Black Sea Peoples

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I have long suspected the Sea Peoples came from the Black Sea, and that Noah was a king of these people who ruled much of the western world. Then the Bosporus barrier crumbled and the capitol was destroyed. There was a dispersion. The attempt to bring these peoples back together again may have been attempted by Moses, but, he failed. However, their written history was put down in the Torah. The ten lost tribes is part of that history, and it is a myth they came out of Egypt with Moses as the “multitude” 650,000 strong. Losing that many slaves would have toppled the Egyptian empire. These people may constitute the number that was drowned, or, the estimate of the survivors. The Philistines are said to be the Sea Peoples, thus there was a rival group involved in saving the original people of the homeland. These were not Semitic peoples, thus Herbert Armstrong’s vision and mission was not farfetched. The Semitic tribe of Judah destroyed the remains of the Sea Peoples, and were not the fist of the tribes, but, the last.

Jon Presco

According to Columbia University geologists William Ryan and Walter Pitman, who had predicted where this shoreline would be found in the Black Sea, describe the flood as such: ‘The Black Sea was created when melting glaciers raised the sea level until the sea breached a natural dam at what is now the Bosporus, the strait that separates the Mediterranean Sea from the Black Sea. An apocalyptic deluge followed, inundating the freshwater lake below the dam, submerging thousands of square miles of dry land, flipping the ecosystem from fresh water to salt practically overnight, and probably killing thousands of people and billions of land and sea creatures.’


Near the port of Varna, the oldest gold treasure in the world (dated from 4,500 BC) was found In 1972; an ancient necropolis with 280 tombs and 3,010 golden objects were found weighing over 6 kg altogether. According to experts it is the oldest processed gold ever found in Europe.

Today Varna is the largest city on Bulgaria’s Black Sea coast and is the main port for both naval and commercial shipping. Because it is a close neighbor to the popular coastal resorts of Golden Sands, St. Constantine & Helena, and Albena, Varna has a cosmopolitan atmosphere. Varna is also the host city of numerous prestigious cultural events.

There are crouched and extended inhumations. Some graves do not contain a skeleton, but grave gifts (cenotaphs). These symbolic (empty) graves are the richest in gold artifacts. Three thousand gold artifacts were found, with a weight of approximately six kilograms. Grave 43 contained more gold than has been found in the entire rest of the world for that epoch. Three symbolic graves contained masks of unfired clay.

The findings showed that the Varna culture had trade relations with distant lands (possibly including the lower Volga and the Cyclades), perhaps exporting metal goods and salt from the Provadiya rock salt mine [2]. The copper ore used in the artifacts originated from a Sredna Gora mine near Stara Zagora, and Mediterranean Spondylus shells found in the graves may have served as primitive currency.

The culture had sophisticated religious beliefs about afterlife and had developed hierarchical status differences. The site offers the oldest known burial evidence of an elite male (Marija Gimbutas claims that the end of the fifth millennium BC is the time that the transition to male dominance began in Europe). The high status male buried with the most remarkable amount of gold held a war adze or mace and wore a gold penis sheath. Bull-shaped gold platelets might also have venerated virility, instinctual force, and warfare. Gimbutas holds that the artifacts were made largely by local craftspeople.

Historical impact[edit]

According to M. Gimbutas (1991), “The discontinuity of the Varna, Karanovo, Vinča and Lengyel cultures in their main territories and the large scale population shifts to the north and northwest are indirect evidence of a catastrophe of such proportions that cannot be explained by possible climatic change, land exhaustion, or epidemics (for which there is no evidence in the second half of the 5th millennium B.C.). Direct evidence of the incursion of horse-riding warriors is found, not only in single burials of males under barrows, but in the emergence of a whole complex of Kurgan cultural traits.”

According to J. Chapman (2005), “Once upon a time, not so very long ago, it was widely accepted that steppe nomads from the North Pontic zone invaded the Balkans, putting an end to the Climax Copper Age society that produced the apogee of tell living, autonomous copper metallurgy and, as the grandest climax, the Varna cemetery with its stunning early goldwork. Now the boot is very much on the other foot and it is the Varna complex and its associated communities that are held responsible for stimulating the onset of prestige goods-dominated steppe mortuary practice following the expansion of farming.”

Among the metallic (gold and copper) and non-metallic (minerals, rocks, pottery, pigments, biofacts) artifacts in the graves from the Varna Chalcolithic site are numerous beads of a chalcedony (carnelian) and agate composition. Three main morphological types of beads are described: type 1 – elongated barrel-shaped; type 2 – elongated with trapezohedral facets; type 3 – short cylindrical (Kostov, 2007; Kostov, Pelevina, 2008). The carnelian and related beads of type 2 have a “constant” number of 32 facets – 16+16 on both sides on the elongation of the bead, which is considered probably the earliest in Chalcolithic complex faceting on such a hard mineral (hardness of chalcedony is 6.5-7 on the Mohs scale). In the hole of a single carnelian bead was found a gold mini-cylinder (~2×2 mm). The gold artifacts from the Varna Chalcolithic necropolis are assumed to be the “oldest gold of mankind” according to their total volume and quantity. Analysis of the measured weight of the different types of gold artеfacts (beads, appliqués, rings, bracelets, pectorals and diadems) revealed a weight system with at least two minimal weight units of ~0.14 and ~0.40 g among both mineral and gold beads (Kostov, 2004; 2007). The second one (=2 carats) was suggested as a basic “Chalcolithic unit” with the name van (from the first letters of Varna necropolis).

In 2009, logician H. Smolenov suggested that the Varna culture people had achieved certain advanced mathematical knowledge as testified by the artifacts from the necropolis, some of which might have been used for navigation purposes apart from their possible sacred function.

Museum exhibitions[edit]

Golden objects found in the necropolis.

The artifacts can be seen at the Varna Archaeological Museum and at the National Historical Museum in Sofia. In 2006, some gold objects were included in a major and broadly advertised national exhibition of antique gold treasures in both Sofia and Varna.

The Varna gold started touring the world in 1973; it was included in “The Gold of the Thracian Horseman” national exhibition, shown at many of the world’s leading museums and exhibition venues in the 1970s. In 1982, it was exhibited for 7 months in Japan as “The Oldest Gold in the World – The First European Civilization” with massive publicity, including two full length TV documentaries. In the 1980s and 1990s it was also shown in Canada, Germany, France, Italy, and Israel, among others, and featured in a cover story by the National Geographic Magazine.

The Varna necropolis artifacts were shown for the first time in the United States in 1998 and 1999 as part of a major Bulgarian archaeological exhibition, Thracians’ Riches: Treasures from Bulgaria. In 2009-2010, several artifacts were shown at the New York University Institute for the Study of the Ancient World in a joint Romanian-Bulgarian-Moldovan exhibition entitled The Lost World of Old Europe: The Danube Valley, 5000-3500 BC.[3][4] [5 

Tocharian, also spelled Tokharian (/təˈkɛəriən/ or /təˈkɑriən/), is an extinct branch of the Indo-European language family, known from manuscripts dating from the 6th to the 8th century AD found in oasis cities on the northern edge of the Tarim Basin (now part of Xinjiang in northwest China). The discovery of these languages in the early 20th century contradicted the formerly prevalent idea of an east-west division of Indo-European language family on the centum–satem isogloss, and contributed to re-invigorated study of the family. The term “Tocharian”, based on an identification with the Bactrian Tokharoi of classical sources, is now generally considered a misnomer, but has become customary

The discovery of Tocharian upset some theories about the relations of Indo-European languages and revitalized their study. In the 19th century, it was thought that the division between Centum and Satem languages was a simple west–east division, with Centum languages in the west.

This theory was undermined in the early 20th century by the discovery of Hittite, a Centum language in a relatively eastern location, and Tocharian, the easternmost branch but nonetheless of the Centum type. The result was a new hypothesis, following the “wave” theory of Johannes Schmidt, suggesting that the Satem isogloss represents a linguistic innovation in the central part of the Proto-Indo-European home range, while the Centum languages along the eastern and western peripheries did not undergo that change.[5]

Tocharian probably died out after 840 when the Uyghurs, expelled from Mongolia by the Kyrgyz, moved into the Tarim Basin.[1] This theory is supported by the discovery of translations of Tocharian texts into Uyghur. During Uyghur rule, the peoples mixed with the Uyghurs to produce much of the modern population of what is now Xinjiang.

Various attempts to identify them with groups known from further west across the Eurasian Steppe under different names remain highly controversial. The identity of the ethnic core of Xiongnu has been a subject of varied hypotheses, because only a few words, mainly titles and personal names, were preserved in the Chinese sources. Proposals by scholars include Iranian,[4][5][6][7] Mongolic,[8] Tocharian, Turkic,[9] Uralic[10][11] Yeniseian,[12][13] or multi-ethnic.[14] The name Xiongnu may be cognate to the name Huns, but the evidence for this is controversial.[13][15]

The Sea Peoples were conjectured groups of seafaring raiders,[1][2] originating from either western Anatolia or southern Europe, specifically a region of the Aegean Sea.[3] They are conjectured to have sailed around the eastern Mediterranean and invaded Anatolia, Syria, Canaan, Cyprus, and Egypt toward the end of the Bronze Age.[4]

French Egyptologist Emmanuel de Rougé first used the term “peuples de la mer” (literally “peoples of the sea”) in 1855 in a translation of reliefs at Medinet Habu documenting year 8 of Ramesses III.[5] The term Sea Peoples, and the accompanying migration theory, were subsequently popularized by Gaston Maspero, de Rougé’s successor at the Collège de France, in the late 19th century.[6]

The Battle of Kadesh was the outcome of a campaign against the Hittites and allies in the Levant in the pharaoh’s Year 5. The imminent collision of the Egyptian and Hittite empires became obvious to both, and they both prepared campaigns against the strategic midpoint of Kadesh for the next year. Ramesses divided his Egyptian forces, which were then ambushed piecemeal by the Hittite army and nearly defeated. However, some Egyptian forces made it through to Kadesh, and the arrival of the last of the Egyptians provided enough military cover to allow the pharaoh to escape and his army to withdraw in defeat; leaving Kadesh in Hittite hands.[27]

The archaeological evidence from the southern coastal plain of ancient Palestine, termed Philistia in the Hebrew Bible, indicates a disruption[50] of the Canaanite culture that existed during the Late Bronze Age and its replacement (with some integration) by a culture with a possibly foreign (mainly Aegean) origin. This includes distinct pottery, which at first belongs to the Mycenaean IIIC tradition (albeit of local manufacture) and gradually transforms into a uniquely Philistine pottery. Mazar says:[51]

… in Philistia, the producers of Mycenaean IIIC pottery must be identified as the Philistines. The logical conclusion, therefore, is that the Philistines were a group of Mycenaean Greeks who immigrated to the east … Within several decades … a new bichrome style, known as the “Philistine”, appeared in Philistia …

Sandars, however, does not take this point of view, but says:[52]

… it would be less misleading to call this ‘Philistine pottery’ ‘Sea Peoples’ pottery or ‘foreign’ pottery, without commitment to any particular group.

Artifacts of the Philistine culture are found at numerous sites, in particular in the excavations of the five main cities of the Philistines: the Pentapolis of Ashkelon, Ashdod, Ekron, Gath, and Gaza. Some scholars (e.g. S. Sherratt, Drews, etc.) have challenged the theory that the Philistine culture is an immigrant culture, claiming instead that they are an in situ development of the Canaanite culture, but others argue for the immigrant hypothesis; for example, T. Dothan and Barako.

Minoan hypothesis[edit]

Two of the peoples who settled in the Levant had traditions that may connect them to Crete: the Tjeker and the Peleset. The Tjeker may have left Crete to settle in Anatolia, and left there to settle Dor.[53] According to the Old Testament,[54] the Israelite God brought the Philistines out of Caphtor. The mainstream of Biblical and classical scholarship accepts Caphtor to refer to Crete, but there are alternative minority theories.[55] Crete at the time was populated by peoples speaking many languages, among which were Mycenaean Greek and Eteocretan, the descendant of the language of the Minoans. It is possible, but by no means certain, that these two peoples spoke Eteocretan.

Recent examinations of the eruption of the Santorini volcano suggest that it occurred very close (estimated between 1660–1613 BCE) to the first appearances of the Sea People in Egypt.[56] The eruption and its aftermath (fires, tsunami, weather changes and famines) would have had wide-ranging effects across the Mediterranean, the Levant and particularly Greece, and could have provided the impetus for invasions of other regions of the Mediterranean.

The possibility that the Teresh were connected on the one hand with the Tyrrhenians,[59] believed to be an Etruscan-related culture, and on the other with Taruisa, a Hittite name possibly referring to Troy,[60] had been considered by the ancient Romans. The Roman poet Virgil refers to this belief when he depicts Aeneas as escaping the fall of Troy by coming to Latium to found a line descending to Romulus, first king of Rome. Considering that Anatolian connections have been identified for other Sea Peoples, such as the Tjeker and the Lukka, Eberhard Zangger puts together an Anatolian hypothesis.[61]

Though most of the Doric invaders settled in the Peloponnese, they also settled on Rhodes and Sicily, in what is now southern Italy. In Asia Minor existed the Dorian Hexapolis (the six great Dorian cities): Halikarnassos (Halicarnassus) and Knidos (Cnidus) in Asia Minor, Kos, and Lindos, Kameiros, and Ialyssos on the island of Rhodes. These six cities would later become rivals with the Ionian cities of Asia Minor. The Dorians also invaded Crete. These origin traditions remained strong into classical times: Thucydides saw the Peloponnesian War in part as “Ionians fighting against Dorians” and reported the tradition that the Syracusans in Sicily were of Dorian descent.[10] Other such “Dorian” colonies, originally from Corinth, Megara, and the Dorian islands, dotted the southern coasts of Sicily from Syracuse to Selinus. (EB 1911).

According to Columbia University geologists William Ryan and Walter Pitman, who had predicted where this shoreline would be found in the Black Sea, describe the flood as such: ‘The Black Sea was created when melting glaciers raised the sea level until the sea breached a natural dam at what is now the Bosporus, the strait that separates the Mediterranean Sea from the Black Sea. An apocalyptic deluge followed, inundating the freshwater lake below the dam, submerging thousands of square miles of dry land, flipping the ecosystem from fresh water to salt practically overnight, and probably killing thousands of people and billions of land and sea creatures.’

About Royal Rosamond Press

I am an artist, a writer, and a theologian.
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1 Response to Black Sea Peoples

  1. Reblogged this on rosamondpress and commented:

    The embodiment of Leonardo will raise the Dead to combat the Art Pirates.

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