
knew; courteous and pleasant in his manner of addressing the men when off
duty, and when he gives the command, “Attention Company ” it seems to be
a pleasure to the men to obey his orders.

Lieut. Schell 21 is young but an accomplished officer and brave soldier,
and even to his seniors in rank, an example, and beloved by all.

We are in hopes of being removed from here and sent South in the
spring to join our comrades in arms who are with the devoted and true of
the Northwest. Not but we are contented and comfortable in this our Fort
Randall home, and well satisfied to remain, as far as comfort and ease are
concerned, but this is not the height of our ambition. We are anxious to

21 Joseph F. Schell of Iowa City, Second Lieut, of Co. B. “Roster and Record,
5 : 1185 .



take an active part in this struggle for national existence, and distinguish
ourselves for something more than masterly inactivity, that the name of this
battalion may be recorded upon the pages of our country’s history as one
that acted well its part in maintaining our country’s rights and restoring
peace and harmony to its now torn and distracted States.

We are having trouble with a man from this Territory by the name of
Lyman, 22 who came here on the 3d and reported himself to the sergeant of
the guard as the commander of the post. He notified Capt. Pattee on the
morning of the 4th that he would take command in the morning at guard
mounting, but Pattee did not feel disposed to give up his position, until this
new man produced satisfactory evidence that he was entitled to the com-
mand, which it seems he has not done. He has issued several orders but
none of them are executed as we consider ourselves subject only to the
orders of Capt. John Pattee. Last night, Lyman issued an order that there
would be no dress parade that night. Capt. Pattee gave an order for dress
parade, and of course, we obeyed, and appeared to receive the orders of
John Pattee, Captain commanding the post. Pattee is now under arrest for
not obeying the instructions of this new comer, and Pattee has issued an
order notifying this gentleman that he must leave the garrison within 24
hours, or he would place him under arrest. To-day Capt. Mahanna of Co.
B and Capt Wolf 23 of Co. C had a conversation with Lyman, and they
appear to feel satisfied that this man’s papers are all right and that he is
entitled to the command. They say Mr. Lyman treated them with a great
deal of respect and expressed his regret that anything of the kind happened.
Perhaps he has been misrepresented and I will not judge him too harshly,
until I am assured that he deserves it.

William P. Lyman was “major” of the Dakota Volunteer Cavalry which con-
sisted of only one company. When he presented his papers to Pattee” and stated
that he had been appointed to take over command at Fort Randall, Pattee refused to
honor his commission, which was so full of erasures and interlinings as to be un-
intelligible. Also, as Pattee explains, no one could be appointed a major of less than
two companies. Lyman succeeded in taking over the post, however, and placing
Pattee under arrest. Pattee at once communicated with his brother-in-law, Governor
Kirkwood of Iowa, and with Senator James Harlan. The War Department examined
the case and at once relieved Lyman, who left the fort, turning over command to
Capt Mahana of Co. B rather than to Pattee, who remained under arrest until word
came from Kirkwood and Harlan that he was to be restored to command. The whole
incident is an instance of local Dakota politics, coupled with the animosity between
Mahana and Pattee. For Pattee’s account, see Pattee, “Dakota Campaigns,” 278-82.

23 George H. Wolfe of Jones County, Capt. of Co. C. Roster and Record , 5:1190.



We have been favored with a visit from our red brethren, about sixty in
number, who were on their way to their great buffalo hunt and wished to
get some eatables. Pattee issued out to them two barrels of pork, three bar-
rels of crackers, some tobacco, and three buckets of sugar, with which they
seemed well pleased. They say Pattee is the best man that ever was in com-
mand here, and they are, of course, his fast friends.

Respectfully yours,

A. R. C.

P.S. Since writing the above, I have been informed by Capt. Mahanna
that he and Capt. Wolf of Co. C had become satisfied that Major Lyman’s
papers were correct, and entitled him to the command of the post, and
Mahanna and Wolf notified Pattee that they should report to Lyman for
orders; and at the same time told him that they thought he had better sub-
mit; but he obstinately refused to do so, saying that he should hold com-
mand at all hazards. He also told Mahanna that if he reported to Lyman
he would have him under arrest. Lyman also said [that if] they refused to
execute his orders he would arrest them. This was placing our Captain in
an unpleasant position, but I think our Captain and Capt. Wolf have acted
the wise part. We are now under the command and subject to the orders of
Major Lyman and received his orders tonight on parade, so you will see we
are in a critical position. Pattee is ordered under arrest in his quarters by
Major Lyman.

A. R. C.

[Letter signed fr W. W., Co. A” 24 in Iowa City Republican, Feb. 26, 1862.]

Fort Randall, Dacotah Ty.,
Feb. 8th, 1862.


Excitement being on “tip toe” and the cause the subject of conversation
in every circle, I thought I would take my pen (although occupying quar-
ters in the hospital) to let your many readers learn that we are even at Fort
Randall, subject to excitements and changes.

Some four or six weeks ago, it was reported that the War Department
had authorized the Governor of Dacotah to fill and garrison this post with
Dacotah volunteers, and the Iowa boys to leave for the sunny South, and

24 There is no man with the initials “W. W.” in Co. A. It is possible that the
initials are those of William W. Jones of Iowa City, a private in Co. A. Jbid., 5:1175.



join their regiment for more active service, which caused considerable vocal
speculation, murmur and much dissatisfaction.

This report was a number of times contradicted and affirmed, but some
two weeks ago, it was proven that the Dacotah volunteering had turned out
an entire failure/ not being able to raise a respectable corporal’s guard. I
wish the friends in Iowa to understand that the Iowa boys never once feared
leaving for a field of more active service — but having traveled through a
bitter Northwestern autumn, the fatiguing march of over five hundred miles,
and then to be turned into the drifting storms of mid-winter, for a more
than equally fatiguing and weary march, brought a shudder. . . .

About the time the above had passed into forgetfulness — and there be-
ing but little excitement excepting on mail days, and I would say, I have
often thought if the friends at home knew the good it does a poor soldier to
receive a letter, and the downcast looks of the disappointed, they would
employ their pens more faithfully than they appear to do for the “Boys of
Fort Randall.” The news came that a Major from Dacotah had been ap-
pointed to take command of the Fort. This was, like the former, a number
of times contradicted and affirmed. But on Monday (3d ult. 25 ) Major
Lyman came to the garrison, presenting his papers and demanding the as-
signment of the commandership of the post. But Capt. Pattee, believing his
papers not sufficient, refused to give up the command. Thus for a day or
two, nothing of interest excepting a few articles of correspondence between
the two claimants, passed. On Tuesday following, the Major issued an
order of arrest of Capt. Pattee in his quarters, which added greatly to the
excitement and speculation. On Wednesday morning (5th ult.) showing
additional papers, and convincing the officers of the garrison that he was
entitled to the commandership, he entered upon his duties as Major com-
manding at Fort Randall. I believe the whole battalion is much dissatisfied.

If an officer from the regular army had been sent to take command, there
would not have been heard a murmur of dissatisfaction. The Iowa boys
believe it an imposition upon them, as volunteers from the State of Iowa,
and are now praying that arrangements be made on the opening of the
Missouri, for their removal, to join their regiment. . . .

Yours, W. W. Co. A.

25 The misuse of “ult.” instead of “inst.” when the writer means “in the same
month,” is constant throughout these letters.



[Letter signed fr W. W.” in Iowa City Republican , Mar. 19, 1862.]

Fort Randall, Dacotah Ty., Feb 28th, 1862.


As everything connected with the history of our country is read with
great interest, I will attempt to give your readers a sketch and history of
Fort Randall.

Properly speaking this is a garrison rather than a fort. It is situated
South, on the second table-land, about 100 rods from the Missouri River,
about 140 miles west of Sioux City, Iowa.

This table land comprises about one square mile of gentle sloping prairie,
bounded on the South by high bluffs, from the peaks of which are seen on
every hand vast regions of wild country — yonder the wide Missouri, bor-
dered with lofty but varied bluffs, fringed with heavy timber and thick
under brush, of but three or four summers growth, and the windings of
many small streams, making at once a picture highly grand and captivating.

On the North [of] the first table land, covered [with] large timber, [is]
the muddy “Massioux” (Mo.) , North of which is to be seen, rising towards
the clouds, the vapor from a large hot spring . . . and upon the summit of
a distant bluff the Indians* burying ground; which shows that if Fort Ran-
dall is surrounded but by the wild sublimities of nature and the untutored
savages, it possesses a romantic picture.

The garrison comprises about 100 buildings, built in an oblong square,
having in the centre a delightful parade ground of 20 by 80 rods, in the
center of which waves the bright emblem of our nation’s pride.

At the South end of the parade ground is built what is known here as the
Colonel’s house. This is a fine building, and cost the Government about
$30,000! The other officers’ quarters or buildings are upon the West side,
band quarters on the North end, and the soldiers’ on the east side, all facing
the parade ground.

The officers’ quarters are fine and comfortable, all lined with beautiful
red Cedar; the soldiers’ quarters are not so stylish, but yet comfortable and

On the East, about 30 rods from the soldiers’ quarters, on a delightful
spot, is the hospital — a fine building containing eight commodious and
well furnished rooms. The main building is about 1 00 feet in length and 20
wide, having an L at each end of a room 20 feet square — a porch the



length of the building on each side, and in addition (but not connected)
are the kitchen departments — all of which have been built with an eye to
comfort and convenience of the sick and wounded soldier. The hospital is
well supplied with medicine, surgical instruments, medical books and a
barometer and thermometer attached.

North of the band quarters are the magazine, guard house, and three
pieces of brass cannon; on the west of which are the commissary and store-
house departments, all of which are constantly guarded.

West, or rear about 40 rods from the officers* quarters, are the garrison
stables, which are large enough to accommodate about 1 00 horses or mules,
and from 75 to 100 oxen.

Add to the above the sutler’s store, postoffice, Gen. Todd’s 26 private
dwelling, and on the first table land the garrison’s steam sawmill and two
or three private dwellings, and you will conceive that Fort Randall has much
the appearance of a thriving New England river town.

The selection of the grounds for Fort Randall was made in the early part
of the spring of 1856 by Gen. Harney. Two companies under command of
Capt. Davis (2nd Infantry, Col. Lee, U. S. A.) left Fort Pierre (which was
on the Missouri River, about 250 miles from this garrison) bringing its ef-
fects, and arrived here in July (’56) where they found 250 new recruits
from New York, for the regiment, under the command of Capt. Page. Early
the coming autumn the building of the garrison was commenced. The fol-
lowing spring Capt. (now the hero of Wilson’s Creek) the lamented Gen.
Lyon, 27 left with his company, breaking up Fort Look-out, and arrived here
in the month of July. After remaining nearly two years he left in June, ’59,
in command of two companies (2d Infantry) for Fort Riley, by way of
Fort Kearney and Prairie Dog Creek, without even a guide, across a wild,
untraveled country of 350 miles. And his silent quarters, now unoccupied,
bring in their presence many a thrill of patriotic reverence, and their death-

26 Gen. James B. S. Todd, a native of Kentucky, and a graduate of West Point,
who had served in the Mexican War and under Gen. Harney in Dakota, resigned
his commission in 1856 and became the sutler at Fort Randall. In 1861 he had been
elected Dakota’s first territorial delegate to Congress. In Sept., 1861, Lincoln ap-
pointed him a brigadier general of volunteers and placed him in command of the
North Missouri Military District. South Dakota Historical Collections , 1:115.

27 Nathaniel Lyon, in 1856 Captain of Co. B, 2nd U. S. Infantry, was a brigadier
general in command of the troops in Missouri in 1861. He was killed at the Battle of
Wilson’s Creek, August, 1861, a battle in which the 1st Iowa Infantry fought. Some
of the Iowa men at Fort Randall in 1862 had served in the 1st Iowa.



like stillness awakes unbidden the memories of the sad knells of Wilson’s
Creek. In July the remaining part of the regiment were relieved by the 4th
Artillery, Col. Monroe. On the breaking out of the rebellion there were
five companies occupying the garrison. In April, 1861, three companies,
with the regimental band, Capt. Getty, left for the seat of war, leaving two
companies, H. and M, Capt. Brown, to garrison the fort, which were re-
lieved on the 7th of December, 1861, by companies A, B and C, Capt.
Pattee, 14th regiment Iowa Volunteers. . . .

I am indebted to Luke Larvey, Esq., the Hospital Steward, for much of
my information.

Yours, W. W.


[Wieneke Diary]

March 1 st 1 862 Reed a letter from my Dear Wife it has been snowing
all day long the old signs say March comes in cold goes out warm I hope
it is so. . . .

Tuesday March 4 this morning is altogether the most Disagreeable
morning we have had this winter, the snow is blowing so hard that you can
hardly see 20 feet off 4 oclock P. M. Still cold and windy as ever our
room is all dust every thing is covered fully an Vs of an Inch with Dust
this is aweful it Blows so hard that there is no use looking for the mail be-
fore next Sat. . . .

March 5th 1862 Wednesday Morning Wind Still Blowing hard as ever
and fresh snow falling with it went over to the Cook room and could
hardly get back for the wind this beats all I ever saw in the wind line —
blow Blow Blow all day no stop, and no mail either. . . .

Friday Morn March 7 . . . got an ox team and 4 of us started down
and got 2 loads of wood Started at 1 Ocl and returned at 3 Vi Oclock
Mail came in at last. . . .

Sunday March 9th 1862 . . . there were 3 Indians put in the guard
house here today for Killing a calf for the Jew. . . .

Sat March 22 Still windy — sold violin to Shep Poland 28 Still got jaw-
ache took physick for it. . . .

Monday March 24th this morn is cooler again wind sharp the Ice

28 Shephard Poland of Iowa City, Fourth Corporal of Co. B. “Roster and Record ,
5 : 1181 .



broke this mom 5 PM it has risen about 6 feet the old steam ferry Boat
lying [below] the mill all winter has broken loose from the bank and gone
down the river this Even 2 men on board. . . .

April 1st 1862 morning wet & thawing wind from the east P. M. very
pleasant clear, launched the ferry boat and tried to cross the river but too
much Ice running Indians on this side afraid of being attacked by the
Crow tribe and want to get across. . . .

Friday 4th . . . this evening at 8V2 Oclock some one threw a snowball
through the window of the Majors house and struck him on the back & then
run through the alley back of our qrts. . . .

Monday Apr. 7th 1 862 more snow, it seems as if summer never comes
in this accursed country. Snow all day and blows too the deepest snow we
have had this winter. . . .

[Letter signed “W. W.” in Iowa City Republican, May 14, 1862.]

Ft. Randall, D. T.,
April 26, 1862.

dear EDS: — We are all excitement in Fort Randall. We have just re-
ceived the news of the taking of Island No. 10, and the great battle at Pitts-
burg Landing, and while there is much to cause us to be proud, we yet feel
sad at the loss of so many brave men. And as they bravely fell at the altar
of their country, may we and our country never forget the sacredness of
their memories.

In my communication of the 11th February ult., I stated that the com-
mand of this post had been surrendered to a man named Lyman, with a
Majors commission. Much dissatisfaction was felt toward the imposition
and nothing could have reconciled our feelings to the fate. On the 19th
ult. the Major, after arranging his business, signed the commandership of
the post to Capt. B. Mahanna, who is now Capt. commanding at Ft. Randall.
We are in daily expectation of another change, in favor of Capt. Pattee,
who we believe has, as well as the battalion (as Iowa volunteers ) , been un-
justly treated.

The mails to Ft. Randall for the last two months have been very irregular
— and they being the only source of pleasure to the pent up spirits —
caused gloom to rest on every face. A number of the boys have received
letters stating that companies are being raised in Iowa [This is news to the



people of Iowa. — Ed.] for Ft. Randall, to relieve us, that we may join our
Regiment; which is received with exultant joy, as we are more than tired of
the monotonies of Fort life, and wish to have a hand in reaping some of
the glory gained by our brave fellow soldiers, meet the enemy face to face,
and have the privilege of striking with our own hands, a blow against the
hydra-headed monster rebellion.

We are in daily expectation of a government steamer, with which we
expect the paymaster. We have yet received no pay from Uncle Sam. Al-
though much in need of some of the “needful,” we are waiting with pa-
tience, believing the old gentleman has not forgotten us.

The “boys at Ft. Randall” are doing well, but praying soon to leave for a
field of more active service. Health among us is good; but few upon the
sick list, none serious. . . .

Yours, W. W.


[Letter from fr W. W.” in Iowa City Republican, May 28, 1 862.]

Ft. Randall, D. T., May 11, 1862.

eds. republican: Yesterday was a “big day” at Fort Randall. In my
last I stated that Major Lyman, of Dacotah, had left, leaving the command
of the post to Capt. Mahanna, and that we expected another change soon
in favor of Capt. Pattee. The expectation has been fulfilled. On last
Thursday (8th) the mail brought orders giving command of the garrison to
Capt. Pattee, which he assumed on yesterday. New life filled the garrison,
and the policy of the new administration was the theme on every lip, and
you may rest assured many hearts were made glad that the honor of our
beloved State was again brought to its proper dignity. It was soon seen
that the change could not be passed in silence. Companies C and A (com-
pany B not participating), about 9 o’clock P. M. came in full uniform to
give their reinstated commander a serenade, which was conducted by Capt.
Wolf of Co. C. After due arrangements the companies were marched,
headed by martial music, to the residence of the commander. After a num-
ber of stirring tunes were played in front of his (Capt. Pattee’s) residence,

J. W. Davis, Esq., 29 was called upon and sang “Hurrah for the Union,” in
an appropriate manner, the audience joining in the chorus. Nearly 200
salute guns were fired, which made a grand spectacle; and at the close of

29 Josiah W. Davis of Iowa City, Fifer in Co. A. Ibid., 5:1168.

•v et –






which three hearty cheers were given to Capt. Pattee. The Capt. then ap-
peared, making a speech which was cheered throughout. The string band
played a number of tunes with touching melody, at the close of which three
“rousen” cheers rent the air, and the soldiers were marched to their quar-
ters to enjoy a night of sweet repose. So you see Capt. Pattee is captain
commanding at Fort Randall.

Yours, W. W.

[Wieneke Diary]

Thursday May 17th 1862 Capt. Mahana Lieuts Luse & Schell placed
under arrest this A M Cause not known. . . . 30

June 2nd 1862 Letters this A. M. for the Capt to detail thirty men &
non Commissioned officers to join on a scout up North of the fort about 35
miles I did not know as I was to start until the [illegible] was crossing the
river when the Capt sent me up to [several words illegible] we had hardly
crossed the river when a rainstorm came up and for about 15 minits it
rained purety hard we marched about 4 miles and camped for the night on
the edge of an Indian village of about 200 lodges Evening warm & sultry
Mosquitoes plenty

Tuesday June 3d 62 started at 10 minits before 6 oclock morning very
pleasant and sun shining arrived at Camp Sunfish Creek at 10% Oclock
1 1 miles from last Camp this camp was so called from the number of sun-
fish the Boys caught here the land today has been mostly very nice rolling
prairie some high Bluffs but very little timber, our cooking this day had to
be done with dry plum bushes the land all along looks like one continuous
flower garden and the flowers all new and far prettier than in Iowa [several
words illegible] took the Capt spyglass and went up on the bluffs looking
off to the west we could see Buffalo grazing on a knoll about 3 miles away
but it was so near retreat that we could not go after them

Wednesday June 4 day pleasant & Clear started at 6.30 and traveled
about 6 miles when we were overtaken by Wallace Pattee 31 who acted as
Guide we traveled on until 2:15 P. M. when we arrived on Pratt [sic.

30 These are the officers of Co. B. Evidently the animosity between Pattee and
Mahana still existed. Mahana had taken over command of the Fort, after Lyman had
left, and had not released Pattee from his imprisonment until ordered to do so by
the War Department. See note 22.

31 Wallis Pattee, brother of Capt. Pattee, was at this time Second Sergeant of
Co. A. Roster and Record , 5:1180.



Platte] Cr 16 miles from our last Camp the land we traveled over today
was mostly undulating prairie & without a brush or stream the whole rout,
the creek has a few stunted Cedars on [it] but they would not do us for fire
wood more than 3 weeks [they are] all that we can see for 4 miles up and
down the Creek this day we could get a glimpse of Buffalo & also 4 ante-
lope & large numbers of ducks.

Thursday June 5th 1862 Morning pleasant & Cool the night was Cooler
than comfortable but the day is warm enough again started at 6.30 down
the Creek which we found was only a branch of the Pratt Creek and
Camped about 4 miles farther Southwest on a beautiful Platteau of about 5
acres extent on a bed of the Creek the water here is cool and as clear as
Chrystal caught a mess of sun fish and Cleaned them and Cooked some
dinner this is the extent of my forenoon work this is called Pratt Creek
Camp this P. M. Sargt Lewis 32 & 2 privates were sent down the Creek to
find out how far the Missouri was off this is the most deceiving ground
that I ever looked at [illegible] I will set down what happened About 2
Oclock I took the Capt Spy glass & went up on the bluff west of the Creek
and looking off on the farthest Bluff to the west we could see distinctly
Indians on the top of them strung along for a mile or more and they seemed
to be watching our actions they seemed to Come up on top of the hill and
then dodge back after looking at us then some of them would get down on
their hands & knees and crawl along and then suddenly disappear I re-
turned to camp and Called the Capt and he and 4 other men came up and
all said that they were Indians we then came back and obeyed the Instruc-
tions by displaying our forces on the Bluff and Sargt Cherry & several oth-
ers went up on the Bluff with the glass again and looked and kept advancing
on them at last some of them said they could see ponies and after traveling
about 1 mile they found that they were in a Prarie Dog Town and all our
Indians were Prarie Dogs and these could be seen for IV 2 miles & looked
through the spyglass as tall as Indians and with the naked eye not much

Friday June 6th 62 this A M a party of 5 men under Sarg Lewis went
out northwest onto the Bijou Hills to hunt will return tomorrow Even
Capt & I went out to see the Dog town this Morn it is situated on a bluff
with the centre on the top of the hill it is about 2 miles long by 1 V 2 miles

32 James L. Lewis of Cedar County, Third Sergeant of Co. B. Ibid., 5:1177.



wide — we could see them poking their heads out every 8 or 10 feet apart
I think that we could see as many as 1000 of them at once this is a hot
day too hot for Exercise so we lay in the tent from 9 Oclock on except
when I Cooked dinner this consisted of fried meat slapjacks & Coffee until
6 Oclock when there was a short drill Boys had been down the Creek to
the river and all say that there is such a pretty Country around there that
we are anxious to go there, and Capt. says we may move the Camp down
there monday

Sat June 7th 1862 morning hot again nothing new the Boys have been
trying to shoot some of those dogs but could not get any after they had
shot them as the other dogs would drag them into the holes, out of about
50 shot they only succeeded in getting two of the dogs and they were shot
right in two there are some of the prettiest Cactus plants here that I ever
laid my eyes on. if we only got our mail regular then I would be satisfied
to stay here all summer, not a day without some excitement this A. M.
was near being too much for me I went down to wash my self in the
Creek and not knowing that the water was so deep I jumped into water
about 10 ft deep and could not swim a bit if it had not been for some of
the boys helping me out it would have been the last of the old Bugler The
Hunting Det[ail] returned at 1 Oclock but no game they report the Coun-
try about the same as we traveled over on the 4th after traveling about 24
miles they got to the Bijou hills and found oak timber and a very cool
spring — shot at wolves which they said were very plenty up there. . . .

Sunday A. M. June 8th Robt Quinn & Th Stewart 33 Started for the fort
to get some small Notions for the Boys. . . . P. M. 3 Oclock just returned
from a tour over the hills and hollows of about 4 miles length nothing new
seen except closing up a wolf Den with rock it will be a good joke on the
wolf if he was in it he will not get out very easy I find a great many
herbs & flowers growing wild here that we must cultivate in Iowa — the
wild roses are almost as large again as the wild roses in Iowa and some as
white as the Snow, other red as roses, as the saying is, flowering peas,
Sage, the Herb called Old Man. another thing I think I have discovered
without doubt is that there is gold in these Bluffs and if I had the imple-
ments I would soon find out for certain. I can see it glisten in the dust. I
have been picking up pieces of quartz with gold in it. . . .

33 Robert Quinn of Iowa City and Thomas Stewart (also Steward) of Iowa City,
privates in Co. B. J bid., 5:1182, 1185.



Monday June 9th 1 862 … a lot of the Boys going to the mouth of the
Creek to catch some fish Capt. & myself took a stroll up on the bluff to
look for Cactus & Other Curiosities and walked so far as our old Camp . . .
& I accidentally started up an antelope but before I could get a cap in the
rifle he was so far away that I did not think it worth while to shoot they
are a verry pretty animal this one was about 18 inches high and jumped
about 5 ft each leap returned to Camp about 10 oclock after walking
about 7 miles P. M. Boys Drilled from 5 to 7 Oc. and shot at Target 225
yds at a Bbl Head only 2 shot struck it but the rest came close around it
showing that although they might not do for sharp shooters they would do
good execution in a battle

Tuesday June 10th 1862 . . . Mail arrived & also Lieut Schell & Or-
derly Dennis 34 & several visitors . . . orders to move Camp down to
Mouth of Creek — broke up camp at 1 Oclock and arrived at Camp Ham-
ilton at 5 Oclock pretty place . . .

Thursday June 12 . . . Musketoes pretty thick last night one Curious
sight here is to see birds perch themselves on top of Cattle & hogs & sit
there no matter how fast they run I discovered the Indian turnip today
the tops have a verry pretty flower on the Potatoe has a kind of Hull on it
like a Cream nut they taste very sweet

Friday June 13th 1862 … I wish Capt M were here instead of Lieut
Schell there is no order in the Camp. Nothing but playing Cards & swear-
ing it is a perfect hell since Capt. M is gone the Settlers here all have
Indian wives — they are all down at the agency at present getting their pay
from Govt . . .

[Letter from “W. W.” in Iowa City Republican, July 9, 1862.]

Ft. Randall, June 16th, 1862

editors republican: Having “Leave of Absence,” I started in company
with my good friends Kelly, Clark, Edwards 35 and others, on Saturday
morning, 14th for Yankton Agency, where … 100 men, under Lieut.
Cooper, 36 had been sent to meet, in case of attack, the dissatisfied Indians.

34 George W. Dennis of Solon, Sergeant of Co. B. Ibid., 5:1169.

35 William Kelly of Iowa City; Wilson M. Clark of Cedar Falls or Henry B. Clark
of Whitewater, Wisconsin, privates of Co. A, and James D. Edwards of Fairfield,
private of Co. B. Ibid., 5:1166, 1170, 1175.

36 Francis H. Cooper of Cedar Falls, First Lieut, of Co. A. Ibid., 5:1166.



After crossing the Missouri, we followed for some mile or two, a small
creek whose bottoms were entirely dotted with Indian cornfields, measuring
from Ys to 3 acres in size. After leaving which, we traveled some 1 2 or 1 5
miles on high rolling prairie.

At about 1 o’clock, P. M., we halted before the camp of our own com-
rades. After the ceremonies of our glad meeting were over, our attention
was drawn to the vast number of Indian lodges (called by the Sioux Te-
pees) , which dotted in heavy clusters the surrounding bluffs, collected from
the different parts of the Territory, now numbering more than 2,200 and
more coming — to receive their annual annuities from “Uncle Sam.” 37

It seems to be the chief enjoyment of the Indians, to be engaged in his
wild and ceremonial dances, among which the most noted are the Annual
Sun Dance, Scalp and Pony Dance. An account of the former, I will give
in the language of my friend Guernsey, 38 of Co. “C,” which he permits me
to quote from his journal: “Early in the morning of the 7th, the Indians
commenced building a kind of arbor about 40 feet in diameter, with a large
pole in the center, and the sides of brush. — This was covered with poles
and skins. About noon, everything being in readiness, eight Indians ap-
peared as dancers, naked to the waist, a cotton garment reaching just below
the knees, completed their costume.

Their black unbound hair, floating over their shoulders, gave them a
wild appearance. Around each wrist and ankle was tied a band of white
fur. The upper part of their bodies and their faces were covered with
heavy paint. Each had a wooden whistle, upon which they blew with the
beat of their Indian drum. The dance commenced amid the beating of the
drum, and the singing and whooping of the singer, the dancers uttering not
a sound.

They kept their faces to the Sun; and as they danced, held their hands
toward it, making heavy gestures. About Sunset, four stakes, about seven
feet high, were set firmly in the ground, and a strong lariat attached to the
top of each. Then they took a “gent/e Savage ” and laid him on his back
between the four stakes, punctured the skin with a knife just below each
breast, like a rowel, run a stick through the wound, and fastened a lariat to

37 The Yankton Agency, near the town of Yankton, at the confluence of the James
and Missouri Rivers, handled the affairs of the Yankton band of Sioux Indians.

38 Byron H. Guernsey of Wheatland, Fourth Corp. of Co. C. “Roster and Record,
5 : 1172 .



each stick, by a strong thong, after which he was turned on his face, and
two more were inserted in the same manner, immediately below the shoul-
der blades, fastened to the two remaining lariats. He was then assisted to
his feet, the music and singing striking up, and all commencing to dance.
In a few minutes he was free, having pulled in his dancing on the lariats
until the pins through the flesh were torn out. On the next morning, the
remaining seven went through the same wild and barbarous ceremony.

During the entire proceedings, not a lip quivered, not a muscle moved, to
denote that they experienced anything but the most exquisite pleasure.
Everything was done with the stoical indifference peculiar to the savage.
These were now distinguished with the peculiar honor of becoming mem-
bers of the “Strong Heart Band/’ which is a peculiarly lofty rank for the
aspiring Indian.

I must not fail stating that on the 5th ult., Capt. Pattee and Dr.
Burleigh, 39 Indian Agent at Yankton, found secreted about 600 gallons of
liquor, calculated for Indians and soldiers, which they destroyed, saving,
no doubt, much trouble and perhaps blood shed, as the Indians, when
intoxicated, are ungovernable.

In my last I forgot to state that we have been reinforced by a cavalry
company of this Territory, under command of Capt. Minor. — The Indians
are all quiet. 40

Yours in haste, W. W.

[Wieneke Diary]

Camp Mules Head June 25 packed up and marched at 5 Oclock ar-
rived at Camp at 10 Oclock 10 miles morning cool met a Frienchman
and his Squaw he on a Pony & his Squaw in a cart, they were going up

39 Dr. Walter A. Burleigh, a native of Maine, had been rewarded by Lincoln for
his support in the 1860 campaign by appointment as Indian agent at the Yankton
Agency in 1861. He was largely instrumental in getting the troops under General
Alfred Sully assigned to protect the Dakota frontier in 1863. South Dakota ‘Historical
Collections, 1:130-31.

40 A treaty had been signed with the Yankton Sioux in 1858 by which the Indians
surrendered some 14 million acres of land at a price of 12 cents an acre and annual
annuities and other considerations. Howard Robert Lamar, Dakota Territory, i 861-
i889, A Study of frontier Politics (New Haven, Conn., 1956), 38. There had been
no serious Indian troubles in Dakota since that time, but the troops were ever on the
lookout for an Indian uprising, especially after the outbreak of the Civil War had
taken the experienced army regiments to the south.



to his claim about 5 miles above our last camp dog town on the flat above
our camp our Camp is situated on a verry pritty Platteau of about 2 miles
long by 7 [?] wide surrounded on 2 sides by high Bluffs and on the upper
end by a deep ravine and on the south by the Missouri as muddy as ever
and on the rise all covered by trees &c below us is a verry pretty grove
principally Burr Oak. . . .

Thursday June 26th … I have just finished climbing one of the highest
and hardest sett of hills that I ever walked on and am now enjoying the
pleasure of one of the most grand sights that ever my gaze rested on on
the south west is the Missouri in all its prettiest shape for over 10 miles its
banks are covered with trees for about 4 miles with 5 Islands in sight while
right below me are piled Bluff upon bluff interspersed with clumps of Cedar
trees and about */2 mile below me are the detachment pulling the wagon and
cattle up the side of a steep bluff while behind me is a long stretch of roll-
ing prarie surrounded on all sides by high Buttes or Bluffs, started along
and got to comp at 1 0 Ocl this was traveling 4 miles per hour and the sun
as hot as I ever saw it on the road I took my Blouse off & put in on the
scouts horse which Lieut was riding and afterwards we stopped at Friench-
men house that was arrested last winter for the murder of another man and
kept in the Guard house long time here Lieut left my Blouse & not telling
me anything of it it was left behind — so I am without one this Eve

[Wieneke letter to wife]

Fort Randall D. T.

July 3rd 1862

Dear Wife … I have been buisy this P. M. Mr. Gui of Iowa City
came out here with a stock of paper, invelops, segars, pipes &c and I bought
some and am retailing it out I hope to make a little money in this way at
least enough to pay for my tobacco & pipes for a few months I also bought
me a gold pen however much I need the money I thought maybe I could
write so much better to my sweet wife as to make it pay to buy another
one but I must close for today and tomorrow Eve I will give you an ac-
count of my doings the Fourth of July. . . .

Friday July 4th 1862

… I have been working with Julius and have just done and attended
Guard mount we have been baking Sprig, Sugar & Ginger cakes Boiling



hams Baking pies & Biscuits and numerous other things too numerous to
mention for our dinner, and I have been selling some more paper &c and
altogether have been very buisy.

Well I must quit now until after the great parade, and then I will tell you
about it One thing I must tell you now is that the Honerable Commission-
ers are having a big party all to themselves since they could not get the
Privates to furnish them with a dinner.

P. M. 2 Oclock July 4th 1862

well thus far the day is passed very pleasantly and not much mishap ex-
cept that our sarg’ts are all drunk as fools, it is a Shame that men should
act so and men on whom duty involves such as on them, the Parade and
Firing of Salute all passed of[f] very pleasantly. 34 volleys with Cannon
and the same with 200 muskets. . . .

6 Oclock P. M.

I have been down and heard the Speaking some of it was very good and
some of it not so good

W. W. Jones was principal Speaker and a good speech he made too.
Several other Speeches were good but some of them commenced getting
personal on our Officers and this did not suit me very well they Com-
menced running on our Officers who were up at the Picknick and only got
down after the Performances were almost through with, the Capt came
down and heard some of the fuss and stepped in and Spoke on it and soon
hushed it up. . . .

Ft Randall D T July 5th /62

Dear Wife … I have sent a Buffalo Robe to you by Mr. Gewey Mr.
Luse the auctioneer’s Partner 41 you can get it by sending down there
the charges are paid on it it is a pretty one my name is on it it will do
first rate for the Dear children to roam about on this next winter I traded
a Blanket on it. I like them better to sleep under and on than on blankets.
Dear wife if I had known about the team’s coming I would have sent you a
couple of Beaver skins too but I could not get them now. . . .

I have been doing a big buissness this P. M. Sold 33 dollars worth of
goods principally pocket combs Pocket Knives & Gold Pens. I made 6 dol-
lars clear money this I think will do well enough for 1 days work in Fort
Randall. . . .

Henry J. Wieneke

41 Lieut. Luse of Co. B. See note 8.



[Letter from “W. W.” in Iowa City Republican , Aug. 6, 1862.]

Ft. Randall, D. T.,
July 27, 1862

EDS. republican: In my letter of June last, I stated that many of our
men had been sent on scouting parties to different parts of the country,
difficulties being apprehended from the Indians. After some weeks travel
and watch they have returned without meeting any of the fighting foe, al-
though alarmed at various times and points.

The Indian mode of warfare is that of surprise and murder. Some six
weeks ago a warparty of the Sioux returned after a warring expedition with
some 30 scalps, over which they had the warriors scalp dance, for about
two weeks, continuing night and day almost without intervals. After making
some inquiry, I learned the Braves (the warriors) had fallen upon a de-
fenceless body of Pawnee women and children, engaged in planting their
com fields. This is the manner the Braves of the North West fight, and if it
was not for the presence of the soldiers, the citizens of Dakota and Ne-
braska would be without mercy, murdered, their fields laid waste, and their
houses pillaged and given to the flames. Treachery and barbarity is the
composition of the Indian.

The Steamer Shreveport (once a rebel steamer on Red River) has just
arrived from Ft. Benton, making the trip (2000 miles) in about 15 days,
bringing very flattering reports from the Gold Regions. One of the miners
from the Dear [sic] Lodge diggings stated that there were between 7000
and 8000 men now in the Salmon River Country, mostly from California
and Oregon, and that mining was as “good as it was in the brightest days
of California,” but was unable to speak as to their extent. He reported
provisions very high, flour, $25.00 per hundred, Sugar $3.00 per lb. He
believed the country well adapted for farming, soil good, timber plenty and
alive with game for the hunter. . . .

Yours, W. W.

[Letter from “W. W.” Iowa City Republican, Oct. 1 , 1862.]

Fort Randall, D. T.,
Sept. 4, 1862

MESSRS, editors : The trumpet of alarm has been sounded, but whether
danger is near Fort Randall or not, is more than we are able to tell; yet the



citizens, half breeds and the friendly Indians are scared with the apprehen-
sion of an immediate attack . 42

The citizens are crowding into the garrison, leaving their farms, crops
and dwellings to the mercy of the ruthless Savage, offering their every as-
sistance, and to stand side by side with the soldier, for the hour of defence.
The Indians are wild and frantic, and their women and children are leaving
for places of concealment and safety from the expected storm. They are
also vigorously engaged in burying their com, to keep it secure from the
confiscation of the warriers. On the opposite side of the river, during the
day, the Indians have been traveling in immense numbers, some of their
trains extending from one to two miles in length, on their way for other
parts, and whether on a friendly or rebellious move (they claim to be
friendly) we are yet to learn. It seems that the tribes of the Northwest are
kindled for some great demonstration, and exultant with the thought of tri-
umphant success. I feel as hundreds of others, that there is a perception
surpassing and superior to that of the untutored Indian, planning their
movements . 43 Tribes heretofore always at enmity are now united — and
the great tribes of Sioux, Cutheads and the Yanktons 44 are moving in con-
cert, and with such a precision that it is without a parallel in Indian history.
The prevailing idea among the Indians is that the great Father’s (the Presi-
dent’s) people are about all being killed in a great war, and that they are

42 In August of 1862 the Sioux in Minnesota, under Chief Little Crow, had risen
and massacred several hundred settlers on the frontier of that state. Minnesota troops
under Brig. Gen. Henry H. Sibley, former governor of Minnesota, were not strong
enough to punish the culprits, and Little Crow and his tribe had escaped westward
into Dakota, taking a number of white women and children captives with them.
Maj. Gen. John Pope, after his failures in the East, was appointed to command a
new Department of the Northwest on Sept. 6, 1862, and had been sent to Minnesota
to organize an army to pursue and punish the Sioux. See Louis H. Roddis, 7he
Indian Wars of Minnesota (Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 1956), 61-125 passim. News of
this outbreak in Minnesota frightened the settlers and the peaceable Indians in

43 Many believed that Confederate agents were instigating the Indians to revolt;
others that the British in Canada were guiding them.

44 The Sioux or Dakota Indians included both the Yankton and the Cuthead tribes.
Following are the divisions of the Dakota-Assiniboin group of the Siouan family:
“1, Mdewakanton; 2, Wahpekute (forming, with the Mdewakanton, the Santee); 3,
Sisseton; 4, Wahpeton; 5, Yankton; 6, Yanktonai; 7, Teton (a) Sichangu or Brules,
(b) Itazipcho or Sans Arcs, (c) Sihasapa or Blackfeet, (d) Miniconjou, (e) Oohen-
onpa or Two Kettles, (f) Oglala, (g) Hunkpapa; 8, Assiniboin/’ Frederick Webb
Hodge (ed.), “Handbook of American Jndians North of Mexico (2 vols., Washington,
1910), 2:579.



going to get another Father who will do better, and provide for them more
pork, beans and sugar, and that they will be granted back the land of the
big Masioux (Mo.) and live eternally rich. These speculative ideas have no
doubt been planted and stimulated in the bosom of the ignorant red man, by
designing men, to embarrass the Government and inaugurate a border war.

Citizens who have lived among the Indians for twenty years, say they
have never seen them so much excited and war like. Our Garrison is yet
safe, but alive with the music of the ax, spade and saw, preparing for a
better defence. We look, indeed, war like in Fort Randall, and begin to
feel that we shall soon try our skill as soldiers with our muskets; and you
may rest assured if the opportunity is presented, that Iowa will not lose any
of her laurels by the ff boys at Fort Randall.” Our Captain (Pattee, Com-
mander of Post), is busily engaged in building some block houses, &c, to
give the warriors as warm reception as their honor may require.

Yours in hope of a victory.

W. W.

P.S. The report has just arrived this morning (5th) that the Indians have
taken Bonhomme and Yankton, burning them to the ground, killing a num-
ber of the inhabitants, and are on their way to this post. 45


[Wieneke Diary]

Friday Nov 14th 46 62 Cavalry came up from Yankton this day Cold
as blazes and stormy. . . .

45 This, of course, was not true, but typical of the rumors circulating on a
frightened frontier.

46 There is a break in the Wieneke diaries, from July to November. After the
battle of Wood Lake in Minnesota on Sept. 23, 1862, when the Indians were defeated,
some of them had escaped westward into Dakota and had worked their way to the
Missouri River above Fort Pierre, about 160 miles north of Fort Randall. Reports
brought to Capt Pattee told of white women prisoners with the Indians. He imme-
diately set about organizing an expedition to march to Fort Pierre to see if the
women could be rescued, and on Nov. 24, 1862, received orders from Gen. Pope to
march to Pierre. A cavalry company at Sioux City (later to be part of the 7th Iowa
Cavalry) was also ordered to assist him. He left Fort Pierre on Nov. 26 with Co. B,
17 men from Co. A, with a battery of one 12-pound Mountain howitzer gun and one
3-pound rifled gun, plus 70 men of the Dakota Cavalry. Pattee, ff Dakota Cam-
paigns,” 283-4; Roddis, Indian Wars of Minnesota, 13-27. On Sept 18, 1862, the
three companies. A, B, and C, of the 14th Iowa had been reorganized into the 41st
Iowa Infantry Battalion, and Capt. Pattee had been promoted to Major of the
Battalion. Roster and Record , 5: 1162.



Monday Nov 17 Nothing new great Excitement about the Expedition
up the river to Ft Piere 47

Camp No 3 Sat Nov 29th 1862 Started at day Break this A M and
traveled Twenty miles to the main branch of Ponka Creek a very nice
Camp but the wind rose very hard this day and this Eve at dark it is storm-
ing as hard as ever it did six or sevon of our men went on ahead of the
train and at 8 oclock we have not heard of them I pity them very much

Sunday Nov 30th well we started this am through an aweful snow
storm built a bridge across a branch of the creek and traveled about Ten
miles over very rough hills and through Hollows & camped in a very nice
bottom on a branch of Ponca Creek we are having alternate storms and
sunshine the Lost Boys have not been heard from yet Sargt Lewis has
been sent up the Creek to hunt for the Boys 3 Oclock P. M. one of the
guides who was out all night hunting for the boys he says that there were
Three of the lost Boys come back to the Cavalry Camp almost dead, saying
that old Canon 48 was found almost dead on the road and perfectly Crazy
they tried to get him along with them to the Cavalry camp but could not
do so and they being very near tired out had to hurry on to the Camp the
Guide or scout went back to get him but he was not to be found what has
become of him is not known

Monday Dec 1st No 4 The Cavalry came in yester Eve late bringing
in all but Cannon who is reported as being seen day before yesterday lay-
ing frozen and stiff but the other boys being so near given out they could
not take him with them. . . .

[Letter from John Pattee, in Iowa City Press, Dec. 20, 1 862.]

Camp No 5

On the March from Ft. Randall to Ft. Pierre,
Dec. 1, 1862

Editor Sioux City Register: I wish to make known through your paper

47 “Old” Fort Pierre was originally a post of the American Fur Co., established by
Pierre Chouteau in 1832. The post was sold to the United States in 1855/ in 1857
the government abandoned it, and moved the troops there to Fort Randall. In 1859
traders of the American Fur Co. built a new Fort Pierre about two miles above the
original fort. South Dakota Historical Collections, 1:105-106, 369-70. See also Wil-
son, “Fort Pierre and Its Neighbors,” ibid., 263-96.

48 See note 15.



that while on the march to the Sauntee 49 camp to recover prisoners taken
in Minnesota, in accordance with instructions from Gen. Pope, I met the
following women and children who had been ransomed through the assist-
ance of some friendly Indians: Mrs. Julia Wright, wife of John W. Wright,
and daughter Eldosa; Mrs. Laura Duley, wife of Wm. J. Duley; Emma,
daughter of Mrs Duley; a son of J. M. Duley; Rosanna and Ellen, daugh-
ters of Thomas Ireland, and Lilia, daughter of Wm. Everett. 50

They will go to Fort Randall immediately and there wait eight or ten
days, to procure clothing, &c., to make them comfortable, and then proceed
to Cedar Falls, and there wait until they hear from their friends. They
learned to-day that their husbands, whom they supposed dead, are still liv-
ing; but they do not know where they are at present.

They have friends at or near Belvidere, Illinois, and I trust that the Press
of Iowa will give a notice of their recovery so that they may soon be able
to find their husbands and friends.

I have with me 1 80 rank and file, and they have made glad the hearts of
these poor captives by presenting them over $250.

They have been captives since August 22d, and have suffered terribly.
The Sauntee camp where they have been for some time is 250 miles above
Fort Randall, and we hope to find it, and teach them such a lesson as Gen-
eral Harney did the Indians at Ash Hollow. 51 Be assured of one thing, we
will take no prisoners.

My command here consists of 70 cavalry, Dacotah, 92 infantry Co B,

49 The Indians from Minnesota were known as the Santee Sioux. See note 44.

50 Major Charles E. Galpin, a member of the La Barge, Harkness & Co. fur com-
pany, had seen these women while coming down the river from posts farther north.
He had reported the presence of the captives to Pattee at Fort Randall. Pattee, “Da-
kota Campaigns,” 283, 285-6, 350; Charles P. Barbier, “Recollections of Ft. La Fram-
boise in 1862 and the Rescue of Lake Chetak Captives,” South Dakota Historical
Collections, ll:232ff (1922). The two women rescued were Mrs. John W. Wright
and Mrs. William J. Duly. They had been captured, along with their children, at
Lake Shetak in Minnesota on Aug. 20, 1862. A few young braves from the Two
Kettle Band, known as “Fool Soldiers” or the “Fool Band” among the Indians because
of their decision to rescue the white captives, at last succeeded in buying the white
women and children, bartering supplies of food and their horses for them. The
Indians delivered the captives to two French-Canadian fur traders, Frederick Dupree
and Louis LaPlant, who in turn brought them to Major Pattee. See Doane Robinson,
“A History of the Dakota or Sioux Indians . . .,” South Dakota Historical Collec-
tions, 2:306-313 (1904).

51 Gen. Wm. S. Harney had defeated a band of Brule Sioux at Ash Hollow in
1855. South Dakota Historical Collections, 1:107-108.



41st Iowa, and a section of a battery, 2 guns, manned by 17 men of Co. A,
41st Iowa.

Yours, &c.,

J. Pattee,

Major, 41st Iowa.

[Letter from Wm. A. McCaddon, 52 in Iowa City Press, Dec. 20, 1862.]

Camp on Ponca Creek,
December 2, 1862.

Dear Brother: We are now sixty miles from Fort Randall and on our
way to Fort Pierre. We met a Frenchman this morning direct from Fort
Pierre. He had two white women and six children, which he had got from
the Indians, and was on his way to Fort Randall with them. They are now
in camp with us and we are raising a subscription for them.

There is already about $250 raised for them. They have been with the
Indians ever since the 1st [sic] of August, and have been horribly treated
by the infernal red skins. If I had time and space I would give you their
whole history since they were taken prisoners. It is indeed awful, the way
they were treated.

The weather has been very cold since we left the Fort, but we are getting
along very well. We have lost one man since we left and it is supposed that
he is frozen to death and eaten by the wolves. His name was Edward
Cannon. I expect you recollect him, he was an Irishman. He and six others
started out of camp in the morning before the train, and walked about
thirty miles, to where they supposed we would camp. But we did not get
that far, but left the trail and went about six miles to the left, and camped
in the timber. — And the Boys, finding that we were not coming on, started
back about dark to find our camp. But by the time they got back to where
we turned off, it was snowing and so dark that they could not see our
track, so they walked all night, managing to keep the trail. About twelve
o’clock at night Cannon gave out, and was so near frozen that they were
obliged to leave him. The rest of them kept on toward the Fort and about
eight o’clock in the morning they met a squadron of cavalry, that were one
day’s march in our rear. They then returned to where they left Cannon,
but there was nothing there but his gun, knapsack and cartridge box. So

62 William A. McCaddon of Iowa City, Second Corp., Co. B, 41st Iowa Infantry.
Rosier and Record, 5:1177. See note 18.

About Royal Rosamond Press

I am an artist, a writer, and a theologian.
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