Hromundar Is Rosamund

The first words I exchanged with my niece, Drew Benton, was on Everquest. I came in as a grey-haired warrior who I name Wolferose. When our avatars met in a land of make believe, Drew said this;

“My long lost uncle!”

For saying this, I make Drew Benton my Hier – the Heir of Wolferose, who is also a Swan Knight. I dismiss my daughter, Heather Hanson, who refused to put my surname on her birth ciritificate when she removed Delpiano as her father, a lie Patrice Hanson made in order to capture my unborn child. Heather and her ilk will have no part of this legacy. However, if my granbdson, Tyler Hunt, still has love for his grandfather after they poison his heart against me, then he too shall be my Heir.

In the probate of late sister, Christine Rosamond Benton, I put forth this question;

“What is in a name?”

Below is my evidence that the name HROMUNDAR is ROSAMUND. Here is the end of my Genealogical Quest that was funded by the Vincent Rice Trust. Here is the crowning glory to a great genealogical tale ‘The Story of Rosamond’ that will make members of my family immortal. Forever will this name be associated with the Ring Trilogy of J.R.R. Tolkien who was insprired by the Icelandic Sagas of Hromundar. Tolkien’s barrow-wights are taken from the Saga of Hronundar-Rosamund who lived in Iceland, as did the kindred of Eric the Red and Leif Ericson, who are forever in the Rosamond Family Tree due to my marriage to Mary Ann Thoraldson, a descendent of Eric. I consider my step-daughter, Britt Thoraldsen, my Heir as well. This is to say, all those who add to the Ancient Story of Rosamond, shall prosper, and all those who take away, shall whither away, and not enjoy the Protection of the Eternal Rose. So be it!

I am asking the law firm of Thorpe Prudy Urness & Willison to waive the fees they charged me to hand the Rice Trust that is part of our National Treasure that did found and establish this Great Nation. Sydney Morris of the lawfirm Heisinger, Rose, Buck & Morris waived fees in handling the Rosamond Benton artistic legacy that is also our Nation’s foremost Poltical Legacy. The Heirs of this Trust need to be declared a National Treasure and protected. I am going to author a grant from Alcohol Justice, so as a Nazarite Judge, I might save thousands from the disease of alcoholism.

I give the Love of the Rose to my Muse, Rena Christiansen, who inspired the works of art that made my sister famous, and, who led me across the Rainbow Bridge to the land of immortality. Rena’s acnestors are from Sweden.

Finally, I give my deepest respect and gratitude to Bill Arnold, who is of Norwegian stock. There is a genealogical book on the Arnold Family that traces them to Norway. These Norse people are of the House of Wolfings, that is a real house, as well as the place the Pre-Raphaelite Artist, William Morris, did find in his dreams.

Last night I dreamed I pulled water color masterpieces from the fountain of eternal life, and unrolled them. I wept at the beauty I beheld. I tried to assign these works to a great master, but, had to take credit for them. They are my Lost Work, the masterpieces I was destined to render as an artist, but, at twenty, I lost everything when I died, even my dream to become an Immortal, for…………………….I had arrvied.

After my death experience I started calling myself, Baldr “The guaridan-protector of the Rainbow Bridge who was protected by mistletoe, the name of the sword that Rosamund came to own. May the worthy – cross over!

Jon Rosamond Presco

President: Royal Rosamond Press

Copyright 2012


Godschalk Roesmont (young) we as ships in the 1341-1388; he was member of the Illustre kind Vrouwe brothers chap and died in 1395. Rodolph Roesmont are ships in the years 13.69 and 1370. In 1374 he is mentioned with son Godschalk and in 1376 with for the Christina. In last year we also find him as a member of the aforesaid brotherhood, as well as Ghijsbrecht in 1388.

Male descendants of Roelof van MONTFOORT Page : 1 I.1 Roelof van MONTFOORT (De Rovere)

Recorded in over fifty different spellings including as examples Rolf, Roffe, Ruff and Ruffell in England, Rudolf and Rotlauf in Germany, Rohlf in Switzerland, Ridulfo and Firidolfi in Italy, and Roelof in the Netherlands, this is a surname of pre 7th century Nordic-Viking origins. It derives ultimately from the personal name ‘Hrodwulf’, itself from the period in history known as The Dark Ages, when names were largely pagan in ancestry, and tended to extoll the undoubted virtues of godliness, strength and purpose. This particular name was composed of the elements “hrod”, meaning “renown” and “wulf”, literally the wolf, and originally may have referred to a particular warrior or chieftain. In the Norse language the contracted form was “Hrolfr”, and in Danish and Swedish “Rolf”, and it was in these forms that they reached Northern Europe in the 8th century. It is not absolutely certain as to the first recording date of the hereditary surname, but it was amongst the earliest of all surnames. Examples taken from authentic rolls and charters of the medieval period include: Johan Rodolfi of Hamburg, Germany, in 1252, Robert Rolf, of Battle, in the county of Sussex,

Hey Uncle Greg!

I just got the beautiful dragonfly necklace you sent me this morning. I love it! Thank you very much. You know how much I like bugs 🙂

How have you been doing?

Sorry I haven’t been able to chat much. I’ve been extremely busy doing some game design art for this company, among other things.

I promise we’ll be able to talk more soon!

I love you! ❤



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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First Age
Witch-king of Angmar
Home world
Base of operations

Middle-earth portal
Barrow-wights are wraith-like creatures in J. R. R. Tolkien's world of Middle-earth, based on the Old Norse Draugr. Barrow refers to the burial mounds they inhabited and wight is a Middle English word for "living being" or "creature", especially "human being".[1] It does not necessarily mean "spirit" or "ghost"; it is cognate to modern German "Wicht", meaning small mythical creatures (also "Wichtelmännchen"). Tolkien borrowed this concept from Norse mythology, see e.g. Waking of Angantyr and Hrómundar saga Gripssonar. The name Barrow-wight itself was first recorded in 1869 in the Eiríkr Magnússon and William Morris translation of Grettis saga, which features a fight with such a creature.[2]
Evil spirits of some kind (perverted Maiar or possibly spirits of Orcs, fallen Avari, or evil Men), they were sent to the Barrow-downs by the Witch-king of Angmar in order to prevent a resurrection of the destroyed Dúnedain kingdom of Cardolan.
They animated the dead bones of the Dúnedain buried there, as well as older bones of Edain from the First Age which still were buried there.
During the Fellowship of the Ring, Frodo Baggins and company were trapped in the Barrow-downs, and nearly slain by a barrow-wight. It has been speculated, mentioned in The Lord of the Rings Appendix A, that Frodo was trapped in the cairn of the last prince of Cardolan; Merry's exclamation on waking from his trance suggests this. Frodo sliced off the wight's hand; then, when the wight extinguished the dim light in the cavern where the company was imprisoned, Frodo called upon Tom Bombadil, who expelled the wight from the barrow.

1 Other versions of the legendarium
2 In other media
3 References
4 External links
[edit] Other versions of the legendarium
Due to his inspiration from Hrómundar saga Gripssonar, during the writing of The Lord of the Rings (see The History of The Lord of the Rings) Tolkien at first foresaw a link between the wights and the Ringwraiths, initially describing the Black Riders as horsed wights, but the suggestion that they were the same kind of creatures was dropped in the published work. In the final work there remained a link between them: the wights were now spirits sent by the Witch-king of Angmar.
[edit] In other media
Barrow-wights have appeared in several games based on Tolkien's writings:
In a mission of the Evil campaign in The Lord of the Rings: War of the Ring, a real-time strategy game based on the book instead of the Peter Jackson films, Saruman merges barrow-wights with Orcs to create the Uruk-hai
In The Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth II, a real-time strategy game based on the Peter Jackson films as well as the book, barrow-wights appear as ghost-like creatures on skirmish maps; they are also created when a Nazgûl kills a unit with its Morgul Blade ability
The idea of spirits possessing dead men's bones was used in The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King video game, with the spirits of the Dead Men of Dunharrow possessing their old skeletons and attacking Aragorn, Legolas, and Gimli on the Paths of the Dead
In the game Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring Frodo faces the barrow-wight as a boss, shown as a full body (although in the Xbox version great hands burst out of the ground and hit Frodo, the PlayStation 2 version has ghost-like creatures emerge from the ground)
In the online game The Lord of the Rings Online: Shadows of Angmar barrow-wights are portrayed as animated skeletons or zombies and are located in the Barrow-downs and many other locations in the game
In the 2011 game The Lord of the Rings: War in the North, a Barrow-wight appears as an enemy in the Barrow-downs.
Barrow-wights appear in other media:
In an episode of The Real Ghostbusters, Egon Spengler describes the barrow-wights as troll-like creatures which live underground in nests, and like vampires they can't enter a place unless invited.
In the game Castle of the Winds barrow wights (as well as variants tunnel wights and castle wights) appear as enemies.
In the MMORPG RuneScape, the Barrows brothers (who have been referred to as wights) are vengeful spirits who serve a powerful lich mage known as Sliske. They inhabit six barrows, which also serve as their tombs.
It's one of the many enemies in nethack, but appears rarely.

Ingolfr was said to settle a large part of the south-western part of Iceland, but after his settlement nothing more was known. His son, Torsteinn Ingolfsson, was a major chieftain and was said to have founded the first thing, or parliament, in Iceland. It was a forerunner of the Althingi.
The name Ingolf, similar to the name Adolf that means "aristocratic wolf", would be translated as "royal or kingly wolf."

Balder the Beautiful
The Summer Sun-god–Blind Hodur–Nanna the Brave–The Light Battles–A Dread Omen–Balder’s Dreams–Frigg’s Alarm–World Vows taken–Odin descends to Hela–The Vala invoked–Her Prophecies–Loke’s Evil Design–The Mistletoe Arrow of Pain–Balder is killed–Hermod’s Mission–The Funeral of the God–Odin whispers–Hermod in Hela–Urd’s Decree–World Tears–Hag seals Balder’s Fate.

BALDER THE BEAUTIFUL was the most noble and pious of the gods in Asgard. The whitest flower upon earth is called Balder’s brow, because the countenance of the god was snow-white and shining. Like fine gold was his hair, and his eyes were radiant and blue. He was well loved by all the gods, save evil Loke, who cunningly devised his death.

Balder, the summer sun-god, was Odin’s fairest son; his mother was Frigg, goddess of fruitful earth and sister of Njord. His brother was blind Hodur. On Balder’s tongue were runes graven, so that he had great eloquence. He rode a brightly shining horse, and his ships, which men called “billow falcons”, were the sunbeams that sailed through the drifting cloudways. For wife he was given Nanna, the moon maid, the brave one who fought with him the light battles. On a bright horse she rode also, and tender was she and very fair.

There came a time when Odin and Balder went forth to journey through a wood. A dread omen forewarned them of disaster, because the leg was sprained of Balder’s

p. 147

horse–the horse from whose hoofmarks bubbled forth clear wells. Charms were sung over the sun-god by Nanna and by her fair sister Sunna, the sun maid. Frigg also sang, and then Fulla her sister. Odin uttered magic runes to protect him from evil.

But soon after Balder began to languish. The light went from his eyes, care sat on his forehead, and melancholy were his lips. To him came the gods beseeching to know what ailed him, and he told that nightly he dreamed fearsome dreams which boded ill, and revealed to him, alas! that his life was in dire peril.

Now Frigg, who had fore-knowledge of all things save Balder’s fate, sent forth her maid-servants to take oaths from all creatures living, from plants and metals, and from stones, not to do any hurt unto the god Balder. To her, in due time, the maidens returned, and she received from them the compacts and vows that were given. All things promised to spare him, save the mistletoe, slender and harmless, from which no vow was asked, for it clung, as was its need, to a strong tree for protection. Then was Frigg’s heart filled with comfort, and no longer did she fear the fate of her noble son.

Hálfdanar saga Eysteinssonar is a legendary saga from early 14th century Iceland about Halfdan Eysteinsson. The main events appear to take place in the 9th century.
Halfdan's grandfather was Þrándr the eponymous king of Trondheim, who in turn was the son of Sæmingr the king of Hålogaland and the son of Odin. Sæmingr had married Naumu who had given her name to Namdalen. Þrándr had married Dagmær, the sister of Svanhvít, the heroine of Hrómundar saga Gripssonar, and they had had the sons Eysteinn and Eirikr inn víðförli who is the hero of Eireks saga víðförla and discovered Ódáinsakr.
Eysteinn married Ása, the daughter of Sigurd Hart and Áslaug, the daughter of Sigurd Snake-in-the-Eye. They had several sons among them Halfdan.
It deals with Eysteinn's adventures in Staraja Ladoga (Aldeigjuborg), his conquest of Alaborg and about the adventures of his son Halfdan.

Hrómundar saga Gripssonar

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Hrómundar saga Gripssonar or The Saga of Hromund Gripsson is a legendary saga from Iceland. The original version has been lost, but its content has been preserved in the rímur of Hrómundr Gripsson published in Fernir forníslenzkar rímnaflokkar (1896). These rímur were the basis for the not very appreciated Hrómunds saga which is found in the MS of the Arnamagnæan Codex, nr 587, 4°, and which is preserved in the Fornaldarsögur.
According to the Sturlunga saga, the original version was composed by the farmer Rolf of Skálmarnes and was recited by him on the wedding of Reykjahólar in 1119.
The saga is about Hrómundr serving king Óláf Warrior-King (Óláfr konungr liði) and Hrómund's battles with the berserker Hröngvið and as well as the undead witch-king Þráinn, a draugr (he was a former king of Gaul, Valland). Þráinn had killed 420 men including the Swedish king Semingr with his enchanted sword Mistletoe (Mistilteinn.) Hrómund grapples with Þráinn and wins, burns his body and takes Mistletoe. Later he fights the two kings of Sweden named Haldingr, and their champion Helgi Haddingjaskati (Hröngvið's brother) who is aided in battle by his lover Kára's magic. During the battle, she is in the shape of a swan, and she is probably based on the Valkyrie Kára. By mistake Helgi hurts the swan with his sword and is no longer protected by Kára's magic, and is killed by Hrómund. After some adventures, Hrómund slays the last Swedish king Haldingr.
The saga reflects parts of the lost Káruljóð which is mentioned in the prose section of Helgakviða Hundingsbana II. This section says that Helgi Hundingsbane and his lover, the Valkyrie Sigrún are reborn as Helgi Haddingjaskati and Kára.
According to Landnámabók, Hrómundr Gripsson was the paternal great-grandfather of Ingolfr Arnarson, and this means that he would have lived in Norway in the first half of the 8th century.
It is probably not a historic account of real events since it was remarked by king Sverre of Norway, who heard it, that it was an amusing lying tale.

Origin and Meaning
Germanic name element
Ancient Germanic
*hrōþa- = 'fame' [1]
*hrōþiR = 'fame' [2]
Old Norse
hróðr = 'fame' [1] [2] [3]
Old Saxon
(h)rôth = 'fame' [4] [5]
Old High German
hruod = 'fame' [6]
Old Frisian
(h)rêd = 'fame' [5]
Old English
hrōð = 'fame' [6]
Related Names
See Hróða and Hróði and and HrøðingR and Rolle and Ros

From Nordic Names wiki – – All rights reserved.

Male Name
Old Norse
Origin and Meaning
Old Norse name
Combination of HROD and MUND [1]
Related Names









See also Frøymundr

*munduR = 'protector' [1]
Old Norse
mund = 'hand, protection' [1] [2]
mundr = 'gift for a bride' [1] [2] [3]
Old High German
munt = 'hand, protection, tutelage' [3]
Old Frisian
mund = 'tutelage, guardianship' [3]
mond = 'tutelage, guardianship' [3]
mund = 'flat hand, protection' [3]
Related Names
See Mundi
see Almund (Norse) and Æðelmund (English)
see *Agilamunduz
see Æimundr
see Almund
see Almund
see Ámundi
see Ómundi
see Arnmund
see Ásmundr
see Auðmundr (Norse) Eadmund (English)
see Bjørnmund
see Bergmundur
see Bótmundr
see Dagmund
see *Agilamunduz
see Æimundr
see Rasmund
see Øymundr
see Farmund
see Fastmundr
see Frøymundr
see Friðmundr
see GæiRmundr
see Mundgærðr
see Gísmundr
see Gormundur
see Grímmundr
see Guðmundr
see Gunnmundr
see Hámundr
see Hallmundr
see Heiðmundur
see Hermundr
see Hiltimunt (German) and Mundhild
see Hjǫrmundr
see Hlöðmundur (Norse)
see Hróðmundr
see Rosamund (German)
see Ingimundr

see Jómundur
see Kætilmundr
see Kolmundur
see Kristmundur
see Kårmund
see Líknmundr
see Nilsmund
see Normund
see Oddmund
see Rådmund
see Raginmund (German)
see Rosamund (German)
see Sǽmundr
see Sigmundr (Norse) and Sigimunt (German)
see Salmundr
see Steinmundur
see Súnmundur
see Valmundur
see Vermundr
see Vermundr
see Vestmundr
see Vímundr
see Vígmundr
see Vilmundr
see Þiúðmundr
see Þórmundr

From Nordic Names wiki – – All rights reserved.

Male Name
Origin and Meaning
Old High German name
1) Combination of HROM and MUND [1]
2) Combination of ROS (flower) and MUND (younger misinterpretation) [1]
Related Names


Old High German



Beowulf, Rosamond (Hrothmond) and the Rose Mouth Grail
Jon Presco <braskewitz>
2007-11-09 22:40:09 GMT

Beowulf, Rosamond (Hrothmond) and the Rose Mouth Grail

(Images: Cup-beaer, Wealhbeow, serving mead. Coat of arms. Beowulf
fighting dragon. Wolfhouse. Brendal’s mother.)

A movie version of the legend of Beowulf is due to be released in a
week or two. Today I found the definitive proof the name Rosamond
comes from the Hrothmond/Hrothmund, and is the source of the Hromund
who is the hero of the Icelandic saga,’Hromundr Gripsson’ that
inspired Tolkein. Some scholars suggest this saga is the source of
some aspects of the Arthurian legend, as well as a source of the
Lohengrin legend.

Hrothmund is the son of Wealhþeow who preformed the ceremony of the
mead cup, she the cup-bearer for the Danish kings. No one has been
able to define the meaning of her name, but it looks like it ends
with “beow” and might stand for mead made of honeycones. It is
suggested she is a servant or “slave”, but I see Maiden Server of
Mead. Perhaps she is a mead goddess.
Hrothgar wishes to adopt Beowulf, but Wealhbeow bids the king to not
forget Hrothulf, which looks like Hrotwulf “famous wolf”
or “redwolf”. Hrothgar has two sons, Hrethric and Hrothmund, the
latter being the source of the name Rosamond. Did Beowulf become
Hrothmund’s half-brother?

Hrothmund is said to mean “rose mouth”. This is meaning of the name
Rosenmund of which we see a coat of arms with two roses and a cross.
There is a Rosenmund Cup that is the centerpiece for the Gerberzunft
Guild in Basel. Did this cup ever SERVE mead to distinguished guests,
if only in a traditonal sence?

Beowulf was written by a farmer named Rolf. Is it possible he is my
ancestor and lived in Wolfhouse where the Roesmonts dwelt?

My family name, Rosamond, will forever be associated with the Beowulf
legend that depicts a usurption by Hroðulf, i.e. Hrólfr Kraki.

Here is the source of the name Rosamund found in “The Etymology of
the Principal Christian Names of Great …

By Richard Stephen Charnock

Rosamund, Rosamond, Rosamunde, Rosemonde is of Teutonic origin,
having been formed from the Old male name Rhosmund, softened down
from Ruodmunt same as the Old and Middle high German name Hrothmond
(Icelandic Hrothmundr) old Gothis, Ratmund. Junius’ translation
Ruodmunt. “red mouth”. The name if from Ruod-munt for Rad-Mund “man
for counsel” councilor of Radmun, “protector in council””

  King Olaf sailed west to the Hebrides with his fleet, and here they went ashore and rounded up a herd of cattle. A farmer lived nearby. The king’s men took his cow and drove it down to the ships. He was greatly grieved by that loss. Hromund came and asked him where he dwelt. The man said that his name was Mani, and that he lived a short way away, and added that it would be a greater deed for them to break into a barrow and rob the drow’s wealth. Hromund asked him to tell him if he knew anything about that. Mani said that certainly he knew and added: “Thrain, who conquered Gaul and was king there, he who was a great and mighty berserk, and an excellent sorcerer – he entered a barrow with his sword, armour and much wealth. But you must go there quickly.”
       Hromund asked how long it would take them to sail there. Mani said that they should sail due south for six days. Hromund thanked the man for this information, gave him his wealth and let him take back his cow. Then they sailed as the man had advised them, and in six days’ time they saw the barrow before the prow of the ship.

They sailed west to Gaul and soon found the barrow. And after six days had passed, they came to an opening in the barrow. They saw a great ugly man sitting in a chair, blue-skinned and stout, all clad in gold, so that it glittered. He chattered much and blew on the fire.
       Hromund asked now who would  enter the barrow, and said that whoever did should choose three treasures for himself.
       Vali said: “No one would willingly give his life for that. There are sixty men here, and that troll will kill us all.”
       Hromund said: “Kari would have dared to do this, if he was alive,” –and added that he was prepared to descend into the barrow, although it would be better if he went with  others. Hromund went down on a chain. It was night-time by then. And when he reached the bottom, he found much wealth and gathered it together.
       In previous days Thrain had been king over Gaul, and he had accomplished everything by sorcery. He did much evil, until he was so old that he no longer wanted to know adversity any longer, so he went alive into the barrow and took much wealth with him.
       Now Hromund saw where a sword hung up from a pillar. He took it down, belted it to himself and went forward and said: “I will speak with you before I leave the barrow, since you do not stop me. What is wrong with you, you there, old one? Do you not agree that while I gathered  your wealth together you sat silent, hated dog? Was something in your eyes, that you looked on as I took your sword and jewellery and many of your other treasures?”
       Thrain said to himself that he would seem worth little if he allowed himself to sit silently in his chair, — “I have little wish to fight. But I must have become a great coward, if you can rob my wealth. I  refuse you my treasure. You will see me dead first.”
       Then Hromund said: “It would be seemly if you rose, cowardly and craven one, and took your sword back from me, if you dare.”
       The drow said: “That is no deed, to bear a sword against me, who am weaponless. I will test my strength with you and wrestle.”
       Hromund threw down the sword and trusted in his own strength. Thrain saw that and got up from his cauldron. He blew on the fire, and now he was ready to eat out of the cauldron. A great fire lay between his feet, and the cauldron was full of goat-meat. He wore a gold-painted hide. Both his hands were gnarled, and his nails were crooked over the tips of his fingers.
       Hromund said: “Rise from the chair, cowardly slave, and take your wealth.” Then the drow said: “Now will we have fitting speech, now you challenge my courage.”
       Day passed, and dusk fell, and it grew dark in the barrow. Then the drow went to wrestle with Hromund, but he cast down his cauldron. Hromund had the advantage of strength, and so  they went hard at it, so that rocks and stones sprang up. Then the drow fell to his left knee and said: “You knock me down, and certainly you are a brave man.”
       Hromund said: “Stand without support  to your back. You are as great a coward as Máni the farmer said.”
       Thrain went crazy, and he filled the barrow with an evil reek. Then he set his claws to the back of Hromund’s head and broke hold of the bone to his loins and said: “Do not complain about it, although the game grows coarse and I have wounded your throat, so that now I shall tear you apart still alive.”
 “I do not know,” said Hromund, “from where such cat-kin has come to this barrow.”
       The drow said: “You were born to Gunnlod. All your like are so.”
       “Evil will it be,” said Hromund, “that you scratch me long.” They wrestled hard and long, so that everything around them shook, until Hromund felled the drow with a foot-trick. By then it had become very dark.
       Then the drow said: “Now you want my advice having obtained my sword. I have lived long in my barrow and gloated over my wealth, but no good came from that treasure, although you think it good. I never intended that you would use Mistiltein, my good sword, to harm me.”
       Hromund then loosed the sword and rested it on his knee, and said: “Tell me now, how many men did you defeat in duels with Mistiltein.”
       “Four hundred and twenty,” said the drow, “and I never received a graze. I tested my skill with King Seming, who ruled in Sweden, and he saw that I would soon be the victor.”
       “Long have you,” said Hromund, ” been harmful to men, and I will work it that you die first.”
       He struck the head off the drow, and burned him up in the fire, then went out of the barrow. Then the men asked how Thrain and he had parted. He said that he went in choice, –“then I struck off his head.”
 Hromund kept three treasures that he found in the barrow, a ring, a necklace and Mistiltein. All of the others got money. Then King Olaf sailed away from there, north to his kingdom, and afterwards his land was well renowned.

In his writings, in particular the fantasy novel The Lord of the Rings as well as the related novel The Hobbit and the posthumously published collection of stories The Silmarillion, J. R. R. Tolkien is cited as having had a number of influences. Several critics[1] have made the assumption that Tolkien’s novel was directly derived from Richard Wagner’s Der Ring des Nibelungen. Many parts of his work were, as he freely admitted, influenced by other sources.[2] Some of the influences include philology (his field), religion (particularly Roman Catholicism), fairy tales, Anglo-Saxon and Norse mythology, and numerous sources from Finnish, Greek, Persian, Slavic, and Celtic mythology. Tolkien was also influenced by his and his son’s personal military service experiences during World War I and World War II, respectively.[3]
One of the greatest influences on Tolkien was the Arts and Crafts polymath William Morris. Tolkien wished to imitate Morris’s prose and poetry romances,[4] along with the general style and approach; he took elements such as the Dead Marshes in The Lord of the Rings[5] and Mirkwood in The Hobbit from Morris.[6]

Nordic Influences
After the publication of The Hobbit, readers started noticing the trend of Tolkien’s fascination with Norse mythology. The dwarf names, and Gandalf’s name, were taken from Dvergatal, the Völuspa Saga in the Elder Edda, and Gylfaginning of the Prose Edda.[24] Other themes such as the conversation between Bilbo Baggins and Smaug, the dragon from The Hobbit, as well as the antagonism brought about by the mere mention of gold and even the concept of riddles are highly paralleled to these Norse sources. On the character of Gandalf, one can see a clear echo of the Nordic god, Odin, respectively deemed the “Allfather” of the mythological world of the Norse. Much like Odin, Gandalf is always in favor of justice as well as gaining knowledge, truth, and insight.[25] Gandalf, which means “wand elf” or “magic elf” in Old Norse, appears in the “Catalogue of Dwarves” section of Völuspá, a poem collected in the Poetic Edda.[26] The figure of Gandalf is particularly influenced by the Germanic deity Odin[27] in his incarnation as “The Wanderer”, an old man with one eye, a long white beard, a wide brimmed hat, and a staff; Tolkien stated that he thought of Gandalf as an “Odinic wanderer” in a letter of 1946, nearly a decade after the character was invented.[28] Specific influences include the Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf.[29] Gandalf is a mirror image of the protagonist perspective of Odin also in the sense that they both have strong associations with wolves, ravens, and eagles. Furthermore, they are both seekers of ultimate knowledge, truth, and justice.

The House of the Wolfings

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The House of the Wolfings  

Title page of 1889 First Edition, London
William Morris
United Kingdom
Fantasy novel
Reeves and Turner
Publication date
Media type
Print (Hardback)
199 pp
Followed by
The Roots of the Mountains
A Tale of the House of the Wolfings and All the Kindreds of the Mark is a fantasy novel by William Morris, perhaps the first modern fantasy writer to unite an imaginary world with the element of the supernatural, and thus the precursor of much of present-day fantasy literature.[1] It was first published in hardcover by Reeves and Turner in 1889.[2] Its importance in the history of fantasy literature was recognized by its republication by the Newcastle Publishing Company as the sixteenth volume of the celebrated Newcastle Forgotten Fantasy Library in April, 1978.
This book also influenced J. R. R. Tolkien’s popular The Lord of the Rings. In a December 31, 1960 letter published in The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, (p. 303), Tolkien wrote: ‘The Dead Marshes and the approaches to the Morannon owe something to Northern France after the Battle of the Somme. They owe more to William Morris and his Huns and Romans, as in The House of the Wolfings or The Roots of the Mountains.” Among the numerous parallels with The Lord of the Rings, Morris has Old English-style placenames such as Mirkwood (p. 2), germanic personal names such as Thiodolf (p. 8), and dwarves as skilled smiths (“How the Dwarf-wrought Hauberk was Brought away from the Hall of the Daylings”, p. 97).
This work and its successor, The Roots of the Mountains, were to some degree historical novels, with little or no magic. Morris would go on to develop the new genre established in this work in such later fantasies as Child Christopher and Goldilind the Fair, The Wood Beyond the World, The Well at the World’s End, and The Water of the Wondrous Isles.[3]

1 Plot summary
2 Copyright
3 References
4 External links
[edit] Plot summary
The House of the Wolfings is Morris’ romantically reconstructed portrait of the lives of the Germanic Gothic tribes, written in an archaic style and incorporating a large amount of poetry. It combines his own idealistic views with what was actually known at the time of his subjects’ folkways and language. He portrays them as simple and hardworking, galvanized into heroic action to defend their families and liberty by the attacks of imperial Rome.
Morris’ Goths inhabit an area called the Mark on a river in the forest of Mirkwood, divided according into the Upper-mark, the Mid-mark and the Nether-mark. They worship their gods Odin and Tyr by sacrificing horses and rely on seers who foretell the future and serve as psychic news-gatherers.
The men of the Mark choose two War Dukes to lead them against their enemies, one each from the House of the Wolfings and the House of the Laxings. The Wolfing war leader is Thiodolf, a man of mysterious and perhaps divine antecedents whose ability to lead is threatened by his possession of a magnificent dwarf-made mail-shirt which, unknown to him, is cursed. He is supported by his lover the Wood Sun and their daughter the Hall Sun, who are related to the gods.
[edit] Copyright
The copyright for this story has expired in the United States, and thus now resides in the public domain there. The text is available via Project Gutenberg.

Amidst of the ridge whereon the Markmen now abode, there was a ring made of the chief warriors and captains and wise men who had not been slain or grievously hurt in the fray, and amidst them all sat Thiodolf on the ground, his chin sunken on his breast, looking more like a captive than the leader of a host amidst of his men; and that the more as his scabbard was empty; for when Throng-plough had fallen from his hand, it had been trodden under foot, and lost in the turmoil.  There he sat, and the others in that ring of men looked sadly upon him; such as Arinbiorn of the Bearings, and Wolfkettle and Thorolf of his own House, and Hiarandi of the Elkings, and Geirbald the Shielding, the messenger of the woods, and Fox who had seen the Roman Garth, and many others.  It was night now, and men had lighted fires about the host, for they said that the Romans knew where to find them if they listed to seek; and about those fires were men eating and drinking what they might come at, but amidmost of that ring was the biggest fire, and men turned them towards it for counsel and help, for elsewhere none said, “What do we?” for they were heavy-hearted and redeless, since the Gods had taken the victory out of their hands just when they seemed at point to win it.

Descendants of Hugo de CALVACAMP (From Orkney)
• 1. Hugo de CALVACAMP
b. Abt 890, was the father of [see Next]
• 2. Ralph I de TOENI
b. Abt 915, d. Abt 975, and had a son [see Next]
• 3. Ralph II de TOENI
• b. By 970, d. Aft 1015/6, and had issue,
• i. Roger I [see Next]
• ii. Robert [Lord of Belvoir], b. Abt 1033, d. 1088, m.
Adeliza, had a daughter,
• (1) Adeliza, b. ca. 1060, living 1136, m. Roger
• iii. Hugo de LIMESAY, b. By 1060, d. Aft 1060 [Ancestor
of the Lindsay Family
in Scotland]
• 4. Roger I de TOENI
• b. Abt 990, d. 1038/9
• m. Adelaide (Godeheut?) of BARCELONA, b. Abt 1004, d.
1051, and had issue,
• i. Adelise, b. By 1038, d. 1066, m. William Fitz OSBERN
• ii. Ralph III, b. 1025/30, d. 1102 [Ancestor of the
TOENI Family]
iii. Robert [see Next]
• 5. Robert de TOENI
• [Governor of Stafford]
• b. By 1066, d. Aft 1100,
m. Avice de CLARE, and had a son [see Next]
• 6. Nicholas de STAFFORD
b. By 1100, d. Abt 1154, and had a son [see Next]
• 7. Robert de STAFFORD
• b. Abt 1134, d. 1176, and had a daughter,
i. Milicent, b. By 1176, m. 1194, Hervey BAGOT
Descendants of Sveide, A Norse King
• [A Norse King]
d. ca. 780, was father of [see Next]
• 2. Halfdan “the Old”
d. 800, whose son was [see Next]
• d. Aft 800,
m. _____ of THRONDHEIM, and had a son [see Next]
• 4. Eystein IVARSSON
• [Jarl of Hedemarken (of the Uplands)]
• b. 800/10, d. Abt 830,
• m. Asends ROGNVALDSDOTTER, b. ca. 812, and had issue,
• i. Rognvald [see Next]
• ii. Malahue of MORE, d. Abt 890, had issue,
• a. Ralph [Comte de Bayeux]
• b. Hugo de CALVACAMP, b. ca.
iii. Schwanhilde, m. Harald I HAARFAGER [1st overking of Norway]

Halfdan EYSTEINSSON , Eysteinn HALFDANSSON , Halfdan OLAFSSON , Olaf
YNGVI-FREYSSON , Yngvi-Frey , ) was born in 832 in Maer-Nord
Trondelag Norway.
Malahule married Maud DE FLANDERS. Maud was born in 912.
They had the following children:
52 M i Hugh (Hugo) DE CALVACAMP was born
about 890 in Dieppe.
Read more:

The Saga of Erik the Red
Chapter 1
Olaf, who was called Olaf the White, was styled a warrior king. He was the son of King Ingjald, the son of Helgi, the son of Olaf, the son of Gudred, the son of Halfdan Whiteleg, king of the Uplands (in Norway).

He led a harrying expedition of sea-rovers into the west, and conquered Dublin, in Ireland, and Dublinshire, over which he made himself king. He married Aud the Deep-minded, daughter of Ketil Flatnose, son of Bjorn the Ungartered, a noble man from Norway. Their son was named Thorstein the Red.

Olaf fell in battle in Ireland, and then Aud and Thorstein went into the Sudreyjar (the Hebrides). There Thorstein married Thorid, daughter of Eyvind the Easterling, sister of Helgi the Lean; and they had many children.

Thorstein became a warrior king, and formed an alliance with Earl Sigurd the Great, son of Eystein the Rattler. They conquered Caithness, Sutherland, Ross, and Moray, and more than half Scotland. Over these Thorstein was king until the Scots plotted against him, and he fell there in battle.

Aud was in Caithness when she heard of Thorstein’s death. Then she caused a merchant-ship to be secretly built in the wood, and when she was ready, directed her course out into the Orkneys. There she gave in marriage Thorstein the Red’s daughter, Gro, who became mother of Grelad, whom Earl Thorfinn, the Skullcleaver, married.

Afterwards Aud set out to seek Iceland, having twenty free men in her ship. Aud came to Iceland, and passed the first winter in Bjarnarhofn (Bjornshaven) with her brother Bjorn. Afterwards she occupied all the Dale country between the Dogurdara (day-meal river) and the Skraumuhlaupsa (river of the giantess’s leap), and dwelt at Hvamm. She had prayer meetings at Krossholar (Crosshills), where she caused crosses to be erected, for she was baptised and deeply devoted to the faith. There came with her to Iceland many men worthy of honour, who had been taken captive in sea-roving expeditions to the west, and who were called bondmen.

One of these was named Vifil; he was a man of high family, and had been taken captive beyond the western main, and was also called a bondman before Aud set him free. And when Aud granted dwellings to her ship’s company, Vifil asked why she gave no abode to him like unto the others. Aud replied, “That it was of no moment to him, for,” she said, “he would be esteemed in whatever place he was, as one worthy of honour.” She gave him Vifilsdalr (Vifilsdale), and he dwelt there and married. His sons were Thorbjorn and Thorgeir, promising men, and they grew up in their father’s house.

Chapter 2
There was a man named Thorvald, the son of Asvald, the son of Ulf, the son of Yxna-Thoris. His son was named Eirik. Father and son removed from Jadar (in Norway) to Iceland, because of manslaughters, and occupied land in Hornstrandir, and dwelt at Drangar.

There Thorvald died, and Eirik then married Thjodhild, daughter of Jorund, the son of Atli, and of Thorbjorg the Ship-breasted, whom afterwards Thorbjorn, of the Haukadalr (Hawkdale) family, married; he it was who dwelt at Eiriksstadr after Eirik removed from the north. It is near Vatzhorn.

Then did Eirik’s thralls cause a landslip on the estate of Valthjof, at Valthjofsstadr. Eyjolf the Foul, his kinsman, slew the thralls beside Skeidsbrekkur (slopes of the race-course), above Vatzhorn. In return Eirik slew Eyjolf the Foul; he slew also Hrafn the Dueller, at Leikskalar (playbooths). Gerstein, and Odd of Jorfi, kinsman of Eyjolf, were found willing to follow up his death by a legal prosecution; and then was Eirik banished from Haukadalr.

He occupied then Brokey and Eyxney, and dwelt at Tradir, in Sudrey, the first winter. At this time did he lend to Thorgest pillars for seat-stocks, Afterwards Eirik removed into Eyxney, and dwelt at Eiriksstadr. He then claimed his pillars, and got them not. Then went Eirik and fetched the pillars from Breidabolstadr, and Thorgest went after him. They fought at a short distance from the hay-yard at Drangar, and there fell two sons of Thorgest, and some other men.

After that they both kept a large body of men together. Styr gave assistance to Eirik, as also did Eyjolf, of Sviney, Thorbjorn Vifilsson, and the sons of Thorbrand, of Alptafjordr (Swanfirth). But the sons of Thord Gellir, as also Thorgeir, of Hitardalr (Hotdale), Aslak, of Langadalr (Longdale), and Illugi, his son, gave assistance to Thorgest.

Eirik and his people were outlawed at Thorsnes Thing. He prepared a ship in Eiriksvagr (creek), and Eyjolf concealed him in Dimunarvagr while Thorgest and his people sought him among the islands. Eirik said to his people that he purposed to seek for the land which Gunnbjorn, the son of Ulf the Crow, saw when he was driven westwards over the ocean, and discovered Gunnbjarnarsker (Gunnbjorn’s rock or skerry). He promised that he would return to visit his friends if he found the land. Thorbjorn, and Eyjolf, and Styr accompanied Eirik beyond the islands. They separated in the most friendly manner, Eirik saying that he would be of the like assistance to them, if he should be able so to be, and they should happen to need him.

Then he sailed oceanwards under Snæfellsjokull (snow mountain glacier), and arrived at the glacier called Blaserkr (Blue-shirt); thence he journeyed south to see if there were any inhabitants of the country.

He passed the first winter at Eiriksey, near the middle, of the Vestribygd (western settlement). The following spring he proceeded to Eiriksfjordr, and fixed his abode there. During the summer he proceeded into the unpeopled districts in the west, and was there a long time, giving names to the places far and wide. The second winter he passed in Eiriksholmar (isles), off Hvarfsgnupr (peak of disappearance, Cape Farewell); and the third summer he went altogether northwards, to Snæfell and into Hrafnsfjordr (Ravensfirth); considering then that he had come to the head of Eiriksfjordr, he turned back, and passed the third winter in Eiriksey, before the mouth of Eiriksfjordr.

Now, afterwards, during the summer, he proceeded to Iceland, and came to Breidafjordr (Broadfirth). This winter he was with Ingolf, at Holmlatr (Island-litter). During the spring, Thorgest and he fought, and Eirik met with defeat. After that they were reconciled. In the summer Eirik went to live in the land which he had discovered, and which he called Greenland, “Because,” said he, “men will desire much the more to go there if the land has a good name.”

About Royal Rosamond Press

I am an artist, a writer, and a theologian.
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