Fair Rosamond Kin To Sinclairs and Rollo

King Henry may have married Fair Rosamond because she is kin to Rollo who made a blood-pact with the King of Franks, and Henry claimed much of France. Henry had real contacts with the Knight Templars. Not so the Sinclairs – except through Rosamond Clifford!

I authored the following in 2007

Jon Presco

Robert de Ros and the Rosa Mundi

Six years ago I read ‘Fair Rosamond, a Study of the Development of a
Literary Theme’ by Virgil B. Heltzel. Heltzel touches upon some of
the hundred or more poems, plays, and legends that orbit around Fair
Rosamund the Rosa Mundi, the “Rose of the World”

The world is an orb. Consider the riddle Dan Brown gives in regards
to the Temple Church where the effigy of Robert de Ros is found. In
chapters 83, 85 and 86, Robert Langdon, Sophie Neveau and Leigh
Teabing arrive at the Temple Church pursuing the answer to their
latest riddle: “In London lies a knight a Pope interred. His labour’s
fruit a Holy wrath incurred.You seek the orb that ought be on his
tomb. It speaks of Rosy flesh and seeded womb.”

I have long understood that the books that were spawned by Baigent
and Leigh’s ‘Holy Blood, Holy Grail’ were stumbling through a
Labyrinth following the clue of the red thread, and, if most of the
alleged history was not true, then it was just another literary theme
that leads to Rosamond the mistress, and perhaps first wife of King
Henry 11.

Saint Bernard says he will send his army to Rievaulx to found a
Cistercian monestary. Was he speaking of the Knight Templars? Henry
had a dispute with the King of France under the elm at Gisors. The
Templars were present. It was on this spot that the Merovingians made
a truce with Rollo. Rosamond is a descendant of Rollo through her
mother, Margaret de Toeni. The Toeni/Tosney/Toney family became the
d’Albini family from where Walter Espec may have come. If so, then
there may have been an attempt by Henry to keep Rievaulx within the
Toeni and Ros family, because he never trusted the Papacy and its
design on England. This theory is given more credence when you study
why Robert de Rose’s effigy is found at the Temple Church, he
depicted with long hair, and, he had a child, thus a true Templar
liniage. This is to suggest Robert became a celebate Templar, but
then dropped out in order to become a honorary Templar having been
left with Walter Espec’s legacy that Henry did not want the Pope to
get his hands on. This may have bid him to marry Rosamund Clifford
and thus his battle with Thomas Becket and the Pope began.

The Ros, Toeni, Brus, and Clifford families reinforced their bond in
subsequent marriages, and became the wealthy Lords of Englands most
famous castles.

Jon Presco

Copyright 2007

Eystein “Glumra” Ivarsson
b.abt.800 of Maer, Nord Trondelag, Norway; s/o Ivar Half Dansson and Eysteindattter
m.abt.846 Ascrida (Aseda) Rognvalddatter, Countess of Oppland
b.abt.804 d/o Rognvald Olafsson

CHILDREN included:

Rognvald I “The Wise” Eysteinsson, Earl of More and Romsdal b.abt.830 d.890/894
Sigurd I “The Mighty” Eysteinsson b.abt.832 d.874 Orkney, Orkey Islands, Scotland

Malahule (Haldrick)(Malahulc)(Tresney) Eysteinsson b.abt.945
Svanhild Eysteinsdatter b.abt.850
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Malahule (Haldrick)(Malahulc)(Tresney) Eysteinsson
b.abt.945 Maer, Nord Trondelag, Norway; s/o Eystein “Glumra” Ivarsson and Ascrida (Aseda) Rognvaldsdatter, Countess of Oppland

CHILDREN included:

Hugh de Cavalcamp b.abt.890
Richard I, de St. Sauveur, Viscount of Cotentin b.abt.893
Ralph, Count of Bayeux b.abt.895
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Hugh de Cavalcamp
b.abt.890 Near Dieppe s/o Malahule (Haldrick) (Malahulc) (Tresney) Eysteinsson

CHILDREN included:

Hugh b.abt.915 of Rouen, Normandy, France; d.Nov. 10, 989/990
Ralph I (Rodulf) Seigneur de Toeni b.abt.955
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Ralph I (Rodulf) Seigneur de Toeni
b.abt.955 of Tosni, Eure, France; s/o Hugh de Cavalcamp

CHILDREN included:

Ralph II (Rodulf) Signeur de Toeni b.bef.970
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Ralph II (Rodulf) Signeur de Toeni
b.bef.970 of Tosni, France; s/o Ralph I (Rodulf) Seigneur de Toeni

CHILDREN included:

Roger de Toeni b.abt.990
Ralph de Toeni b.abt.992 of Tosni, France
Robert de Toeni b.abt.1009 of Belvior, Leicestershire, England d.Aug. 4, 1088

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Roger “The Spainiard” de Toeni (Conches)
b.abt.990 of Tosni, France; s/o Ralph II (Rodulf) Seigneur de Toeni
m.Goedheut (Godehilde) Borrell
b.abt.995 of Tosni, France; parents ukn

CHILDREN included:

Elbert de Toeni b.abt.1025
Elinant de Toeni b.abt.1027
Ralph de Toeni (Conches) b.abt.1029
Robert de Stafford b.abt.1031 d.1088 bur.Abbey, Evesham, Worcestershire, England

Helbert (Elbert) de Toeni b.abt.1032
Gazon de Toeni b.abt.1033
Eliant (Eliance) de Toeni b.abt.1034
Alice (Adelise) de Toeni b.abt.1035 m.abt.1051 of France; William FitzOsbern
Robert de Toeni b.abt.1038
son de Toeni b.abt.1040
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Ralph de Toeni (Conches)
b.abt.1029 of Flamsted, Herefordshire, England; s/o Roger “The Spainiard” de Toeni (Conches) and Godeheut (Godehilde) Borrell
d.March 24, 1101/02 bur. Conches, Seine-et-Marne, France
m.abt.1076 Isabel (Elizabeth) Montford
b.abt.1058 of Flamsted, Hertfordshire, England; d/o Simon I, of Montfort and Isabel de Broyes

CHILDREN included:

Roger de Toeni b.abt.1078 d.May 15, 1091
Ralph de Toeni (de Conches) b.abt.1079
Godeheut (Godehilde) de Toeni b.abt.1081
Robert de Toeni b.abt.1086
Gedeheut de Toeni b.abt.1106
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Rognvald Eysteinsson

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Rognvald “The Wise” Eysteinsson (son of Eystein Ivarsson) is the founder of the Earldom of Orkney in the Norse Sagas. Three quite different accounts of the creation of the Norse earldom on Orkney and Shetland exist. The best known is that found in the Heimskringla, but other older traditions are found in the Historia Norvegiae and the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland.

1 Sagas
2 Historia Norvegiae
3 Fragmentary Annals of Ireland
4 Orkney inheritance
5 Notes
6 References
[edit] Sagas
The saga accounts are the best known, and the latest, of the three surviving traditions concerning Rognvald and the foundation of the Earldom of Orkney. Recorded in the 13th century, their views are informed by Norwegian politics of the day. Once, historians could write that no-one denied the reality of Harald Fairhair’s expeditions to the west recounted in Heimskringla, but this is no longer the case. The Norwegian contest with the Kings of Scots over the Hebrides and the Isle of Man in the middle 13th century underlies the sagas.[1]
In the Heimskringla, Rognvald is Earl of Møre. He accompanies Harald Fairhair on his great expeditions to the west, to Ireland and to Scotland. Here, Rognvald’s son Ivarr is killed. In compensation King Harald grants Rognvald Orkney and Shetland. Rognvald himself returns to Norway, giving the northern isles to his brother Sigurd Eysteinsson.[2]
The Heimskringla recounts other tales of Rognvald. It tells how he causes Harald Finehair to be given his byname Fairhair by cutting and dressing his hair, which had been uncut for ten years on account of Harald’s vow never to cut it until he was ruler of all Norway,[3] and it makes him the father of Ganger-Hrólf, identified by saga writers with the Rollo (Hrólfr), ancestor of the Dukes of Normandy, who was said to have been established as Count of Rouen by King Charles the Simple in 931.[4]
Earl Rognvald is killed by Harald’s son Halfdan Hålegg. Rognvald’s death is avenged by his son, Earl Turf-Einar, from whom later Orkney earls claimed descent, who kills Halfdan on North Ronaldsay.[5]
[edit] Historia Norvegiae
The Historia Norvegiae’s account of Rognvald and the foundation of the Orkney earldom is the next oldest, probably dating from the 12th century. This account contains much curious detail on Orkney, including the earliest account of the Picts as small people who hid in the daytime, but it has little to say about Rognvald.
In the days of Harald Fairhair, king of Norway, certain pirates, of the family of the most vigorous prince Ronald [Rognvald], set out with a great fleet, and crossed the Solundic sea…, and subdued the islands to themselves. And being there provided with safe winter seats, they went in summer-time working tyranny upon the English, and the Scots, and sometimes also upon the Irish, so that they took under their rule, from England, Northumbria; from Scotland, Caithness; from Ireland, Dublin, and the other sea-side towns.[6]
This account does not associate Rognvald with the earldom, but instead attributes it to his anonymous kinfolk.
[edit] Fragmentary Annals of Ireland
…for it was not long before this that there had been every war and every trouble in Norway, and this was the source of that war in Norway: two younger sons of Albdan, king of Norway, drove out the eldest son, i.e. Ragnall son of Albdan, for fear that he would seize the kingship of Norway after their father. So Ragnall came with his three sons to the Orkney Islands. Ragnall stayed there then, with his youngest son.
Fragmentary Annals of Ireland , FA 330. Edited and translated by Joan N. Radnor.
The oldest account of the Rognvald and the earldom of Orkney is that found in the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland. The annals survive only in incomplete copies made by Dubhaltach Mac Fhirbhisigh in the 17th century, but the original annals are believed to date from the lifetime of Donnchad mac Gilla Pátraic (died 1039). The annals are known to have had an influence on later writings in Iceland.
The annals make Rognvald the son of “Halfdan, King of Lochlann.” This is generally understood to mean Halfdan the Black, which would make the Rognvald of the annals the brother of Harald Finehair. However, the sagas claim that Rognvald’s grandfather was named Halfdan.[7]
These events are placed after an account of the devastation of Fortriu, dated to around 866,[8] and the fall of York, reliably dated to late 867. However, such an early date makes it difficult to reconcile the saga claims that Harald Fairhair was involved in Rognvald’s conquest of the northern isles.
Harald Finehair’s victory in the Battle of Hafrsfjord, which gave him dominion over parts of Norway, is traditionally dated to 872, but was probably later, perhaps as late as 900.[9] What little is known of Scottish events in the period from the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba would correspond equally well with Harald’s attacks on Scotland in the reign of Domnall mac Causantín (ruled 889–900).[10] However, this would not correspond with the sequence in the earliest account of the origins of the Orkney earldom, which places this a generation earlier.
[edit] Orkney inheritance
Rognvald having given his earldom to Sigurd, according to the Orkneyinga Saga, the latter died in a curious fashion after a battle with Máel Brigte of Moray. Sigurd’s son Gurthorm ruled for a single winter after this and died childless.[11][12]
In addition to Hrólfr/Rollo and Turf-Einar, Rognvald had a third son called Hallad who then inherited the title. However, unable to constrain Danish raids on Orkney, he gave up the earldom and returned to Norway, which “everyone thought was a huge joke.”[13] The predations of the Danish pirates led to Rognvald flying into a rage and summoning his sons Thorir and Hrolluag. He predicted that Thorir’s path would keep him in Norway and that Hrolluag was destined seek his fortune in Iceland. Turf-Einar, the youngest, then came forward and offered to go to the islands. Rognvald said: “Considering the kind of mother you have, slave-born on each side of her family, you are not likely to make much of a ruler. But I agree, the sooner you leave and the later you return the happier I’ll be.”[14] His father’s misgivings notwithstanding, Torf-Einarr succeeded in defeating the Danes and founded a dynasty which retained control of the islands for centuries after his death.

Earl of Orkney

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See also: Earldom of Orkney
The Earl of Orkney was originally a Norse jarl ruling Orkney, Shetland and parts of Caithness and Sutherland. The Earls were periodically subject to the kings of Norway for the Northern Isles, and later also to the kings of Alba for those parts of their territory in mainland Scotland (i.e. Caithness and Sutherland). The Earl’s status as a Norwegian vassal was formalised in 1195. In 1232 a Scottish dynasty descended from the Mormaers of Angus replaced the previous family descended from the Mormaers of Atholl, although it remained formally subject to Norway. This family was in turn replaced by the descendants of the Mormaers of Strathearn and later still by the Sinclair family, during whose time Orkney passed to Scots control.
The first known Earl of Orkney was Rognvald Eysteinsson (Rognvald, Earl of Møre), who died around 890. Subsequent Earls, with one exception, were descended from Rognvald or his brother Sigurd until 1232.

1 Norse Earls of Orkney
2 Scottish Earls under the Norwegian Crown
2.1 The Angus Earls
2.2 The Strathearn and Sinclair Earls
3 Scottish Earls
3.1 Dukes of Orkney (1567)
3.2 Earls of Orkney, Second Creation (1581)
3.3 Earls of Orkney, Third Creation (1696)
4 See also
5 References
6 External links
[edit] Norse Earls of Orkney
The Norse Earldom was frequently under joint rule. The possessions of the Earldom included the Mormaerdom of Caithness and, until 1194, the Shetland Islands.
Ragnvald Eysteinsson, Earl of Møre, 9th century
Sigurd Eysteinsson (Sigurd the Mighty), brother of Ragnvald, 9th century
Guthorm Sigurdsson, c. 890
Hallad Rognvaldsson, c. 891–c. 893
Turf-Einar Rognvaldsson (Turf-Einar), c. 893–c. 946
Arnkel Turf-Einarsson, 946–954 (died at the same battle as Eric Bloodaxe)
Erlend Turf-Einarsson, (d. 954) (died at the same battle as Eric Bloodaxe)
Thorfinn Turf-Einarsson (Thorfinn Skull-Splitter), c. 963–c. 976
Arnfinn Thorfinnsson, with Havard, Ljot and Hlodvir, c. 976–c. 991
Havard Thorfinnsson, with Arnfinn, Ljot and Hlodvir, c. 976–c. 991
Ljot Thorfinnsson, with Arnfinn, Havard and Hlodvir, c. 976–c. 991
Hlodvir Thorfinnsson, with Arnfinn, Havard and Ljot, c. 980–c. 991
Sigurd Hlodvirsson (Sigurd the Stout), 991–1014
Brusi Sigurdsson, with Einar, Sumarlidi and Thorfinn, 1014–1030
Einar Sigurdsson (Einar Wry-mouth), with Brusi and Sumarlidi, 1014–1020
Sumarlidi Sigurdsson, with Brusi and Einar, 1014–1015
Thorfinn Sigurdsson (Thorfinn the Mighty), with Brusi and Rögnvald, 1020–1064
Rögnvald Brusason, with Thorfinn, c. 1037–c. 1045
Paul and Erlend Thorfinnsson, 1064–1098
Sigurd Magnusson (Sigurd the Jerusalem-farer), later King of Norway, son of King Magnus Bareleg, 1098–1103
Haakon Paulsson, son of Paul Thorfinsson, with Magnus, 1103–1123
Magnus Erlendsson (Saint Magnus), with Haakon, 1108–1117
Harald Haakonsson, with Paul, 1122–1127
Paul Haakonsson, with Harald, 1122–1137
Rögnvald Kali Kolsson (Saint Rögnvald), with Harald Maddadsson and Erlend, 1136–1158
Harald Maddadsson, with Rögnvald, Erlend and Harald Eiriksson, 1134–1206
Erlend Haraldsson, son of Harald Haakonsson, with Harald Maddadsson, 1151–1154
Harald Eiriksson, in Caithness, grandson of Rögnvald Kali, with Harald, 1191–1194
David Haraldsson, with Heinrik and Jon, 1206–1214
Heinrik Haraldsson, in Caithness, with David and Jon, 1206–before 1231
Jon Haraldsson, with David and Heinrik, 1206–1231
[edit] Scottish Earls under the Norwegian Crown
[edit] The Angus Earls
In 1236, Magnus, son of Gille Brigte, Mormaer of Angus, was granted the Earldom of Orkney by King Haakon Haakonsson.
Magnus, son of Gille Brigte, c. 1236–1239
Gille Brigte, son of Magnus, 1239–?
Gille Brigte, son of Gille Brigte, perhaps the same as the previous Gille Brigte, ?–1256
Magnus, son of Gille Brigte, 1256–1273
Magnus Magnusson, 1273–1284
Jón Magnússon, 1284–c. 1300
Magnús Jónsson, c. 1300–1321
[edit] The Strathearn and Sinclair Earls
Some time after Magnus Jonsson’s death, around 1331, the Earldom was granted to Maol Íosa (Malise), Mormaer of Strathearn, a distant relative of the first Earl Gille Brigte. Maol Íosa ruled Orkney and Caithness from 1331 to 1350. He left several daughters, but no sons. Orkney passed to his son-in-law, the Swedish councillor Erengisle Suneson. Another son-in-law, Alexander de l’Ard, ruled as Earl of Caithness from 1350 until 1375, when the Earldom passed to the King of the Scots.
In 1379, the Earldom of Orkney, without Caithness, was granted to another son-in-law of Maol Íosa, Henry Sinclair, by King Haakon VI Magnusson. Earl Henry ruled until his death in 1401, and was succeeded by a son named Henry, who was followed by his son Earl William, to whom the Earldom of Caithness was granted by the King of Scots in 1455. However, Orkney and Shetland were pledged to James III in place of a dowry for his bride Margaret of Denmark by Christian I. James took the Earldom of Orkney for the Crown in 1470, and William was thereafter Earl of Caithness alone until he resigned the Earldom in favour of his son William in 1476, dying in 1484.
Maol Íosa, (Strathearn 1330–1334; Caithness 1331–1334) 1331–1350
Erengisle Suneson, (Orkney only) 1353–1357
Alexander de l’Ard, (Caithness only) 1350–1375
Henry Sinclair, (Orkney and Shetland) 1379–1401
Henry Sinclair, (Orkney and Shetland) 1401–?
William Sinclair, (Orkney and Shetland; Caithness 1455–1476) ?–1470
[edit] Scottish Earls
The next Orkney title was the dukedom of Orkney, which was given to James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, in 1567. Later that year, however, he forfeited the title when his wife was forced to abdicate.
The second creation of the title was for Lord Robert Stewart, an illegitimate son of King James V. His successor Patrick, however, forfeited the title.
The last creation of the earldom was in favour of the man who would become the first British Field Marshal, Lord George Hamilton, the fifth son of William Douglas, Duke of Hamilton. By marriage, the title passed to the O’Brien family, then to the Fitzmaurice family, and finally to the St John family. The present earl holds the subsidiary titles of Viscount of Kirkwall and Lord Dechmont. Both subsidiary titles were created at the same time as the earldom, in 1696.
[edit] Dukes of Orkney (1567)
James Hepburn, 1st Duke of Orkney (c. 1535–1578) (forfeit 1567)
[edit] Earls of Orkney, Second Creation (1581)
Robert Stewart, 1st Earl of Orkney (1533–1593)
Patrick Stewart, 2nd Earl of Orkney (c. 1569–1614) (forfeit 1614)
[edit] Earls of Orkney, Third Creation (1696)
Earl of Orkney

Creation date
3 January 1696
Created by
William II of Scotland
Peerage of Scotland
First holder
Lord George Hamilton
Present holder
Oliver St John, 9th Earl of Orkney
Heir apparent
Oliver St John, Viscount Kirkwall
Remainder to
heirs whatsoever of the 1st Earl (a woman can succeed if she has no brothers or if all her brothers died childless)
Subsidiary titles
Viscount of Kirkwall; Lord Dechmont
The third creation came in 1696 when the soldier Lord George Hamilton was made Lord Dechmont, Viscount of Kirkwall and Earl of Orkney in the Peerage of Scotland. Hamilton was the fifth son of William Douglas-Hamilton, Duke of Hamilton and 1st Earl of Selkirk and his wife Anne Hamilton, 3rd Duchess of Hamilton. The peerages were created with remainder to the heirs whatsoever of his body, which means that the titles can be passed on through both male and female lines. Lord Orkney was succeeded by his eldest daughter Anne, the second Countess. She married her first cousin William O’Brien, 4th Earl of Inchiquin. On her death the titles passed to her daughter, the third Countess. She married her second cousin Murrough O’Brien, 1st Marquess of Thomond (the nephew of the fourth Earl of Inchiquin). She was succeeded by her daughter, the fourth Countess. She married the Hon. Thomas Fitzmaurice, second son of John Petty, 1st Earl of Shelburne and younger brother of Prime Minister William Petty, 1st Marquess of Lansdowne. On her death the titles passed to her grandson, the fifth Earl. He sat in the House of Lords as a Scottish Representative Peer from 1833 to 1874.
His son, the sixth Earl, was a Scottish Representative Peer from 1885 to 1889. He was succeeded by his nephew, the seventh Earl. On his death the peerages passed to his second cousin twice removed, the eighth Earl. He was the great-grandson of the Hon. Frederick Fitzmaurice, third son of the fifth Earl. The succession was approved by the Court of the Lord Lyon in 1955. He died childless and was succeeded by his third cousin, the ninth Earl. He is the son of Frederick Oliver St John, son of Isabella Annie Fitzmaurice, daughter of the Hon. James Terence Fitzmaurice, fifth son of the fifth Earl of Orkney. Lord Orkney lives in Canada and has been a professor at the University of Manitoba. His paternal grandfather Sir Frederick Robert St John was the youngest son of the Hon. Ferdinand St John, third son of George St John, 3rd Viscount Bolingbroke and 4th Viscount St John. Consequently, Lord Orkney is also in remainder to the viscounties of Bolingbroke and St John and their subsidiary titles.
George Hamilton, 1st Earl of Orkney (1666–1737)
Anne O’Brien, 2nd Countess of Orkney (d. 1756)
Mary O’Brien, 3rd Countess of Orkney (c. 1721–1791)
Mary FitzMaurice, 4th Countess of Orkney (1755–1831)
John Hamilton FitzMaurice, Viscount Kirkwall (1778–1820)
Thomas John Hamilton FitzMaurice, 5th Earl of Orkney (1803–1877)
George William Hamilton FitzMaurice, 6th Earl of Orkney (1827–1889)
Edmond Walter FitzMaurice, 7th Earl of Orkney (1867–1951)
Cecil O’Bryen FitzMaurice, 8th Earl of Orkney (1919–1998)
Oliver Peter St John, 9th Earl of Orkney (b. 1938)
The heir apparent is the present holder’s son Oliver St John, Viscount Kirkwall (b. 1969).

About Royal Rosamond Press

I am an artist, a writer, and a theologian.
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