Here is a review about the new Dan Brown movie ‘Inferno’ as in ‘Dante’s Inferno’. Dante Gabriel Rossetti changed his first name. Dante Aligheri was studied by his father, a Italian scholar
In several letters to the executor of Christine Rosamond’s estate. I invoke Dante and the Pre-Raphaelite Rose Line, that I mapped out before ‘The DaVinci Code’ was published. In the letter above I declare;
“I am one of the world’s authorities on this subject!”
I have found two authors that compares Dante’s Inferno to The Descent of Inanna the Queen of Heaven. Belle’s mother, Catherine Vanderturin, was instrumental of producing a play on this Descent. Meeting my Beautiful Muse, was to find the entrance to Hell. Belle asks about my name Ambrose. Above is page one of my newspaper title with Rosamond cote of arms. Ambridge is a form of Ambrose. There is a riddle-poem I composed. There is a Ambridge Rose. Belle asks me what my blog is about. I tell her it promotes and protects Bohemian ideals. Evan is another form of Ambrose. Belle’s middle name is Erin, which means Ireland. I speak of ‘Spiritual Freedoms and “Beauty”. She asked THE QUESTION!
Two minutes ago, I found this”
Lyrics not available.
Here is the music Belle’s mother made with the Pacific Rim Gamelan. Tracks: Mariposa Tulip, and In Expression. The title of this album is Palest Rose “An Autobiography of a Traveler ‘Can You Hear The Roses’. ”
Belle was not aware of how important her mother was. I suspected she might be authoring her own biography, which might depict me as a selfish fiend, A BEAST, in order to get around my copyright. This attempt – will fail – like all the attempts. Because, this IS THE ROSE OF THE BEAST – THE GIFT OF THE BEAST…………….TO BELLE!
“On Saturday, April 19, 2014 9:34 PM, Belle Burch wrote:
It’s Belle. Still wondering if you’re real. Thank you again for the bike. Let’s set up a time for me to do some modeling. Thurs and Fri are possibilities for me.
By the way, Why “John Ambrose”? Is that your middle name? Nom de plume? Highly synchronistic, as my current partner’s legal first name is Ambrose. I’m very curious about this. Also, I thought you preferred to spell your name without the “h”?
Here’s the poem I said I’d send you.
Haven’t read any of your emails yet, will get to that soon.”
I have descended into Hell to bring to the surface your lost mother – and her MUSic! Listen to the song they sing when we met.
This rose, is a gift, from your mother, for…….your coming of age! A rose…….from the dead. It is the faintest rose, the palest rose. Listen! It arrives when it arrives. born on the wings, of the muse. Your mother wants you to hear her sing;
“You are my beautiful daughter whom I love dearly.”
Jon Presco ‘The Ambridge Rose’
Saint Stephen with a rose, in and out of the garden he goes,
Country garden in the wind and the rain,
Wherever he goes the people all complain.
Stephen prospered in his time, well he may and he may decline.
Did it matter, does it now? Stephen would answer if he only knew how.
Wishing well with a golden bell, bucket hanging clear to hell,
Hell halfway twixt now and then,
Stephen fill it up and lower down and lower down again.
Lady finger, dipped in moonlight, writing “What for?” across the morning sky.
Sunlight splatters, dawn with answer, darkness shrugs and bids the day goodbye.
Speeding arrow, sharp and narrow,
What a lot of fleeting matters you have spurned.
Several seasons with their treasons,
Wrap the babe in scarlet colors, call it your own.
Did he doubt or did he try? Answers aplenty in the bye and bye,
Talk about your plenty, talk about your ills,
One man gathers what another man spills.
Saint Stephen will remain, all he’s lost he shall regain,
Seashore washed by the suds and foam,
Been here so long, he’s got to calling it home.
Belle admitted she was wrong by not telling me WHO she is, and what she is about. Of course this is going to RAISE suspicions – when alas I know THE TRUTH! If she told me she was an activist for the Homeless, I am sure my play ‘Daughter Dead’ would have risen to the surface. At the Berkeley Psychic Institute you are read as A Rose. The first thing you do, is say your name. Belle had blocked me. She DIVERTED ME FROM THE TRUTH. Nothing invokes my wrath – more! However, this diversion led me to dig deep – real deep!
My mother, Rosemary, became undone by surviving her daughter, the famous artist ‘Rosamond’.
“Mother’s are not supposed to outlive their daughters!”
Being a poet and dramatist who knew the myths, Catherine knew how her daughters would suffer at her passing. I believe their image was the last she saw of the world. At the Wandering Goat, Belle told me she had trouble with her beauty at the Wander Goat. For over two years I wondered about this. I now conclude it is very important for a budding girl, who has just become a woman, to be reassured by her mother………..SHE IS BEAUTIFUL! Belle was nine when her mother died. She was given ‘The Un-finished Rose’ ‘The Un-fairest Rose’. It is paler then the faintest rose. This rose………….has been replaced, with ‘The Eternal Rose’.
Belle, forgive me – if I got it wrong. I am sorry you became afraid. I am just ‘The Messenger’. Your mother put forth the death of the Queen of Heaven, and her Rebirth. Who would know, this notion, this aura and crown, was about your head that day our paths crossed in Ken Kesey Square where we find the Story Teller, the Mother, and her Children.
In the failed biography of my late sister it says she predicted the lone rogue wave that took her and her nine year old daughter into the sea
“You know.” she says. “If a giant wave came right now, it could take ME out to sea, and I would drown.”
I put the emphesis on ME because in the map Vicki drew, our nine year old niece is about four feet from her mother. There were many giant waves. Christine had nightmares about large deadly waves most of her life. Where is her concern for the child – her daughter? Did she hear her mother’s last words? Who else heard these last words? The child was swept into the sea, and……..saved.
Catherine and Christine took time off from their creative endeavors to be mothers. My sister was very protective of Drew. She commemorates this protection in a painting she rendered titled ‘The Beach’. The mother takes her daughter by the hand as they leave footprints in the sand.
“Modern readers of this poem have available to them a wealth of interpretation of the piece through writers applying a psychological, specifically Jungian, view to the poem as an archetypal myth of the journey each individual must take to reach wholeness. Inanna in this piece, so the interpretation goes, is not a `whole person’ until she appears vulnerable before her `darker half’, dies, and returns to life. At the poem’s end, this interpretation asserts, Inanna, through her descent into darkness, the shedding of the trappings of her former self, confrontation with her `shadow’, death of who she was, and final re-birth, is now a complete individual, wholly aware.”
Calochortus /ˌkæləˈkɔːrtəs, -loʊ-/ is a genus of North American plants in the lily family. The group includes herbaceous, perennial and bulbous species, all native to North America (primarily the Western United States).[The genus Calochortus includes mariposas (or mariposa lilies) with open wedge-shaped petals, globe lilies and fairy lanterns with globe-shaped flowers, and cat’s ears and star tulips with erect pointed petals. The word Calochortus is derived from Greek and means “beautiful grass”.
Organized in 1934, the Women’s Choral Society (WCS) was chartered by the University of Oregon’s Mu Phi Epsilon alumnae. It was Eugene’s first all-women’s choir. For the past eighty years, WCS has performed for many pageants, conventions, and community events including several concerts with the Eugene Gleemen, the Eugene Symphony, and during the opening celebrations of the Hult Center.
The Descent of Inanna In Gratitude For the audience who makes a story. For those who came to the performance of the play made from these poems more than one—who told me they would do so until they had their favorite words memorized. For Catherine who never feared to go anywhere into feeling, who asked for the voice of Ereshkigal. And then had the spirit and force to gather us all into this amazing theater production. For Jeff who introduced me to Catherine “just to see what would happen”. For all the amazing actors and actresses whose gestures became my words. There is no greater gift for a poet than to see her words embodied by such a brilliant group of men and women as Eugene Chamber Theater. Our whole community suffered the untimely death of Catherine Vandertuin, its founder and director. Catherine, we miss you. But you are still present to us in the work you elicited from us—you are still present in these words. The Story Behind the Play The inspiration for these pieces came from working with the actors and director of Eugene Chamber Theater. They improvised the story of the Descent of Inanna, and then provided encouragement, insight, and feedback for the words that I wrote after being inspired by their work. I owe an immense debt to Catherine Vandertuin, Eugene Chamber Theater’s late producer and director (see “Slant” article that follows). She was the archetypal woman gatherer in her role in both this theater piece and this group as she undertook the daunting task of producing a theater piece out of the poetry that came to me in our collaboration.
Eugene lost one of its most creative artists last week. Cancer stole Catherine Vandertuin from us when she was far too young. In her too-short time here, Vandertuin, the founder and artistic director of Eugene Chamber Theatre, applied enormous energy, creativity and collaboration to the innovative theater/music productions of Dust and Dreams, Antigone, The Descent of Innana and Ice Cure, the last adapted from an original manuscript. She also collaborated in various puppet and mask theater productions. Her vision was to create multi-disciplinary works that explored themes of balance and wholeness. Catherine brought Javanese gamelan music to Eugene in 1992 with the founding of Gamelan Nuju Laras, well known for accompanying labyrinth walks created by her partner, Jeff Burch. Although her theater work and family obligations eventually forced her to give up the gamelan, Catherine’s contribution continues in Nuju Laras’s successor, Gamelan Sari Pandhawa, and the 90-piece Javanese gamelan Gamelan Kyai Tunjung Mulya, whose construction she commissioned and supervised. Gamelan Kyai Tunjung Mulya was ultimately donated to the UO where it is used to teach UO students and other community members. Through her teaching at LCC, collaborations with other community artists, and irrepressibly creative spirit, Catherine made Eugene a much more artistically vital place, and her legacy will live on in the audiences she touched and the artists she taught and inspired.
l Dante Gabriel Rossetti (/ˈdænti ˈɡeɪbriəl rəˈzɛti/; 12 May 1828 – 9 April 1882) was an English poet, illustrator, painter and translator. He founded the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood in 1848 with William Holman Hunt and John Everett Millais. Rossetti was later to be the main inspiration for a second generation of artists and writers influenced by the movement, most notably William Morris and Edward Burne-Jones. His work also influenced the European Symbolists and was a major precursor of the Aesthetic movement.
The son of émigré Italian scholar Gabriele Pasquale Giuseppe Rossetti and his wife Frances Polidori, Rossetti was born in London, and named Gabriel Charles Dante Rossetti. His family and friends called him Gabriel, but in publications he put the name Dante first (in honour of Dante Alighieri). He was the brother of poet Christina Rossetti, critic William Michael Rossetti, and author Maria Francesca Rossetti. During his childhood, Rossetti was home educated and often read the Bible, along with the works of Shakespeare, Dickens, Sir Walter Scott and Lord Byron.
Rossetti’s first major paintings in oil display the realist qualities of the early Pre-Raphaelite movement. His Girlhood of Mary Virgin (1849) and Ecce Ancilla Domini (1850) portray Mary as a teenage girl. William Bell Scott saw Girlhood in progress in Hunt’s studio and remarked on young Rossetti’s technique:
He was painting in oils with water-colour brushes, as thinly as in water-colour, on canvas which he had primed with white till the surface was a smooth as cardboard, and every tint remained transparent. I saw at once that he was not an orthodox boy, but acting purely from the aesthetic motive. The mixture of genius and dilettantism of both men shut me up for the moment, and whetted my curiosity.
— William Bell Scott
Gabriele Pasquale Giuseppe Rossetti (28 February 1783 – 24 April 1854) was an Italian poet and scholar who emigrated to England.
Rossetti was born in Vasto in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies; the original family of his ancestors was Della Guardia. Since many members of the Della Guardia family had red hair, they were given the nickname Rossetti approximately four generations before Gabriele’s birth. Rossetti’s support for Italian revolutionary nationalism forced him into political exile in 1821.
Inferno (pronounced [inˈfɛrno]; Italian for “Hell”) is the first part of Dante Alighieri‘s 14th-century epic poem Divine Comedy. It is followed by Purgatorio and Paradiso. The Inferno tells the journey of Dante through Hell, guided by the ancient Romanpoet Virgil. In the poem, Hell is depicted as nine circles of suffering located within the Earth; it is the “realm…of those who have rejected spiritual values by yielding to bestial appetites or violence, or by perverting their human intellect to fraud or malice against their fellowmen.” As an allegory, the Divine Comedy represents the journey of the soul toward God, with the Inferno describing the recognition and rejection of sin.
Inanna’s Descent: A Sumerian Tale of Injustice
The Sumerian poem, The Descent of Inanna (c. 1900-1600 BCE) chronicles the great goddess and Queen of Heaven Inanna’s journey from heaven, to earth, to the underworld to visit her recently widowed sister Ereshkigal, Queen of the Dead. The poem begins famously with the lines,
From the Great Above she opened her ear to the Great Below
From the Great Above the goddess opened her ear to the Great Below
From the Great Above Inanna opened her ear to the Great Below
(Wolkstein and Kramer, 52)
and then proceeds to chronicle Inanna’s descent to the underworld accompanied, part of the way, by her faithful servant and advisor Ninshubur.
Inanna is dressed in her finest attire and wears the crown of heaven on her head, beads around her neck, her breastplate, golden ring and carries her scepter, the rod of power. Just before she enters the underworld, she gives Ninsubur instructions on how to come to her aid should she fail to return when expected. Upon her arrival at the gates of the underworld Inanna knocks loudly and demands entrance. Neti, the chief gatekeeper, asks who she is and, when Inanna answers, “I am Inanna, Queen of Heaven”, Neti asks why she would wish entrance to the land “from which no traveler returns.” Inanna answers,
Because of my older sister, Ereshkigal
Her husband, Gugalanna, the Bull of Heaven, has died
I have come to witness the funeral rites
(Wolkstein and Kramer, 55).
Neti then tells her to stay where she is while he goes to speak with Ereshkigal.
When Neti delivers the news to Ereshkigal that Inanna is at the gates, the Queen of the Dead responds in a way which seems strange: “She slapped her thigh and bit her lip. She took the matter into her heart and dwelt on it” (Wolkstein and Kramer, 56). She does not seem pleased to hear the news that her sister is at the gate and her displeasure is further evidenced when she tells Neti to bolt the seven gates of the underworld against Inanna and then let her in, one gate at a time, requiring her to remove one of her royal garments at each gate. Neti does as he is commanded and, gate by gate, Inanna is stripped of her crown, beads, ring, sceptre, even her clothing and, when she asks the meaning of this indignity is told by Neti,
Quiet, Inanna, the ways of the underworld are perfect
They may not be questioned
(Wolkstein and Kramer 58-60).
Inanna enters the throne room of Ereshkigal “naked and bowed low” and begins walking toward the throne when:
The annuna, the judges of the underworld, surrounded her
They passed judgment against her.
Then Ereshkigal fastened on Inanna the eye of death
She spoke against her the word of wrath
She uttered against her the cry of guilt
She struck her.
Inanna was turned into a corpse
A piece of rotting meat
And was hung from a hook on the wall
(Wolkstein and Kramer, 60)
After three days and three nights waiting for her mistress, Ninshubur follows the commands Inanna gave her, goes to Inanna’s father-god Enki for help, and receives two `galla’, two androgynous demons, to aid her in returning Inanna to the earth. The galla enter the underworld “like flies” and, following Enki’s specific instructions, attach themselves closely to Ereshkigal. The Queen of the Dead is seen in distress:
No linen was spread over her body
Her breasts were uncovered
Her hair swirled around her head like leeks
(Wolkstein and Kramer, 63-66).
The poem continues to describe the queen experiencing the pains of labor. The galla sympathize with the queen’s pains and she, in gratitude, offers them whatever gift they ask for. As ordered by Enki, the galla respond, “We wish only the corpse that hangs from the hook on the wall” (Wolkstein and Kramer, 67) and Ereshkigal gives it to them. The galla revive Inanna with the food and water of life and she rises from the dead.
As in the Greek myth of Demeter and Persephone, however, one who has sojourned in the underworld cannot just leave it so easily. Someone must be found to take Inanna’s place and so the galla demons of the underworld accompany her up to the earth’s surface to claim her substitute. The demons try to take Ninshubur first, then Inanna’s sons Shara and Lulal and even Inanna’s beautician Cara but, in all these instances, Inanna prevents them because Ninshubur, Shara, Lulal and Cara are all dressed in sackcloth and are in mourning for her apparent death. When Inanna comes upon her husband Dumuzi, however, and finds him “dressed in his shining…garments…on his magnificent throne” she becomes enraged that he, unlike the others, is not mourning her and orders the demons to seize him. Dumuzi appeals to the sun god Utu for help and is transformed into a snake in order to escape but, eventually, is caught and carried away to the underworld. Dumuzi’s sister, Geshtinanna, volunteers herself to go in his place and so it is decreed that Dumuzi will spend half the year in the underworld and Geshtinanna the other half. In this way, as, again with the myth of Demeter and Persephone, the seasons were explained. Yet why so elaborate a myth simply to explain the seasons? The Greek tale of Persephone (though, also, about much more than seasonal change) accomplishes the same end more succinctly.
Modern readers of this poem have available to them a wealth of interpretation of the piece through writers applying a psychological, specifically Jungian, view to the poem as an archetypal myth of the journey each individual must take to reach wholeness. Inanna in this piece, so the interpretation goes, is not a `whole person’ until she appears vulnerable before her `darker half’, dies, and returns to life. At the poem’s end, this interpretation asserts, Inanna, through her descent into darkness, the shedding of the trappings of her former self, confrontation with her `shadow’, death of who she was, and final re-birth, is now a complete individual, wholly aware. Writers who have popularized this interpretation are so numerous that naming them all would be pointless; any reader acquainted with The Descent of Inanna will have already, or will eventually, come across one version or another of this interpretation.
The archetypes of Carl Jung have proven enlightening tools in understanding and explicating ancient myths for a modern audience (most notably through the works of Joseph Campbell). Such an interpretation of a text, however, must always keep in mind the text itself; the words on the page, the arrangement of those words, characterization and dialogue. However interesting, and even enlightening, the modern `Jungian’ view of The Descent of Inannamay be, it is not supported by the text. Among other glaring omissions, this modern interpretation of the ancient story in no way accounts for the last lines of the poem which praise, not Inanna, but Ereshkigal:
Holy Ereshkigal! Great is your renown!
Holy Ereshkigal! I sing your praises!
(Wolkstein and Kramer, 89)
The text of the poem clearly states Inanna’s intention of journeying to the underworld to attend the funeral of her brother-in-law, specifies her sister’s displeasure at her visit, further specifies how the Annuna of the dead pass judgment against Inanna and how, after that, she is killed by Ereshkigal through the “word of wrath” and the “cry of guilt’ and a blow, after which Inanna is hung on a hook, “a rotting piece of meat.” The story continues to detail how Inanna is saved by her father-god Enki and how, finally, two people, Dumuzi and Geshtinanna, who had nothing to do with Inanna’s decision to visit the underworld, end up paying the price for it.
A clearer understanding of The Descent of Inanna is available to any reader acquainted with the Sumerian work The Epic of Gilgamesh (c. 2150-1400 BCE), which, whether extant in written form at the time of the composition of The Descent of Inanna, was certainly known by oral transmission. In the Epic, after the great heroes Gilgamesh and Enkidu have killed the demon Humbaba in the Cedar Forest, their fame is great and Gilgamesh, after washing and dressing himself in royal robes, attracts the attention of Inanna (who, in the Epic, is known by her Akkadian/Babylonian name, Ishtar). Inanna tries to seduce Gilgamesh to become her lover, promising him all good things but Gilgamesh spurns her, citing the many lovers she has had in the past whom she discarded when they no longer interested her and who all met with bad ends. He says to her: “Your lovers have found you like a brazier which smoulders in the cold, a backdoor which keeps out neither squall of wind nor storm, a castle which crushes the garrison, pitch that blackens the bearer, a water skin that chafes the carrier.” Then, after detailing the misery her lovers have endured at her hands, Gilgamesh concludes saying, “And if you and I should be lovers, should not I be served in the same fashion as all these others whom you loved once?”(Sandars, 85-87).
Inanna, upon hearing this, falls into a “bitter rage” and appeals to her father-god Anu (as she has Ninshubur do to Enki in the Descent) in tears over the insults Gilgamesh has heaped upon her. Anu’s answer is that she has only gotten what she deserved through her “abominable behavior” (Sandars, 87). Inanna, in no way pacified by this response, demands that Anu give her Gugalanna, the Bull of Heaven, that she might avenge herself on Gilgamesh and threatens that, if she does not get her way, she will break the doors of the underworld open, “there will be confusion of people, those above with those from the lower depths. I shall bring up the dead to eat food like the living; and the hosts of the dead will outnumber the living” (Sandars, 87). Gugalanna, the Bull of Heaven is the husband of Inanna’s sister Ereshkigal.
When Anu consents and gives her the Bull of Heaven she brings Gugalanna down to the city of Uruk to destroy Gilgamesh. The bull snorts and the earth opens and “a hundred young men fell down to death. With his second snort cracks opened and two hundred fell down to death” (Sandars, 88).
Gilgamesh and Enkidu then join in battle with the Bull of Heaven and kill him. Inanna, enraged further, appears on the walls of Uruk and curses the heroes, prompting Enkidu to tear off the bull’s right thigh and hurl it at her. This presumption, on the part of a mortal, cannot be endured by the gods and they decree that Enkidu must die lest more mortals come to think more highly of themselves than they should. Enkidu is stricken with illness and suffers for days before finally dying (Sandars, 88-95).
If a reader is acquainted with the story of Gilgamesh then The Descent of Inanna is more easily understood within the context and culture of ancient Mesopotamia. Inanna, showing no more regard for her sister’s feelings than she did for the three hundred innocent young men she killed with the Bull of Heaven, decides she will attend the funeral of the brother-in-law whose death she is, herself, responsible for. Once a reader understands that Inanna caused the death of Ereshkigal’s husband Gugalanna, the Queen of the Dead’s response upon hearing of her arrival is completely understandable, as is Inanna’s subsequent judgment by the Annuna and death at Ereshkigal’s hands. The “word of wrath” and the “cry of guilt” make perfect sense in this context as Ereshkigal is confronting the one responsible for her present grief; a grief made even greater by her pregnancy and the imminent birth of a child who will have no father.
As in The Epic of Gilgamesh, however, Inanna is able to manipulate the father-god figure into getting her what she wants; in that case the Bull of Heaven and, in this, a return to life. Inanna is ressurected and, in the same way that Enkidu and the three hundred young men paid the price for Inanna’s indignation, Dumuzi and Geshtinnana pay for her insensitivity and rashness in deciding to attend Gugalanna’s funeral.
The moral which an ancient hearer of The Descent of Inanna might take away from it, far from a `symbolic journey of the self to wholeness’ is the lesson that there are consequences for one’s actions and, further, might also be consoled in that if bad things happened to gods and heroes due to the unpredictability of life, why should a mortal bemoan unhappy fate?
In ancient Mesopotamia, humans regarded themselves as co-workers with the gods and the gods lived among them; Inanna lived in the city of Uruk, Enki at Eridu, and so on. The gods were not far away beings but were intimately tied to the daily lives of the people of the land and what affected a god would, invariably, affect those people directly. Though one of the gods could have only the best intentions, another god could thwart whatever good was hoped for. Ereshkigal is praised at the end of the poem because she sought justice in killing Inanna. The fact that this justice was denied, even to a goddess of such power as the Queen of the Dead, would have ameliorated the sting of the daily injustices and disappointments suffered by the people hearing the tale.
The Descent of Inanna, then, about one of the gods behaving badly and other gods and mortals having to suffer for that behavior, would have given to an ancient listener the same basic understanding anyone today would take from an account of a tragic accident caused by someone’s negligence or poor judgment: that, sometimes, life is just not fair.