My Bohemian ancestor, Wensel Anton Braskewitz married Marie Roth, and came from Prague. ROTH means “red” in German. MUND means “protection”. HROS means “famous”. HROSMUND means “fmous protection”. King David, the ancestor of Jesus, was famous. Rothshild, and Rosamund, could be the same name.
In 1354, King of Bohemia Charles IV prescribed for the Jews of Prague a red flag with both David’s shield and Solomon’s seal, while the red flag with which the Jews met King Matthias of Hungary in the 15th century showed two pentagrams with two golden stars.
In 1460, the Jews of Ofen (Budapest, Hungary) received King Matthias Corvinus with a red flag on which were two Shields of David and two stars. In the first Hebrew prayer book, printed in Prague in 1512, a large Shield of David appears on the cover. In the colophon is written: “Each man beneath his flag according to the house of their fathers…and he will merit to bestow a bountiful gift on anyone who grasps the Shield of David.” In 1592, Mordechai Maizel was allowed to affix “a flag of King David, similar to that located on the Main Synagogue” on his synagogue in Prague. In 1648, the Jews of Prague were again allowed a flag, in acknowledgment of their part in defending the city against the Swedes in the Battle of Prague (1648). On a red background was a yellow Shield of David, in the center of which was a Swedish star.
Mund (in law)
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“Mundium” redirects here.
The mund is a principle in Germanic tradition and law that can be crudely translated as “protection” and which grew as the prerogative of a Germanic tribe king or leader. It has been Latinized in mundium.
The word comes from Germanic *mundo (cf. Old English/Old Norse mund), ‘hand; protection’.
 The mund within the family
The mund is basically the leadership of an ancestor of a family, a family which is understood as all the people related by the blood to this ancestor, exerted over all and each of the family members. The ancestor’s responsibility is more aimed at the family as a whole than towards each member individually.
The mund manifests itself as a disciplinary power upon the members of the family; the tenant of the mund has to watch over the women’s chastity and faithfulness to prevent the family honour from being harmed, in the first case if a bride is not a virgin at the time of her departure from the family, in the second, if sons are born that are not of the common blood. It also has to control the male family members who may cast shame on the family honour, who may not serve the family, or who may endanger the whole family by their imprudence (for example by drawing the family into a feud. Thus the keeper of the mund can ban a member from the family. In this aspect, it is a coercive power, an authority, but not understood as the Roman auctoritas.
It is also the responsibility to defend the family’s well-being and existence from all dangers and offenses (be they against the body or the honour).
 The mundium in Germanic Code of Laws
When the Germanic traditions mingled with the Roman Law in the post-Migration kingdoms, the mund, that came to be known as mundium, was part of the many code of Laws those kingdoms edicted.
It became the responsibility of the closer male relative over non-responsible members of the society, i.e. mostly children and women. As such, it gets mixed up with the guardianship ; but it also protects mothers (Lex Burgundionum art. LIX & LXXXV ; cf. ). It became useless as soon as such a protected member was responsible for himself, as when children grew. Prominent women also could shudder the mundium off.
The mund is more of a responsibility than a right, but attached to this responsibility are a list of advantages.
From this first mund, the principle was extended to the entire tribe, then to several tribes. For example, Early Franks were divided into Salians, scattered in tribes dominated by tribal munds, and Ripuarians, that were all comprised under the mund of a king in Cologne, although he wasn’t the king of all the Ripuarians, but only their “protector”. This can be seen as an archaic building of the momentum that was eventually to concentrate the coercive power (potestas) and legal violence in the hands of a few, namely the nobles, and later only the monarchs.
The mund came to parallel the principle of auctoritas, without being the same as the kingship.
The mundium regis, for example, was the king’s responsibility to protect his subjects and the churches.
The mund passed through to the code of chivalry as a Christian virtue. It passed also, although modified, in modern political conceptions under the term protector. To an extent, the paternalism associated with medieval and modern kingships owes more to the mund than to the elected Germanic kingship.
 See also
 Use in names
The particle mund is to be found in many Germanic names, and hence passed into some modern names as well. Such names are for example:
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This article is about the surname Roth. For other uses, see Roth.
“red”, or “wood”, or “renown”
Reitman, Roiter, Roitman, Roter, Rothchilds, Rothe, Rotheman, Rother, Rothert, Rothman, Rothmann, Rothchild, Rothschild, Rothwell, Rottmann, Rothin
Roth is an English, German or Jewish origin surname. There are seven theories:
1. the spilling of blood from the warrior class of ancient Germanic Deutsch soldier
2. ethnic name for an Anglo-Saxon, derived from rot (meaning “red” in pre-7th century), referencing red-haired people.
3. topographical name, derived from rod (meaning “wood”), referencing a dweller in such a location.
4. derivative from hroth (from the Proto-Germanic word for “fame”; related to hrod).
5. locale name for 18th century Ashkenazi refugees to Germany.
6. derivative from roe in the ancient Danish language to signify (of) a king.
7. of the red colour of clay, as in pottery (Deutsch)
Note: Roth is not an exclusive Jewish surname. There are thousands of Germans with the surname Roth.
The Rothschild family ( /ˈrɒθs.tʃaɪld/, German: [ˈʁoːt.ʃɪlt], French: [ʁɔt.ʃild], Italian: [ˈrɔtʃild]), known as the House of Rothschild, or more simply as the Rothschilds, is a European banking dynasty, of German-Jewish origin, that established European banking and finance houses starting in the late 18th century. Five lines of the Austrian branch of the family have been elevated to Austrian nobility, being given hereditary baronies of the Habsburg Empire by Emperor Francis II in 1816. Another line, of the British branch of the family, was elevated to British nobility at the request of Queen Victoria. During the 1800s, when it was at its height, the family is believed to have possessed by far the largest private fortune in the world as well as by far the largest fortune in modern world history. The family’s wealth is believed to have subsequently declined, as it was divided amongst hundreds of descendants. Today, Rothschild businesses are on a far smaller scale than they were throughout the 19th century, although they encompass a diverse range of fields, including: mining, banks, energy, mixed farming, wine, and charities.
The first member of the family who was known to use the name “Rothschild” was Izaak Elchanan Rothschild, who was born in 1577. The name means “Red Shield” in old German. The family’s ascent to international prominence began in 1744, with the birth of Mayer Amschel Rothschild in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. He was the son of Amschel Moses Rothschild, (born circa 1710), a money changer who had traded with the Prince of Hesse. Born in the ghetto (called “Judengasse” or Jewish-alley) of Frankfurt, Mayer developed a finance house and spread his empire by installing each of his five sons in the five main European financial centres to conduct business. The Rothschild coat of arms contains a clenched fist with five arrows symbolizing the five dynasties established by the five sons of Mayer Rothschild, in a reference to Psalm 127: “Like arrows in the hands of a warrior”. The family motto appears below the shield: Concordia, Integritas, Industria (Harmony, Integrity, Industry).
Paul Johnson writes “[T]he Rothschilds are elusive. There is no book about them that is both revealing and accurate. Libraries of nonsense have been written about them… A woman who planned to write a book entitled Lies about the Rothschilds abandoned it, saying: ‘It was relatively easy to spot the lies, but it proved impossible to find out the truth'”. He writes that, unlike the court Jews of earlier centuries, who had financed and managed European noble houses, but often lost their wealth through violence or expropriation, the new kind of international bank created by the Rothschilds was impervious to local attacks. Their assets were held in financial instruments, circulating through the world as stocks, bonds and debts. Changes made by the Rothschilds allowed them to insulate their property from local violence: “Henceforth their real wealth was beyond the reach of the mob, almost beyond the reach of greedy monarchs.” Johnson argued that their fortune was generated to the greatest extent by Nathan Mayer Rothschild in London; however more recent research by Niall Ferguson, indicates that greater and equal profits also were realised by the other Rothschild dynasties, including James Mayer de Rothschild in Paris, Carl von Rothschild in Naples and Amschel Mayer in Frankfurt.