Brother of Jesus and Circumcision

“Antiochus pillaged the Temple, attacked Jerusalem and “led captive the women and children”.[5] From this point onwards, Antiochus pursued a zealous Hellenizing policy. He made possession of the Torah a captial offense and burned the copies he could find.[6] He banned many traditional Jewish religious practices: Jewish sacrifice was forbidden, sabbaths and feasts were banned. Circumcision was outlawed, and mothers who circumcised their babies were killed along with their families.[7]”

The first church sent Apostles into Anatolia (Turkey) to convert Hellenized Jews back to God. They understood the controversy over circumcision, there. If a Hellenized Jew circumcised himself, his unborn child was cut out of his wife’s womb, and hung around his neck till it rot away.

A Jewish Sage ruled that a baptism was all that was required to be a full Jew, and circumcision was not necessary. This sage was opposed by a conservative sage, whom Paul may have studied under, thus, Saul-Paul was a zealot of Judaic Law that OPPOSED THIS BAPTISM. Did John the Baptism take up this Baptism and began to RETURN Hellenized Jews to God’s Sheepcote? Being born in Anatolia, did Paul hunt down the Nazarite church there, he getting permission from Hellenized Jews who were priests of Zeus?

James the Just was a Nazarite and the brother of Jesus. James and Paul were bitter opponents. James was the Bishop of the First Church that fled to Pella in 70 A.D. when the war with Rome destroyed the temple. Did Paul persue the Nazarites to Pella, and wipe them out? Later, he covers his track – HIS MOTIVE – with a muddled controversy over circumcision that put a wedge between the Jews and Gentiles of the first church – as planned! Antiochus hated the Jews. Galatia is in Turkey. This king worshipped Zeus a sky-god who looks down on his subjects and lords over them. Paul turns Jesus into Zeus who comes like a flash of lightening out of cloud and converts Saul. From now on, Jesus-Zeus will only have conversations with Pope Paul. His mortal brother is – disapeared – so THEIR mother can be turned into a Virgin Deity worthy of giving birth to Zeus.

The Jews did not REJECT Jesus! James did not reject his brother – who is there in Jerusalem! Paul rejected James, the Jews, and Jesus! Paul STOPPED the return of Hellenized Jews who were more like Gentiles – to God! Paul turned Jews into the hunted!

Jon the Nazarite

Much of the scholarship of the 1800′s assumes that Galatia was a province to the north of the first missionary journey churches started through Paul and Barnabas’ ministry as described in Acts 13-14. But archeology and recent scholarship accepts the fact that the province of Galatia included many of the first missionary journey churches. It would have been very strange indeed for Paul to have omitted the fact that the apostles and elders of the Jerusalem church had not laid circumcision as a requirement upon the Gentiles considering the topic of the epistle after it became a controversy in Galatia. It is more likely that Paul the epistle was written some time before the Jerusalem council, and that teachers came from Jerusalem to Antioch teaching the need for it after Paul wrote his epistle to the Galatians, churches from the first missionary journey, addressing this issue.

James (Hebrew: יעקב Ya’akov; Greek Ἰάκωβος Iákōbos), first Bishop of Jerusalem, who died in 62 AD or 69  AD, was an important figure in Early Christianity. He is distinguished from the Apostle James by various epithets; he is called James the brother of the Lord by Paul (Galatians 1:19), James the Just by Hegesippus and others, “James the Righteous”, “James of Jerusalem”, “James Adelphotheos” (Ἰάκωβος ὁ ἀδελφόθεος), and so on.

James became the leader of the Christian movement in Jerusalem in the decades after Jesus’ death, but information about his life is scarce and ambiguous. Apart from a handful of references in the Gospels, the main sources for his life are the Acts of the Apostles, the Pauline epistles, the historian Josephus, and St. Jerome, who also quotes the early Christian author Hegesippus. The Epistle of James in the New Testament is traditionally attributed to him, and he is a principal author of the Apostolic Decree of Acts 15.

In the New Testament, James is simply “James”, other than Paul’s one reference to “James, the brother of the Lord”.
Eusebius records that Clement of Alexandria related, “This James, whom the people of old called the Just because of his outstanding virtue, was the first, as the record tells us, to be elected to the episcopal throne of the Jerusalem church.”[5][6][7] The name also helps distinguish him from other important figures in early Christianity of the same name, such as James, son of Zebedee.

He is sometimes referred to in Eastern Christianity as “James Adelphotheos” (Greek: Iάκωβος ο Αδελφόθεος), i.e., “James the Brother of God”. The oldest surviving Christian liturgy, the Liturgy of St James, called him “the brother of God” (Adelphotheos).[8]

[edit] New Testament sources

The earliest New Testament sources on James are the surviving Pauline Epistles from about the sixth decade AD, describing events roughly during AD 35–55. The Acts of the Apostles, written between AD 60 and AD 100, describes the same period. The Gospels, with a disputed dating ranging from about AD 50 to as late as 110, describe the period of Jesus’ ministry, around 30 AD. In these sources, there is more than one person named James,[4] and different titles are used to distinguish between them.

[edit] Paul’s epistles
Paul briefly mentions meeting “James, the Lord’s brother” in the Epistle to the Galatians:
Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem to see Peter, and abode with him fifteen days. But other of the apostles saw I none, save James the Lord’s brother. Now the things which I write unto you, behold, before God, I lie not.[9]
And when James, Cephas, and John, who seemed to be pillars, perceived the grace that was given unto me, they gave to me and Barnabas the right hands of fellowship; that we should go unto the heathen, and they unto the circumcision. Only they would that we should remember the poor; the same which I also was forward to do.[10]

The third mention of James in Galatians is within the so-called “incident at Antioch”. According to Paul, Peter cared about James’s opinion and what the other Christians thought.
But when Peter was come to Antioch, I withstood him to the face, because he was to be blamed. For before that certain came from James, he did eat with the Gentiles: but when they were come, he withdrew and separated himself, fearing them which were of the circumcision.[11]
A “James” is mentioned in Paul’s First Epistle to the Corinthians, as one to whom Jesus appeared after his resurrection. Notable is how Paul names only Peter and James among the disciples and others who saw Jesus:
For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures; And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures: And that he was seen of Cephas, then of the twelve: After that, he was seen of above five hundred brethren at once; of whom the greater part remain unto this present, but some are fallen asleep. After that, he was seen of James; then of all the apostles.[12]
Based on this identification, Paul might also be referring to James earlier in the same letter:
Have we not power to lead about a sister, a wife, as well as other apostles, and as the brethren of the Lord, and Cephas?[13]
This is generally taken as an indication that this James is the same as James, the younger brother of Jesus.[4]

The Jerusalem Church
Fragment X of Papias (writing in the second century AD) refers to “James the bishop and apostle”.[citation needed] According to Eusebius, the Jerusalem church escaped to Pella during the siege of Jerusalem by the future Emperor Titus in 70 AD and afterwards returned, having a further series of Jewish bishops until the Bar Kokhba revolt in 130 AD. Following the second destruction of Jerusalem and the rebuilding of the city as Aelia Capitolina, subsequent bishops were Greeks.[24] The evidence of Eusebius is confirmed by the account of the Bordeaux Pilgrim.[25]

[edit] Early Christian apocrypha
Some apocryphal gospels testify to the reverence Jewish followers of Jesus (like the Ebionites) had for James. The Gospel of the Hebrews fragment 21 confirms the account of Paul in 1 Corinthians regarding the risen Jesus’ appearance to James, and this is mentioned also by the Gospel of Thomas (one of the works included in the Nag Hammadi library), saying 12, relates that the disciples asked Jesus, “We are aware that you will depart from us. Who will be our leader?” Jesus said to him, “No matter where you come [from] it is to James the Just that you shall go, for whose sake heaven and earth have come to exist.” Epiphanius’ (Panarion 29.4) describes James as a Nazirite.[citation needed]

The pseudepigraphical First Apocalypse of James associated with James’s name mentions many details, some of which may reflect early traditions: he is said to have authority over the twelve apostles and the early church; this work also adds, somewhat puzzlingly, that James left Jerusalem and fled to Pella before the Roman siege of that city in 70 CE. (Ben Witherington suggests what is meant by this was that James’s bones were taken by the early Christians who had fled Jerusalem).

The Apocryphon of James, the sole copy of which was found in the Nag Hammadi library and which may have been written in Egypt in the 3rd century,[26] recounts a post-resurrection appearance of the risen Christ to James and Peter that James is said to have recorded in Hebrew. In the dialogue, Peter speaks twice (3:12; 9:1) but misunderstands Jesus. Only James is addressed by name (6:20), and James is the more dominant of the two.
The Gospel of James (or “Infancy Gospel of James”), a work of the 2nd century, also presents itself as written by James — a sign that his authorship would lend authority — and so do several tractates in the codices found at Nag Hammadi.
[edit] Relationship to Jesus
Jesus’ brothers — James as well as Jude, Simon and Joses — are named in Matthew 13:55 and Mark 6:3 and mentioned elsewhere. James’s name always appears first in lists, which suggests he was the eldest among them.[27] In the passage in Josephus’s Jewish Antiquities (20.9.1), the Jewish historian describes James as “the brother of Jesus who is called Christ”, although it is not known whether this is original or added by later Christian editors/copyists. Paul, recounting his conversion, recalls, “Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem to visit Cephas and remained with him fifteen days. But I saw none of the other apostles except James the Lord’s brother.”[28]
Interpretation of the phrase “brother of the Lord” and similar phrases is divided between those who interpret the phrase literally and those (Catholics, Eastern Orthodox and some Protestants) who presuppose the perpetual virginity of Mary and therefore do not also accept an absolutely literal interpretation.
[edit] Literal brother
The Mosaic Law, which advised married couples to be fruitful and have many children. If Mary and Joseph were zealous Jews, they would have had more children after Mary gave birth to Jesus, thus making James a brother of Jesus.
Christianity teaches that Jesus was born of a virgin, and Jesus is referred to as the “first-born son” of Mary, so James and the other brethren of Jesus would have been younger brothers.
A variant on this is presented by James Tabor,[27] who argues that after the early and childless death of Joseph, Mary married Clopas, whom he accepts as a younger brother of Joseph, according to the Levirate law. According to this view, Clopas fathered James and the later siblings, but not Jesus.

The “Incident at Antioch” was an Early Christian dispute between the apostles Paul and Peter which occurred in the city of Antioch around the middle of the first century. The primary source for the incident is Paul’s Epistle to the Galatians 2:11-14. Since F.C. Baur, scholars have found evidence of conflict among the leaders of Early Christianity; for example James D. G. Dunn proposes that Peter was a “bridge-man” between the opposing views of Paul and James the Just.[2]

Judea at that time had been affected by the Hellenization begun by Alexander. Some Jews, mainly those of the urban upper class, notably the Tobiad family, wished to dispense with Jewish law and to adopt a Greek lifestyle. According to the historian Victor Tcherikover, the main motive for the Tobiads’ Hellenism was economic and political.[1] The Hellenizing Jews built a gymnasium in Jerusalem, competed in international Greek games, “removed their marks of circumcision and repudiated the holy covenant”.[2]

About Royal Rosamond Press

I am an artist, a writer, and a theologian.
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