Mary and John Inside The Gideon Computer

I and my beloved fiancé, Mary, had another fight last night. We might be finished. But, how do you end a thoroughly unique Computer Love Affair where almost everything is Cyber Make Believe, reminisant of my novel ‘The Gideon Computer’ that came about when Nancy suggested I write the history of the Hippies. I went with the Last Hippie of the future! With the coming the CHOP vortex and the cultural war at Stone Mountain it is clear to me, you can be anywhere, anytime, makes no difference….anymore!

After our fight, I realized Mary is my ex-wife, Mary Ann Tharaldsen who lived with Thomas Pynchon in Mexico. New Yorker Magazine did an article on the love adventure of them all – NOT! It was the most boring time I ever read. There is more action and story in the pic of my wife to be walking in a Oakland neighborhood towards three Mexicans, one who dropped a big slab on concrete on his toe in order to collect insurance. Mary Ann’s Mexican gardener is my neighbor. He told me my ex-wife was looking for someone to plant a vegetable garden. She went to Cornell. Shades of ‘The Fountainhead’.

Mary is a hot Latino who flies into a rage when I touch on the idea she is scamming me – with the help of her red hot lover! She (or they) do not have a clue how to get money out of a poor Beat Writer with no money, nor did many famous publishing houses – to this day! I tell my beloved muse in cyberspace I am immortalizing her. Is there any money in it for her? Forget about me wanting money. She has concluded I am a hippie fake pretender old dude who can’t get it up – and his seed is not good! Not good – indeed!

“I am sad!” she keeps saying in the last two days. I suggest she is just “confused”. Welcome to the writer’s block party! I suggest she look for a rich young man – and make love! Mary told me she was a virgin. She flew into a rage! Could it be true?

In 1997-2000 I studied the book ‘Holy Blood, Holy Grail’ .The authors accused Dan Brown of ripping them off. Pynchon hovers about this cult writing. The movie ‘Inherent Vice’ was so very bad. The heroine was not believable. I doubt she even took – one puff! If she did, did she inhale? Has…..Mary? What if, she is for real? Wait a minute…..MARY&JOHN. Then there is the Raymond Chandler connection to my grandfather who camped on the Channel Islands with Dashiell Hammet.

In my last post I left out The Loading Zone. I chose one of their songs for my Mary. I feel a poem coming on!

Mary In Her Garden


Mary wakens in her heart garden

that lie next to

her happy face plot

Just another pretty face

getting up

to work her deal

Mary, Mary, how

do you make them bark

All those happy Chihuahuas

saying I love you

now breathing fire

with smoke coming

out their ears.

Be still my heart

my love

your heart Beat fiancé

has gone

off to the Facebook wars

How do heart’s break

in cyberspace

with a delete

and a whimper

don’t be too quick

to unfriend

or give me

a big giga-bite


just because

you lost your temper


to be continued


John Presco

Copyright 2020

Am I The New Joseph?

Three months after reading the Bible at the age of forty-one I am wondering about the age difference between The Virgin Mary and her cousin, Elizabeth, the mother of John the Baptist. These cousins were pregnant at the same time. John was born six months before Jesus. An angel appear to Mary and Zachariah. Why not Joseph – the Jew? Why not Elizabeth? It was then I had a epiphany…Two angels appear to John’s parents – an no angel appear to appear to Mary. Cousins are about the same age. Elizabeth was old in years. Life expectancy was about forty-five years.

Two days ago I became engaged to the beautiful young woman you see above. Her name is….Mary. She lives in a foreign country. She instigated a chat on facebook. In forty minutes she tells me she wants to marry me and have children by me. She wants to live with me. She also wants a new phone costing $280 dollars. She whines and posts twenty broken hearts. Then I see twenty crying happy faces. I delete our conversation concluding this slut is using sex to get a phone out of me.

The next day, she jiggles my cage. We make up. We are still engaged. Then I tell her I lied and can not have sex or sire children due to prostrate cancer. She had asked me if I can “spawn”. The use of this word intrigues me. It was so basic and primal. I surmised her ancestors were two hundred years out of the jungle. Image of Paul Gaugin popped in my mind. I aske Mary to be my muse and model. I asked about her breast size;

“Do you have small breasts?”


I then painted a erotic picture of her coming to pose before an empty canvas. She lowers the strap on the nightie I buy her, and she lets me suckle her nipple. Just this, and we get to work.

The next day I go to her page and tag a photo of Mary for a sketch. She goes ballistic because this tag was visible to family and friends – who I assumed were not told about our marriage plans. All of a sudden, my phone was ringing with her angry posts! Mary was damning me!

Two weeks ago I had a conversation about making graven images and how humanities first conversations were hand signing and symbols. Mary’s tribal nature was coming out. The Bible is about tribal nature. I realize I am getting a glimpse of the real Mary….Mother of Jesus….who is working the ancient deal. But, she never dealt with a man who could not get it up, and whose seed was dried up. The erect penis if the old bargaining chip – along with the vagina. How in the hell is she going to get a new angel so she can talk more clearly to God? To get the phone in her hands, I had to be a slut – too!

Then we had this exchange which is the cutest and most honest one I ever had with a woman. If Belle had composed and sent me The Threat Alley composed and sent, then I would have loved her even more – if that was possible.

She made me a young player again. She is shedding tears of joy at the thought of my demise, that she brought on. She is my Salome. She is my Delilah.

John Presco

to be continued

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Love Your Bollywood Ducks and Your Loving Illu$ion

Europeans are saying Biden will restore the relations the Evangelical President destroyed. This Loon says the truth Putin paid assasins to kill U.S. soldiers in Afghanistan is the kind of case BAD would be on.

Rosamond Press

My Love Vision…came true! I posted this a year and a half ago. I put Starfish (Belle) in the drumming circle at the Free Speech Plaza. Miriam’s late mother was a Eugene Hippie. Her father was a Russian. The Hippie side of Miriam is emerging. Who emerged, was Natalia. This is very profound, because she is a Alleybelle combo who is at the epicenter of a coming war – of Armageddon?  I began The Royal Janitor in order to defeats Trump and Putin.

Does Rocky know of Arthur Lee – and Love? Eight years ago I posted these two videos to show what my Love Dance would look like. Turn off volume on first one. The third video is a knock-off of Gloria and Going Home.

John Presco

Love Dance – With Ducks

The Royal Janitor

Victoria came in sideways to…

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Free Up Huey – In The Love Zone

It occurs to me I am the only Radical Free Press in America – that is also a Book of Prophecy! How do I dot it? No one but Spooky Noodles – cares! What most people care about is, finding, then dwelling in The Dumb Duality Zone! Life’s Shelves are full of black vs. white, wrong vs right – choices! In my lifetime the Black Panthers offered something completely different. In the middle of The Summer of Love, they stood on the steps of the Alameda County Courthouse, and demanded the release of their leader, Huey Newton.

I was living in downtown Oakland – with long hair. I think I was living at the Will Rogers Hotel. I passed several black hookers. One said;

“You better get off the street. Their coming to free Huey tonight.”

They knew me. I was the white hippie man who brought love to the downtown while all the other lived in the Berkeley-Haight Vortex. I found where the real action was. When I saw the opening scene of the movie ‘Black Panther’ where the name “Oakland” flashed on the screen, I said;

“Here we go. Now we’re getting down to it!”……….NOT!

Now we get a REDO with live real people up in Seattle. A year ago I went to DOWNTOWN Eugene dressed as the anti-Christ. I took the bus.  I had found a glitch in the Christian Pantheon where the Antichrist is INSTALLED like a statue, being, the Evangelical Authors had given away THE GAME PLAN, and thus there was nothing stopping him from deviating from THE PLAN in order to thwart the second coming of Jesus – an idea that was applied to HUEY!

I found Belle Burch’s ex-lover, Ambrose, doing a naughty dance with pasties, while about five Three Percenters enjoyed the show. The Summer of Love never really died. Belle and I revived it.

As I walked to the Will Rogers hotel about midnight, there was this powerful energy in the air. It crackled with portence. I knew I was at the epicenter of The History Zone. It’s like history has a mind of its own, and is selective. It likes a good game of connect the dots.

John Presco

This week, the Capitol Hill neighborhood of Seattle was overtaken by protesters who are calling the area a “no Cop Co-op.” They successfully forced the police out of their nearby precinct and have walled off the urban area and lined its borders with signs reading “You are now leaving the USA.”

The protesters, who violently clashed with police officers for a week prior to establishing their commune, have issued a list of 30 demands having to do with racial justice in the city.

Now the mayor of Seattle, Democrat Jenny Durkan, is saying she has no idea when the so-called “Capitol Hill Autonomous Zone,” or “CHAZ” for short, will be disbanded. During an appearance on CNN’s Chris Cuomo’s primetime show, she was asked by the host, “How long do you think Seattle and those few blocks looks like this?”

To which Durkan responded, “I don’t know. We could have a summer of love.”

Though the mayor’s comment was made in jest, neither she, nor Gov. Jay Inslee, a fellow Democrat, appear to have a plan to reclaim that area of the city, which includes a police precinct.

Earlier this week, President Trump criticized the mayor and governor for not exerting control over their territories, warning that if they were unable to gain control over the situation, he would step in.

Inslee also has been for saying earlier in the week that he was not aware of the disturbance in Capitol Hill.

He and the mayor have fired back at Trump’s criticisms, arguing the CHAZ is a “peaceful expression of our community’s collective grief and their desire to build a better world.”

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Heather Backed My Racist Father and Brother

I am the Family Historian for the Rosamond and Benton Families. I have spent almost twenty years gathering our history that Garth Benton and Tom Snyder failed to record in the worst biography ever written that destroy the creative legacy of Christine Rosamond Benton. The Bentons are kin to Daniel Boone and Henry Clay whose names were put on a Executive Order thus any light I can shed on this Presidential matter is of great interest to our Nation’s History, and the history of the Republican Party co-founded by John Fremont who married Jessie Benton.

Nine years ago a drunken monster tried to take over my family. Get in line! Vic Presco, Mark Presco, Bill Cornwell, and Donald Trump are like quadruplets.  All four monsters have employed cultural warfare and racism to gain power in my family. Unfortunately these women helped them: Rosemary, Vicki, Christine, Shannon, Drew, Patrice and Heather Hanson, Linda Comstock.

I found this post an hour ago. I am going to contact my friend, Joy, who showed me many photos of her ancestors with the Black Robes. I am going to write the dioceses and Pope Francis about this Religious Request. To put a relief of Robert E. Lee on a mountain belonging to Native Americans who wanted to know Jesus – and behold God – is equal to Emperor Caligula wanting to put his naked statue in the Holy of Holies, that began a Religious Revolution that led to a Holy War with the Slave Masters of Rome.

On September 26-27, 1877 Chief Sinte Gleska (Spotted Tail), leader of the Sicangu Lakota and Chief Red Cloud, leader of the Ogalala, met with President Rutherford B. Hayes and formally requested that the Black Robes come to their lands to educate their people. Sinte Gleska told the President, “I would like to say something about a teacher. My children, all of them, would like to learn how to talk English. They would like to learn how to read and write. We have teachers there, but all they teach us is to talk Sioux, and to write Sioux, and that is not necessary. I would like to get Catholic priests. Those who wear black dresses. These men will teach us how to read and write English.”

For over ten years I have ordered neo-Confederates and neo-Nazis to get out of the Republican party. Let it be know that God demands Christians leave the Republican party.

“To institute this proclamation newly appointed President of Syria Petronius was sent along with two legions of soldiers to complete the task. It is important to note that this was the first time in the history of Roman occupation that the religious autonomy of the Jewish people was defied. It was a direct challenge to their ethnic and religious identity motivated by clashes and religious disobedience by Jews in Alexandria. With this in mind, the emperor’s proclamation was to be put in place by any means necessary – an explanation for the Roman legions that accompanied his messenger Petronius and the strong action that was to be taken by Jewish peasants.

(c)  In addition to the requirements of subsection 3(b) of this order, the proposed options for the National Garden should adhere to the criteria described in subsections (c)(i) through (c)(vi) of this section.

(i)    The National Garden should be composed of statues, including statues of John Adams, Susan B. Anthony, Clara Barton, Daniel Boone, Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, Henry Clay, Davy Crockett, Frederick Douglass, Amelia Earhart, Benjamin Franklin, Billy Graham, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, Martin Luther King, Jr., Abraham Lincoln, Douglas MacArthur, Dolley Madison, James Madison, Christa McAuliffe, Audie Murphy, George S. Patton, Jr., Ronald Reagan, Jackie Robinson, Betsy Ross, Antonin Scalia, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Harriet Tubman, Booker T. Washington, George Washington, and Orville and Wilbur Wright.


When my seventeen year old daughter chose to have nothing to do with me, and went and saw my family after her mother disappeared her, I was alarm because I suspected Mark Presco had helped lure Heather Hanson away from me after coming into my life when she was sixteen. Heather had no empathy for me being denied the right to know I was a father and at least have visting rights. Instead, Heather got behind her mother, her aunt, her uncle, to invade my privacy in order to see what they could get out of Christine Rosamond Benton’s legacy. Indeed, she invited her drunken lover, Bill Cornwell, to lead the second change at a family legacy when my uncle left ten relatives a half million dollars. Bill was the son of a racist Tea Party leader who met with Patrice Hanson. I was not told what they talked about. But it became obvious this racist ex-cop and Drill Sergeant wanted a grandson, and because I was the light in my family, I had to be moved out of the way.

Yesterday I gave my daughter one last chance to be daughter and best friend before I shut to door on my family. Because Christine got sober, and drowned on her first sober birthday, and because she was exposing the family incest in writing, she will be my Sister in Recovery.

After posting a chain letter written by a leader of BLM, my daughter was attacked by a male friend on facebook. I came to the defence of my daughter telling this gentleman I would be blocked because I used an alias to look in on my child and my grandchild. I made a video which I will post later.

John Presco

President: Royal Rosamond Press

When Bill Cornwell called me up and told me I was truamatizing his lover, and, because I was a parasite I was on the verge of losing my family, I heard the captain down in my War Code Room, say with a grin;

“Uh oh! Daddys home!”

These are words I often applied to my brother, Mark, when he came home from a hard day at school. Once in the door, he was the Good Child, the Perfect Child, Mommies Little Helper – The Man of the House! The best thing that anyone did for Mark, was provide him with the Perfect Scapegoat when Rosemary born me, her second child. For gifting Mark with a whipping boy, Mark was expected to support Rosemary in her old age.

“Mark is exempt from work so he can study. He’s going to be electronic engineer someday and be a millionaire. However, just to be fair, Marks main task is to change all burned out lightbulbs. Stand up my Good Son and receive you honorary lightbulb changing oven mitten!

Now Greg, why are standing around glomming on to your brothers glory. Get in that kitchen and serve my Little Man his supper!”

“Yesum Ms. Presco!”

When Mark was sixteen he carved out a swastika and a Nazi giving a salute in his friends shop, and hung his Superman over his bed. Mark titled ma a parasite on society because I wanted to be an artist. We stopped eating at the table as a family after Vic was ousted from power, because he conducted Food Abuse. One day, I must write on this topic and appear on a talk show. Food Abuse did not end with King Victor.

One day as we sat watching T.V. eating the dinner I cooked, I tapped on my half-empty glass of milk.

“Execure me! I want to make a Family announcement! I am proud to say that this morning in home room, I stopped standing to salute the flag and pledge allegiance to the flag, because this is pure propaganda, and preparation for the Military. Because my ambition is to be what I am, an Artist and a Man of Peace, then I do not want ,nor do seek, anyone’s approval but my own! Thank you! Now return to the delicious meal I have prepared!”

“I’ve had it!” Mark growled; as he put his tray aside and rush towards me. Standing over me he is screaming till he is red in the face;

“Youre never going to make any money as an artist. No one makes any money as an artist, thus you are a parasite on society. You’ll never amount to anything. You are a leach! A LEACH!”

“You’re the leach. You don’t do shit around here. I want your lightbulb changer job. I want you to go into the kitchen and see if you can whip us up some desert for a change!”

Mark grabs my tray and heaves it to the floor, the glass of milk all the way empty now. I rise up with a right-cross to his jaw, and he throws a left. I throw a series of jabs, and he goes into his whirlwind attack, his head down, his arms spinning like a dervish. I looked for AN opening, AND WITH AN with an upper -cut – Down goes Fraser!

The reason why HBO or SHOWTIME should turn this blog into a Series, is it is the Genesis of cultural Warfare in America. The Presco are the Real McCoys.

When my daughter parroted Bill’S belief that I was a parasite, and thus must be removed from the New and Latest Family Order, I disowned her, put her out of my life, because it broke my heart to see this EXTREME ABUSE of the Family Scapegoat being championed by my own flesh and blood.

I told Heather as she read from the New Nazi Manifesto, that Bill sounds just like Mark.

“You should have Bill read Mark’s essays. Bill will say he has been cheated, by I being your father, and not Mark!”

To know that Mark 2 will have a strong influence on my grandson, is a real defeat, a reversal of all I have tried to do.

In his speeches this weekend, Trump positioned himself as a guardian of American identity, depicting protests against police brutality and racism — which have slowed significantly in recent weeks, and have been largely peaceful — in paranoid and cartoonish terms as a “fascist” threat to the republic.

It should be noted that Trump’s claims of the existence of “far-left fascism” are fundamentally incoherent: fascism is a right-wing form of ultranationalism calling for a rebirth of a nation or race, and that has nothing to do with liberal and left-wing calls for an end to police brutality and racism. But that didn’t stop Trump from making it the central message of his speeches, which aimed to sensationalize the issue of protests and statue-toppling.

Speaking at Mount Rushmore, amid peaceful protests led by members of the Sioux Nation meant to underscore the fact the monument was built on stolen and sacred land, Trump promised that the South Dakota monument “will never be desecrated.” And he went on to describe the ongoing re-evaluation of public symbols of racism in American life as a threat to civilization.

“Our nation is witnessing a merciless campaign to wipe out our history, defame our heroes, erase our values, and indoctrinate our children,” he said. “Angry mobs are trying to tear down statues of our founders, deface our most sacred memorials, and unleash a wave of violent crime in our cities. Many of these people have no idea why they are doing this, but some know exactly what they are doing.”

Hart, Benton, Boone Brothers

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When I was a boy, Daniel Boone was a Brand Name. American Youth thought he was all about being free in this Democracy. He came here to be himself, and do what he wants. No one could stop him. He is above the law. The truth is, he was in constant litigation after the failure of Boonsborough  and Transylvania Company that he co-founded with Colonel Thomas Hart, and his brother, Nathaniel Hart, who are kin to Senator Thomas Hart Benton, and the famous artist of the same name who was father-figure to artist, Jackson Pollack. The artists, Garth Benton, his daughter, Drew Benton, and my late sister, the world famous artist, Christine Rosamond Benton are in the Hart family tree, along with thousands of other history making folks, that made America great!

History has proven that founding and ruling families produced much of the world’s art. The artist, Philip Boileau, was the grandson of Senator Benton, who secured the Oregon Territory with the help of his daughter, who was married to ‘The Path Finder’ John Fremont. Oregon Historians exclude the truth the Hart-Benton partnership employed the best attorneys in America who happened to be their kindred, to purchase seventy million acres from the Cherokee. To read the history of this family, is to know why we are a Nation of Laws. a fact President Trump is about to find out. British Parliament is meeting in order to restrict our President’s visit.

This article was written when President Obama made special laws to protect U.S. citizens from terrorists attack. Trump refers to it without the help of a bevvy of attorneys by his side. He is a fool! Meanwhile, Melania is suing someone who has tarnished her Brand, she stating she expects to make millions marketing the First Lady. If you were wondering if she is the brains of the family, wonder no more. Both of them are on the cheap when it comes to hiring the most brilliant legal minds – in the world.  Consider my autobiography ‘Capturing Beauty’.

Then there is the Budweiser commercial and the call of Trump supporters to boycott this family founded brewery, along with other companies that are against the BAN. Consider the Hobby Lobby ruling. The Boone, Hart, and Benton brothers, knew everything was won and lost in a court of law. It appears this BAN is the invention of Steve Bannon, who studied law at Harvard, but, being a IDEALOGUE, and a racist, he has been looking for a way to cut corners and make America – HIS! The couple, Bannon is supposed to protect, are now deep, and sinking, in a Louisiana Swamp!

These Great Businessmen were British subjects when they started to carve up this country with legal deeds of trust. Senator Thomas Hart Benton wrote ‘Manifest Destiny’ where he envisioned his Families Legal Firm taking over China, and, white men siring half-breeds by Chinese women, in order to make a new breed of men that will Go West, into Russia. Trump&Bannon are employing the Syrian Scare, and, the Border Banditos, suggesting non-whites want to breed with white women, in order to overcome the hold white folks have on America. They want to own the franchise! They’re talking about my kinfolk, who, own the Legal Franchise. Trump&Bannon must now prove they are NOT Co-terrorists – at least! It’s time for Trump to divest and show is tax returns, or, face Impeachment! The Trumpites are severely hurting the All American Brand! I need a good attorney.

Jon Presco

rs_560x415-130412094101-560-2prince-ls-41213528646w360 atyler_painting44 boileau-woman-with-long-rose

“The constitution is built to ensure safety and happiness by restricting the sovereign government from cannibalizing the people. Madison wrote extensively in the federalist about the dangers of a war time executive hell bent on security, safety, etc. as a pretext for limiting liberties. Thus the president as well as officials/reps in all three branches and even in state governments are sworn to protect, as you said, the constitution above all else.

According to President Obama, he has no higher duty than to protect the American people.  But that’s not what the Constitution says.

“As President, I have often said that I have no greater responsibility than protecting the American people,” wrote President Obama in the new “National Strategy for Counterterrorism” (pdf) that was released by the White House yesterday.  A similar sentiment appears in the Introduction to the new Strategy, which states that the President “bears no greater responsibility than ensuring the safety and security of the American people.”

This seems like a fateful misunderstanding.  As chief executive and commander in chief of the armed forces, the President obviously has responsibility for national security.  But to claim that he has no greater responsibility than “protecting the American people” is a paternalistic invention that is historically unfounded and potentially damaging to the political heritage of the nation.

The presidential oath of office that is prescribed by the U.S. Constitution (Art. II, sect. 1) makes it clear that the President’s supreme responsibility is to “…preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States.”  There is no mention of public safety.  It is the constitutional order that the President is sworn to protect, even if doing so entails risks to the safety and security of the American people.

Trump “had the unique, once-in-a-lifetime opportunity, as an extremely famous and well-known person, as well as a former professional model, brand spokesperson and successful businesswoman, to launch a broad-based commercial brand in multiple product categories, each of which could have garnered multi-million dollar business relationships for a multi-year term during which plaintiff is one of the most photographed women in the world,” the lawsuit said.

The products could have included apparel, accessories, jewelry, cosmetics, hair care and fragrance, among others, the suit says. The first lady is seeking compensatory and punitive damages of at least $150 million. Richard Painter, who advised former President George W. Bush on ethics, said the language in the lawsuit shows Melania Trump is engaging “in an unprecedented, clear breach of rules about using her government position for private gain. This is a very serious situation where she says she intends to make a lot of money. That ought to be repudiated by the White House or investigated by Congress.”

One of Clay’s clients was his father-in-law, Colonel Thomas Hart, an early settler of Kentucky and a prominent businessman.[18] Hart proved to be an important business connection for Clay, as he helped Clay gain new clients and grow in professional stature.[25] Clay’s most notable client was Aaron Burr in 1806, after the US District Attorney Joseph Hamilton Daveiss indicted him for allegedly planning an expedition into Spanish Territory west of the Mississippi River. Clay and his law partner John Allen successfully defended Burr.[26] Some years later Thomas Jefferson convinced Clay that Daveiss had been right in his charges. Clay was so upset that many years later, when he met Burr again, Clay refused to shake his hand.[27] Clay’s legal career would continue long after his election to Congress, and in the 1823 Supreme Court case, Green v. Biddle, Clay submitted the Supreme Court’s first amicus curiae.[28]

Benton Genealogyat Thomas Hart Benton Home and Studio State Historic Site
The Bentons were originally established in Lincolnshire England. A branch of the family went to South Wales. In 1731, three brothers, Benton, came from Wales to America. They intended to settle on Chesapeake Bay, but contrary winds drove the ship south, and the brothers landed on Albermarle Sound, North Carolina, whence they went to the uplands and settled at Hillsboro, Orange County, N.C. These brothers were Samuel, Abner, and Jesse. The latter never married. Abner married in Wales, Samuel in North Carolina. This sketch has to do with Abner Benton and heirs. To him was born Jesse B. and Catherine. The latter never married, both born in North Carolina U.S.A. Jesse B. Benton was sent to England and educated. On his return from England, he was appointed (by the Crown), Secretary to the Lord Tryon, Governor of the Province. Afterwards an ugly British General in the Revolutionary War, Jesse B. Benton broke with his chief in the War for American Independence, and was an officer in the American Patriot Army. He, Jesse B. Benton, was married during the War for Independence to Ann Gooch, the daughter of a disreputable English officer under Lord Tryon. Her mother was named Hart and was American born, and Ann Gooch always said, “I came from a family of Harts.” Her cousin Col. Nathaniel Hart was killed at the “River Raisin”, in a battle with British and Indians, during the War of 1812. To the union between Jesse B. Benton and Ann Gooch, there was born Thomas Hart [the Senator], Jesse, Samuel, Nathaniel, Susan, and Catherine Benton. Susan and Catherine never married. In 1793, at the age of 46, Jesse B. Benton died at Hillsboro, N.C.

The actions of the royal government increasingly incited the wrath of the Regulators, and the sheriff was one of a group of officials they severely whipped in 1770. In view of such treatment, Hart undoubtedly received considerable satisfaction in serving as quartermaster for Tryon when the governor dispersed the Regulators at the Battle of Alamance. During the relative calm that ensued after the War of the Regulation, Hart was able to concentrate on business enterprises. The role of an entrepreneur appealed to him, and in 1774 he became one of the partners in Richard Henderson’s Louisa Company to buy and develop lands in what became Tennessee and Kentucky. Hart journeyed to the Watauga section of Tennessee as one of the company’s representatives at a meeting arranged by Daniel Boone with the Cherokee Indians. John Sevier and Isaac Shelby, who attended as spectators, saw the Indians accept several loads of “trading goods” in return for their titular rights to a huge area of western land. After this transaction, the company was reorganized as the Transylvania Company with Richard Henderson, Thomas Hart, Nathaniel Hart, William Johnston, James Hogg, John Luttrell, John Williams, David Hart, and Leonard Henly Bullock as shareholders. Trading with the Indians for western lands strictly violated the Royal Proclamation of 1763, but, as many Americans were engaging in land speculation despite the king’s fiat, the Transylvanians ignored it also. The potential profit in the venture was enormous, and the partners lost no time in enlisting settlers to buy or rent land in the territory. Thomas Hart visited the Watauga again in 1775 and his brother, Nathaniel, became a resident agent for the company in the west until he was killed by Indians in 1782. The outcome of the American Revolution relieved the Transylvania Company of any interference in its affairs from the British government but presented a new dilemma because the states of North Carolina and Virginia claimed Tennessee and Kentucky, respectively, as part of their territory. The partners determined to establish their claim to the western land if possible and years of litigation followed. The final decision rendered that the company’s purchase was illegal but a tract was awarded the partners to recompense them for the expenses incurred in the transaction. Hart traded part of his share for land in Kentucky and eventually settled on it. After the War of the Regulation, Hart continued to fill an important role in political affairs, serving as a juror; member of a commission to build a new jail in Hillsborough; member of the colonial Assembly from Orange County in 1773; and then representative in the First, Second, and Third Provincial congresses.

When the Revolution began, he was appointed commissary for the Sixth North Carolina Regiment with the rank of colonel. In addition, he was elected a senator in the North Carolina General Assembly for the 1777 session where he became involved in the work of so many committees that he resigned his military commission in order to attend to them. Although Hart, with many others, could not condone the violent tactics of the Regulators, he felt no compunction in becoming an ardent patriot in the American Revolution when independence was formally declared. In doing so, he incurred the hatred of the loyal Tories who unleashed their persecutions when Lord Cornwallis approached Hillsborough with the British Army. Concerned for the safety of his wife and several daughters, Hart removed to Hagerstown, Md., accompanied by Nathaniel Rochester, one of his former business partners. Shortly after his departure the Battle of Hart’s Mill was fought on his property, which the British occupied. Hart and Rochester built a mill and a nail and rope factory, both of which prospered.

The colonel gradually disposed of his North Carolina property and never returned to the state. He sold his homeplace, Hartford, to Jesse Benton, husband of his niece, Nancy, and father of Thomas Hart Benton. As the purchaser died before paying for the place, Hart became the mortgagee of the property through a friendly lawsuit and allowed the widow and her family to continue to live there. The mortage was never fully redeemed, which apparently caused no ill will as Hart left the Bentons an additional tract of land when he died.

In 1794, Hart moved to Lexington, Ky., where he resided for the remainder of his life. He built up his rope and hemp business into a highly profitable commercial enterprise and engaged in various forms of trade and investment. Due to his affluence, pleasing personality, and shrewd mind, Hart soon became one of the most prominent men in Kentucky. His daughter, Ann (Nancy), married James Brown who had engaged in business with the colonel and Rochester back in Hillsborough, and who later became the U.S. minister to France. Another daughter, Lucretia, born after the Harts left North Carolina, married Henry Clay. A niece married Isaac Shelby, and the other members of the family made marital connections in influential circles

In 1796, the year Tennessee was admitted to the Union, Jesse B. Benton’s widow Ann, with her family, moved to Tennessee, and settled some forty miles south of Nashville, on land provided by her husband during his life. In 1800 Ann Benton’s sons Thomas H. and Nathaniel returned to North Carolina and entered the State school at Chapel Hill. Neither of them graduated. Of the four brothers Thomas H., Jesse, Samuel, and Nathaniel, the following facts are worthy of record: Samuel married in 1808, a Miss Grundy, and raised six children all born in Carroll County, West Tennessee. Four of these were boys, Nathaniel, Abner, Thomas H., and Samuel (the latter twins) and Catherine and Sarah. Catherine never married. The elder, Nat, went to California and reared a family. Abner died in youth. Thomas H. settled in Iowa, was a Democrat, was a Colonel and Brig. General in the U.S. Army during the Civil War. Was father of Maria Benton, a brilliant woman who married Ben Cable of Illinois and is living. Samuel settled in Holly Springs, Mississippi, reared a family, was twice a Whig Candidate for Congress, was a Confederate Colonel and brevet Brigadier General, was wounded at Resaca, Ga., and died in 1864.

Sarah married a Brandt, reared a family and lived and died in St. Louis. Jesse, son of Jesse B. and Ann Benton, married in middle Tennessee, Mary (Polly) Childress, both of whom in old age died near Nashville without children. Thomas Hart, the eldest son was a member of the Tennessee Legislature, a lawyer and a Lieut. Colonel in the War of 1812. An unfortunate break between Generals Jackson, Carroll and Coffee, and Thos. H., Jesse and Nathaniel Benton brothers, resulted in a street duel in Nashville, in September 1813, in which General Jackson and General Carroll were both shot.

In 1814 Thos. H. and Nathaniel moved to the Territory of Missouri. Thos. Hart Benton was elected one of the two first United States Senators for Missouri, and served thirty consecutive years, followed by two years in the lower House of Congress. After becoming a Senator he married a daughter of Governor McDowell of Virginia. To this union were born: Sarah, Mary, Jesse Ann, Elizabeth, and Randolph Benton. The latter died in his minority. Sarah married Baron Bolieau, French Minister to the U.S. in the forties, and was the mother of the celebrated artist Philip Bolieau later of New York, now deceased. Mary married a Mr. Jacobs of Jefferson County, Kentucky, an extensive Planter. Jesse Ann married Jon C Fremont, a U.S. Lieutenant of French descent, and afterwards the California Pathfinder, and later in 1856 the first Republican Candidate for President, against James Buchanan, and was not supported by Col. Benton, his father-in-law. Fremont was a Major General U.S.A. in the Civil War. Fremont and Jesse Ann Benton, had born to them John C. (who was a U.S. Naval Captain), and Lilly, who never married but lived to be sixty years old. John C. Jr., died a Captain and has a son John C. now a Captain in the U.S. Navy, and two girls not married. Elizabeth married Commodore Jones, U.S.N. and died in Florence, Italy in 1903.

Nathaniel Benton (our direct ancestor), was born in February 1788, in Hillsboro, Orange County, North Carolina, moved with his mother and family to middle Tennessee in 1796, spent afterwards two years in the North Carolina University and in 1810 married Dorothy Myra Branch, daughter of Governor Branch of North Carolina. To this union were born Nathaniel in 1811, Alfred in 1814, Columbus in 1819, Abner in 1816, Susan in 1822, Thomas Hart in 1825, Rufus in 1829, and Maecenas in 1831. Nathaniel and Alfred were born in middle Tennessee; Abner, Columbus and Susan were born in Jefferson County, Missouri; Thomas Hart, Rufus and Maecenas were born in Dyer County, Tennessee. The elder of this family Nat Benton, spent two years at West Point Military Academy, resigned, and with his mother’s family (his father Nat Benton having died in 1833) moved to Texas in October 1835, and settled on the Brazos, near Waco.

In February 1836, Nat Benton together with his brother Alfred joined the army of General Sam Houston for the liberation of Texas from Mexican domination. Nat Benton however, accidentally shot himself in the foot, and came near passing away. Alfred Benton and Ben McCulloch were with Houston at San Jacinto and helped in Texas Independence in 1836. Nat Benton in 1837 returned to Tennessee and married Harriet, the sister of Henry and Ben McCulloch. To this union was born Benjamine Eustace Benton. Nat Benton’s wife died in 1845. In 1853 Nat Benton and son left Dyersburg, Tennessee and went to Texas. Both he and his son Eustace were in the Texas Rangers, and while so engaged Eustace was badly wounded, losing one eye. Captain Nat Benton married again during the’50s to a Miss Harris and children were born to this marriage, but the family history to which I had access did not state how many children, nor where the second Mrs. Benton died.

Nat Benton was a soldier in the Confederate army attaining the rank of Colonel, and was badly wounded at Port Hudson. He returned to Sequing Texas, and lived there till his death which occurred in 1873. His son Capt. Ben Eustace Benton married during the Civil War on April 15 1863, Miss Margaret C. Walker, daughter of General B.W. Walker, and to this union was born Miss Eulalia Benton now living in Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Capt Ben E. Benton died at Pine Bluff, Arkansas June 13 1914.

Alfred Benton, second son of Nat and Dorothy M. Benton, after serving in the war for Texas Independence, died in Texas in 1838. Abner the third son, married Mary Ann Wardlaw of Ripley, Lauderdale County, Tenn., and to this union were born eleven children. Fannie, the eldest, married Tom W. Neal at Dyersburg, had two children. Ella N. Crook, now of Little Rock, Arkansas, and Lillian Simpson, and died in 1880. Alfred lives in Louisville, Ky., Ed at Trenton, Tennessee, Hattie at Memphis, Annie at Dyersburg, Tenn., and Minne at Memphis, others all dead. Columbus Benton died in infancy. Susan married one Boggess, had eleven children, none of whom are living to my knowledge, and she died in June 1885.

Thos H. Benton Jr, son of Nat and Dollie Benton, married Mary Ellen Eason, whose father was Carter T. Eason, and mother Ellen, daughter of Gen. Daniel Morgan who defeated Tarleton at the “Cow Pens”. To this union were born Maecenas E., Mary Ellen, Nat (both the latter died in infancy), Jesse Ann, Thomas H. (both of whom died when about grown), Dollie who married Frank E. Miller and had one child named Mary Ruth Miller. Dollie Benton Miller died May 1895. Samuel Abner born in 1863 died in 1894, and Fannie May, who married E.L. Logan and has had two children, Sam Benton and Ernestine. They live in Little Rock, Arkansas.

Maecenas E. Benton, the eldest of this family is a lawyer, born in Obion County, Tennessee, removed to Missouri in 1869. Was two terms State’s attorney, one term as State Representative, one term United States Attorney, and five terms a member of Congress. He was married in 1888 to Elizabeth Wise of Waxahachie, Texas and of Kentucky parentage. To whom were born Thomas Hart [the artist], Mary Elizabeth, Nathaniel Wise, and Mildred Benton, all now grown.

Rufus and Maecenas, the youngest of the children of Nat and Dorothy Benton and brothers of Nat, Abner, and Thomas H., died in youth.

This statement covers the direct line from Abner Benton the Englishman who came to America in 1731, down to and including all of the present generation of whom the writer has any knowledge.

Compiled by Maecenas E Benton of Neosho, Missouri from old family records, from Dorothy Myra Benton’s family bible and from his personal knowledge.

Dated July 22, 1915 (signed) ME Benton

About Thomas Hart, Sr.

Thomas emigrated about 1690 from London, England to Hanover County, Virginia He was a Merchant who likely became blind late in life. He died in Hanover County and left his only son Thomas Hart who was about 11 when he died.

His son, Thomas Hart, Jr., was born in England in 1679 and married Susanna Rice, daughter of Thomas and Margaret(House) Rice of Hanover, Virginia. Thomas Junior died in that County about the year 1755, leaving six children: Thomas, John, Benjamine, David, Nathaniel, and Ann. The children removed with their mother to Orange County, North Carolina, about the year 1760. From the above children sprang a numerous connection, now scattered widely over the United States. These include some of the most noted families in the nation, among them the descendants of Henry Clay, of Thomas Hart Benton (Senator from Missouri for thirty years), the Fremonts, Adairs, Shelbys, Pindells, Mogoffins, Dixons, Dallams, Todds, McDowells, Irvies, and the descendants of Judge Deadrick of Tennessee.

The following is from a Genealogical Report from a paid source, perhaps the American Historical Society in NYC. It was probably written in the 1940s or 1950s.The reliability is uncertain.

“Thomas Hart, a London Merchant, emigrated from England to New Kent County, Virginia, in 1638. His son Thomas Junior (1678-1755), married Susannah Rice, who, after her husband’s death removed with her children to Orange County, North Carolina, ca. 1760. Son Benjamin (1730-1798) to now Elbert County, Georgia, then to Kentucky. Lieutenant in American Revolution, he married Nancy Morgan who became the famous ‘Nancy Hart’, believed to have been the daughter of BG (Brigadier General?) Daniel Morgan, American Revolution. And finally, it notes that ‘Richardson Roundtree m. Mildred Hart, probably the grand-daughter of Thomas Hart, Jr., and Susannah (Rice) Hart’. Citations are included in the text.

Thomas Hart (senior), the founder of the family in the ‘Tar Heel State’ was a merchant, who married Susan Gray. Their children were Susan, Lucretia, Nancy, John, Nathaniel, and Thomas, Jr. With ….Daniel Boone & William Johnston, the elder Hart bought large tracts of land from the Indians in KY, whither he removed his household. Susan m. Price, Lucretia m. Henry Clay, Nancy m. a Brown, and her husband was afterward a US Minister to France. The daughter of Thomas Hart, Jr., m. Jesse Benton, clerk of the Superior Court of Orange County, North Carolina, and became the mother of Thomas Hart Benton, pioneer statesman and orator of Missouri. Nancy Hart, the Georgia heroine was of this family”

Thomas Rice, b. England of Welch parents-to Hanover County, Virginia, 1693, returned to England to settle a large estate, died at sea. His son, Hezekiah, was a Lt. & Capt. in American Revolution, and a delegate, Orange County, N. C. (Perhaps Susannah returned to her father (Hezekiah)’s home after her husband died in 1755. From Greek Poland Rice’s lineage in American Compendium, Vol VI, p. 226.

Thomas Hart, ancestor of the family in America, was a merchant in London. In 1638 he emigrated to Virginia and settled in New Kent County (See Early Virginia Immigrant, p 151). His son, Thomas II, married Susannah Rice. He was born in New Kent County, Virginia in 1679, died in Hanover County, 1755. His son Benjamin, b 1730, d in Brunswick County, Georgia, in 1799, after the death of his father, Thomas Hart, Jr., moved to Orange County, N. C., and in 1760 was appointed County Commissioner. He lived for a while at Edgefield, S. C., and married the famous Nancy Morgan (Hart). This is from a report written by George Stephens, filed at: 2000-12-17. Mary Head Burton (quoting from the 1935 edition of a genealogical reference work “Americana”, pp 134-135, which in turn cites an unknown volume by Tyler, Volume III, pg 169)

Mary Head Burton then quoted from the “American Compendium”, Vol. VI, pg 634. Thomas Hart, from London settled in Hanover County, virginia about 1690. He was a merchant. Thomas Hart, Jr., (1678-1755) Hanover County, Virginia, married Susannah Rice, who, after her husband’s death, removed with her children to Orange County, N. C. around 1760. Son Benjamin (1730-1798) to present Elbert County, Georgia, then to Kentucky; Lt. in american Revolution, he married Nancy Morgan (Hart) believed to be the daughter of Brig. General Dan. Morgan, American Revolution.

James Brown (September 11, 1766 – April 7, 1835) was a lawyer beginning in Kentucky, U.S. Senator from Louisiana, and Minister to France (1823-1829).

His brother John Brown was a US Senator from Kentucky and active in its gaining statehood. Well-connected among the southern elite, they were also cousins of John Breckinridge, James Breckinridge and Francis Preston. James Brown was brother-in-law to Henry Clay and Nathaniel G. S. Hart, the uncle of James Brown Clay, Henry Clay, Jr., John Morrison Clay, the great uncle of B. Gratz Brown, and the cousin-in-law of Thomas Hart Benton.

Thomas Hart and Daniel Boone of Kentucky


dan3My adopted son, Hollis Lee Williams, was born in Louisville Kentucky, and is kin to Thomas Hart from whom the famous artist, Thomas Hart Benton, descends. My brother-in-law, Garth Benton, was a cousin of Thomas


Colonel Thomas Hart

Colonel Thomas Hart was the son of Thomas Hart and Susanna Rice Hart and the brother to John, Benjamin, David, Nathaniel and Ann.

“The mother of Lucretia Hart was Susanna, daughter of John Gray, Colonel in the Royal Army. Tradition says he opposed his daughter’s marriage on the grounds that Thomas Hart, her intended, was a rebel. He was, indeed, a bold and active rebel, a member of two Provincial Congresses of North America, a Colonel in the Revolutionary Army, and one of the principals of that daring and romantic enterprise, the Transylvania Land Company. In spite of her father’s disapproval the wedding of Susanna Gray and Thomas Hart, parents of Lucretia Hart, went off as planned.” (Simpson, Letters to)

In 1780 Thomas Hart moved from North Carolina to Hagerstown, Maryland, where his two older daughters, Eliza and Susan, were married and where Lucretia was born.

“In the spring of 1794 Thomas Hart wrote to Governor Blount of Tennessee, who had married his wife’s niece, ‘You will be surprised to hear I am going to Kentucky. Mrs. Hart, who for eighteen years has opposed this measure, has now given her consent and so we go, an old fellow of 63 years of age seeking a new country to make a fortune in…

Another letter, written by Thomas Hart, dated Lexington, Kentucky 1795 says, ‘Oh, if my old friend Uncle Jacob Blount were here! What a pleasure we would have in raking up money and spending it with our friends -This is really one of the finest countries in the world -The society is equal to that of any interior town in the United States’. He did, indeed prosper.” (Simpson, Letters to)

“The fact that at a time when sailing vessels and clipper ships ruled the seas, Colonel Hart supplied all the rope used by the navy, proving that his cordage business was both extensive and successful. He rapidly laid the foundation of an immense fortune, comparable to the Vanderbilt wealth in New York”. (Schwartz)

“From his land sales Boone had raised about $20,000, and had been given additional money to purchase warrants by the Harts. Boone had between forty and fifty thousand dollars in cash in his saddlebags when he began his journey.” (Loforo)

There are conflicting stories as to exactly what happened with this great some of money. Here’s one version: “At the inn in James City, Virginia, described as Painter’s Fork, Boone while asleep was robbed of the entire amount. The incident caused much criticism and injured his reputation”.(Henderson)

Over the years, Boone paid this lost money back to the contributors, except for the Harts. “The Hart brothers, who had lost the most, saw the matter differently. In a letter dated August 3, 1780, Thomas Hart summed up their position on the robbery: ‘I feel for the poor people who perhaps are to loose even their preemptions by it,
but I must say I feel more for poor Boone whose character I am told suffers by it.’ Hart praised Boone as a ‘Just’ and ‘Upright’ person, who even in the most ‘Wretched Sircumstances’ was ‘a Noble and generous soul.’ He concluded his comments by stating that ‘therefore I will freely grant him a discharge for whatever sums of mine he might be possest of at the time.’ “(

challenged and removed. (September 2011)
Thomas Hart Benton (April 15, 1889 – January 19, 1975) was an American painter and muralist. Along with Grant Wood and John Steuart Curry, he was at the forefront of the Regionalist art movement.

Benton was born in Neosho, Missouri, into an influential family of politicians and powerbrokers. Benton’s father, Maecenas Benton, was a lawyer and U.S. congressman. His namesake, great-uncle Thomas Hart Benton, was one of the first two United States Senators elected from Missouri

“*Nathaniel G. Hart, in honor of whom Hart County, Ky., received its name, was a son of Colonel Thomas Hart, who was an immigrant from Maryland to Kentucky in pioneer days. Nathaniel G. Hart was born at Hagerstown, Md., and came to Kentucky when he was but a few years old. He was a brother-in-law of Hon. Henry Clay and Hon. James Brown, they having married his sisters. He was about twenty-four years of age at the time of his marriage to Anna E. Gist. At the breaking out of the War of 1812 he was in command of a volunteer company called the “Lexington Light Infantry,” and with his company enrolled for service in the Northwest. He served through the winter campaign of 1812-13, a portion of the time as staff officer. He was taken prisoner at the Battle of the River Raisin. On the way from Frenchtown to Malden he was massacred by his Indian guard. His wife survived him but a short time. They were the parents of two sons. Mrs. Judith Cary Scott had formerly been Mrs. Gist and at this time was the wife (second) of General Charles Scott, Governor of Kentucky. See Collins’ History of Kentucky.”

Hart vs. Benton Lawsuit
August 22, 1812

‘Just’ and ‘Upright’ person, who even in the most ‘Wretched Sircumstances’ was ‘a

p.187, August 22, 1812,




Petition recites: SQUIRE BOONE obtained a certificate of settlement and preemption, and Nathaniel Hart obtained a certificate for settlement and preemption of 1,400 acres of land adjoining said Boone. Jesse Benton obtained from same commissioners a certificate for settlement and preemption adjoining claim of Nathaniel Hart on north and east, which was entered with surveyor…your orator purchased of said Benton all his claims and paid him a full consideration and obtained assignment of said settlement and preemption. And said Jesse Benton, afterwards, by letter dated September 3, l789, acknowledged the sale of said claims to your orator and promised your orator another assignment if the original one was lost. And said Jesse Benton departed this life leaving a will disposing of all his lands excepting the said claim which being sold to your orator was omitted in his will. Said Benton leaving his wife Nancy and his children Peggy Benton, Polly Benton, Thomas H. Benton, Jesse Benton, Nancy Benton, Samuel Benton, Nathaniel Benton and Sucky Benton. Said court of commissioners granted JOSEPH HUGHES right of preemption which was surveyed contrary to location and in such manner as to interfere with the settlement and preemption of said Jesse Benton, and having underwent several sales hath at length been conveyed to Samuel Estill . PHILLIP WEBBER illegally obtained forom commissioners a certificate claiming 400 acres and vaguely entered same and sold it to said Estill who surveyed contrary to entry and so as to interfere, and obtaining grant in his own name, conveyed [blank] acres to Daniel Maupin, and said Estill and Maupin have refused…

Answers filed by defendants. Estill pleads that it may be true that patents have been secured in the names of Squire Boone, Nathaniel Hart and Jesse Benton, and that plaintiff hath purchased claim of Jesse Benton, but defendant has been informed that previous to the opening and establishing of the land office in the Commonwealth of Virginia, in the year of 1776, a certain RICHARD HENDERSON and Company claimed all the lands lying on the south side of the Kentucky River, that complainant and said Jesse Benton were partners with said Richard Henderson, who in the said year of 1776, for a valuable consideration actually paid by said Hughes, sold and conveyed to him 640 acres of the land now included in his survey and patented, which will appear from the books of said Richard Henderson and Company. That in consequence of said sale a survey was made in 1776 for said Hughes.

Said defendant is advised that although the claim of said Henderson and Company to these lands…was destroyed by act of law, yet plaintiff nor said Jesse Benton ought not deprive Joseph Hughes or this defendant of said land by any claim which they may have acquired since.

Amended petition recites: JAMES DINWIDDIE claims part of lands to which your orator is entitled as devisee, from Joseph Hughes.

Various interrogatories were filed. Complainant’s answer to same:

1. That he was one interested in the adventure of Richard Henderson and Company.

2. That the said company claimed at one time all the land on the south side of the Kentucky River to the Cumberland River by purchase from the tribe of Cherokee Indians, but the then Legislature of Virginia and North Carolina annulled their purchase and that of all persons claiming under them, and they now hold no lands except those granted by said Legislature at the mouth of the Green River.

3. That Jesse Benton was never considered as an original partner in the company but obtained a part of DAVID HART’s share by private purchase, who was one of the original partners of the company.

4. That he does not know Joseph Hughes ever purchased 640 acres of land from Henderson and Company, but thinks it probable that he might have, as many others did, but believes no monies were ever recived by the company in consequence, or that he ever heard that the executive of Virginia had issued a proclamation forbidding the inhabitants of Kentucky to pay monies to said company for land sold by the company until their claims should be litigated before the Legislature of said state and who decided by making null and void their purchase from said Indians.

5. That he has not the books of the said company nor does he know in whose possession they are, not having seem them for upwards of twenty years.

Sworn to by Thomas Hart, Lexington, September 18, 1801.



p.237, Deposition of WILLIAM HART, aged 38 years (taken on September 17, 1811, in Fayette County: About 16 or 17 years ago he was and had been for several years before well acquainted with the family of Jesse Benton, whose heirs are the defendants. That the said Jesse Benton resided in North Carolina near Hillsborough and died in latter part of the year 1791 or the beginning of the year 1792. Said Benton’s children were all very small at time of his death, one at breast, and some years after his death the family removed to Tennessee where they now reside.

p.238, Deposition of JESSE OLDHAM, aged 72 years (taken at the improvement of NATHANIEL HART in Madison County, on March 3,

1802); He came to Kentucky from North Carolina in the year of 1775 at which time he passed by the blue licks and from thence near this improvement to Twitty’s fort and the trace which he traveled was then called and known by the name of Boone’s trace. That in the year 1775, he, together with Nathaniel Hart and others, planted a crop of corn at Boonesborough. That he came out of Kentucky agin in the spring of the year of 1779 at which time

he, together with Nathaniel Hart and others, raised a crop of corn at Boonesborough and in the same year raised a crop of corn at this improvement and also at deponent’s improvement which lies near this improvement and on this creek. That he has never heard or known of this improvement by any other name than Nathaniel Hart’s improvement. I was not here when the commissioners sat and never saw Nathaniel Hart’s certificate. We were not in

partnership, his corn was for himself and mine for myself. They were two separate and distinct claims. These improvements were about one mile apart. There was no improvement here when I first came to Kentucky in 1775.

[p.252. Deposition of JESSE OLDHAM (taken December 1, 1810). [Repeats first what was in preceding deposition.] States that Nathaniel Hart and I married sisters. Boone’s old trace was marked out in year 1775 and was the road leading from Boonesborough and upper part of Kentucky through the wilderness and it was then generally traveled.]

p.239, Deposition of THOMAS ALLEN (taken at Harrodsburg on July 28, 1803): Relates facts of a survey made by him and DANIEL BOONE sometime during year of 1783 or 1784 at the request of the widow of Nathaniel Hart.

p.241, Deposition of JOHN HARPER (taken at Montgomery County Court House on November 17, 1810): He set out from Boonesborough in the month of June 1779 to go to Virginia and encamped the first night at Hart’s fork of Silver creek in company with a number of others and Nathaniel Hart, deceased and Jesse Oldham set out at the same time for the settlements but were obliged to go out of the way for a horse that was bit by a snake and did not join the company until that evening. When said Hart and Oldham et out from Boonesborough they appointed to meet the company at the said Jesse Oldham’s improvement which lies above Nathaniel Hart’s improvement about a mile and on east side of Hart s fork. There was a field of corn growing at Jesse Oldham’s improvement which the company worked over and cleaned out the weeds. The next morning they went on to Nathaniel Hart’s improvement where there was a considerable field of corn growing which they also worked over and laid by, and then the company proceeded on to Virginia.

p 243, Deposition of JOHN KIMBROUGH (taken at the office of THOMAS H. BENTON, in Franklin, Tennessee, on the last Saturday in

November 1811): About the year of 1790 and for several years before and after that time, he lived in the State of North Carolina and was well acquainted with the family of Colonel Jesse Benton, who died about that year near Hillsborough in said State, deponent being nephew of wife of said Jesse Benton, and he remembers that after the death of said Benton, a daughter of Jesse Benton named SUSANNAH BENTON was born…

p.245, Deposition of THOMAS J. OVERTON (taken in Fayette County on September 23, 1811 ): Repeats testimony regarding Benton’s children and states “all very small at time of his death.”

p.245, Deposition of JESSE HODGES (taken at the house of JAMES DINWIDDIE, in Madison County, November 30, 1800): He saw in 1779 the tree standing on Boone’s trail marked with letters of Nathaniel Hart’s name…and some chopping on the trees about it…and heard it called Hart’s improvement. It was generally known by hunters accustomed to hunt these woods and parts. I passed by his improvement the first time in the summer of 1779 and my recollection is that Jesse Oldham removed his family to this state in the year of 1787.

p.247, Deposition of JESSE CARTWRIGHT (taken at the house of JAMES DINWIDDIE, Madison County, November 30, 1800): I came to Boonesborough in November 1780 and resided here until 1782. Shortly after I came here I became acquainted with Captain Nathaniel Hart who lived at the place called White Oak Spring. We had some trading and much talk about land trading during the course of the next year, in the meantime I had seen an improvement on the waters of Silver Creek which I was informed by several was Nathaniel Hart’s. He had a stud horse I think he called Spidella which he asked me 1,000 acres of preemption land. I understood from Hart he made his improvement in 1775. It was shewn me by JAMES ESTILL as we were riding through it. I lived a considerable time at Estill’s old station.

p.248, Deposition of JOSEPH KENNEDY (taken at the house of JAMES DINWIDDIE, in Madison County, on December 1, 1810): Was

well acquainted with Boone’s old trace that leads up to Hart’s fork of Silver creek on to Twitty’s fort in the year 1777, and about 1/2 of a mile on a southwest course from Twitty’s fort I saw an improvement which was on Boone’s trace and my brother JOHN KENNEDY and MICHAEL STONER being with me, they informed me that it was Nathaniel Hart’s.

p.249, Deposition of STEPHEN HANCOCK, aged 58 years (taken on April 3, 1802 at Hart’s improvement on Silver creek in Madison County): I came to Kentucky in January of the year of 1776 and traveled along the trace then called Boone’s trace. Blue Licks to Twitty s and thence to Boonesborough. Then I saw an improvement on the trace, several trees belted. Nathaniel Hart’s field in which he raised corn in 1779. Silver Creek, Hart’s fork and SQUIRE BOONE’s Stockfield tract were called and known by those names in the year 1779. Nathaniel Hart raised a crop of corn at

Boonesborough in the year of 1776 and kept hands there for several years afterwards. Deponent understood from information that as people were traveling out to this country, they got pumpkins from Hart’s field upon Boone’s trace and carried them to the waters of Otter creek where they cooked them and from the seed being scattered around there, they came up and that branch was afterwards called Pumpkin Run.

p.251, Deposition of Colonel JOHN SNODDY taken at DINWIDDIE’s house in Madison County, on April 3, 1802): In the year of 1775 I came to Kentucky in company with DANIEL BOONE and as we traveled along Boone’s trace I saw an improvement on said race near to a small pond. about half a mile south of Twitty’s fort, which Daniel Boone informed me was Nathaniel Hart’s. Then there was several trees belted and some cut down. It appeared to me to be an improvement and not a camping place.

p.253. Deposition of THOMAS WARREN (taken at Hart’s fork of Silver Creek, on September 14, 1811): I first knew of this improvement in 1760 and it was called Hart’s upper improvement at that time. It had appearance it had been cultivated in corn the year before. It was generally known by name of Hart’s field 1780 by hunters from Estill’s station. I first settled at Estill’s station in February of 1780 and lived at that station between eight and nine years. The trace from Estill’s to Adam’s station passes through the edge of Hart’s improvement. [Note: in deposition taken in same case on March 19, 1808, same witness says:] It was between the 11th and 15th of February 1780 when I came to the old station and by direction of JAMES ESTILL. I was the first one to settle at Estill’s station and James Estill settled in a few days after with part of his family. He and myself raised corn in 1780 at that place. There were seven or eight families at this station in the year 1780. I first became acquainted with little fort in the last of February 1780. It was about 100 yards off trace called Boone’s trace. I have no knowledge of Twitty’s fort, more than I have saw it often. Some called it Twitty’s fort and some Little Fort.

p.254. Deposition of DAVID LYNCH (taken September 14, 1811 in Madison County): I have known Nathaniel Hart’s improvement since the spring of the year of 1780 and it was then called Hart’s improvement. There was some appearance of corn stalks on it when I first saw it. It was generally known by the name of Hart’s improvement by the hunters from Estill’s station and well known to settlers at Adam’s station and Boonesborough.

p.255 Deposition of PETER HACKETT (taken near the house of JAMES DINWIDDIE in Madison County, on July 21, 1812): I settled at Estill’s station about the last of February or first of March in the year of 1780. I believe I became acquainted with the settlement we are now on in the last of spring of the same year. There were seven families at Estill’s station in 1780. When I first saw this improvement there was an appearance of corn being raised. The only trace from Estill’s to Adam’s station and from that to Logan’s station was the one passing through the edge of this improvement. It was the only trace used by people from Adam’s station to Estill’s station and was well known to the people of that station in 1780, as they hunted for their stock and for game along same. TWITTY was wounded and died at the little fort and was buried there. The fort was built while he lay there wounded.

p.259, Deposition of Captain WILLIAM BUSH (taken at an Elm tree on Hart’s fork of Silver creek on March 23, 1803): In the spring of the year 1775 with Captain NATHANIEL HART, JONATHAN JENNINGS, came to Boonesborough. I heard them say they had better take their choice of land as they came along, they were asked where, and, they told us that Captain Hart had made his choice at the camp at the mouth of the branch that leads up toward’s Twitty’s fort and that Jennings choice of land was between him and said fort on that trace. In summer of 1782 I was applied to by BENJAMIN CRAIG to shew Hart’s improvement, and I came to Captain Hart’s improvement and with THOMAS ALLEN, surveyor, we came to this Elm tree, the beginning corner of Jenning’s and proceeded to survey and they expected to hold not over one mile square under the proprietors RICHARD HENDERSON and Company. I first saw Twitty’s fort the day after Twit-by was killed.

p.259, Deposition of SQUIRE BOONE (taken at his own house in Shelby County, on May 18, 1804): He is principaled against going into the town of Shelbyville upon any business whatsoever but is willing to depose to any facts within his knowledge relative to said suit at his own house. Deponent is well acquainted with the beginning called for in GEORGE MERIWETHER’s entry of 1,000 acres in Madison County, which deponent sold to said George Meriwether, and known as the Stockfield tract. He had survey made in the year 1776 of 1,000 acres and began at said honey locust which is south east corner of said preemption as surveyed under the State of Virginia. Deponent was present when this survey was made and showed lines to the surveyor.

p 261, Deposition of SQUIRE BOONE (taken at Sassafras tree, corner of survey made by DANIEL BOONE, as assignee of JOSEPH HUGHES, on Silver Creek, October 2, 1802): In the month of April 1776 he was employed by Joseph Hughes to assist in laying of piece of land for said Hughes which he had purchased of colonel RICHARD HENDERSON and Company in a State then called Transylvania, and, on the waters of Silver Creek, where he attended as a marker and sometimes carried the chain to go around said land, and this is the beginning tree. [Taking of the deposition was then removed to Boone’s old trace on Silver Creek leading by CHARLES BROWN’s towards TWITTY’s fort on TAYLOR’s fork]: That this is the trace he marked on his way from the old settlement to Boonesborough and was called Boone’s trace marked for Colonel Richard Henderson.

p.261, Deposition of BENJAMIN VANCLEVE (taken in Madison County on March 28, 1803): Sometime in the month of April of 1776

deponent came to this corner where we have met and made this corner for JOSEPH HUGHES’ beginning corner. This corner was marked by JOHN KENNEDY for the beginning corner of Hughes. Question by JAMES DINWIDDIE: Was it usual to pay to Henderson and company the money for entering of lands before it was entered? Answer: I can only answer for myself. I paid I think the best of my recollection $2.00. [Taking of the deposition was then removed to an oak tree, northeast corner of the Stockfield tract, surveyed by J. Kennedy for Squire Boone under Henderson and Company]: This is the South East corner of a survey made by J. Kennedy in April 1776.

p.262, Deposition of EDWARD WILLIAMS (taken at house of NICHOLAS ANDERSON in Montgomery County, on May 14 1804): He set out from Boonesborough in the month of June 1779 to go to Virginia and encamped the first night on waters of Silver creek in company with a number of others and that NATHANIEL HART and JESSE OLDHAM set out at same time for the settlements but were obliged to go out of their way for a horse that was bit by a snake and did not join the company until that evening. That when the said Hart and Oldham set out from Boonesborough they appointed to meet the company at said Jesse Oldham’s improvement at the creek. That they all set out together the next morning and passed by Nathaniel Hart’s improvement, and said Hart informed deponent and company that it was his improvement and there was a considerable field of corn at the said improvement. Deponent was present at Boonesborough when Nathaniel Hart laid in his claim before the Commissioner’s for his settlement and preemption, and the said Hart informed this deponent that he had obtained his certificate for this improvement on Silver creek.

p.264, Deposition of SAMUEL ESTILL (taken on March 19, 1808 at house of ROBERT MILLER in Madison County): [Said deposition was taken for use in suit of BENJAMIN ESTILL and JOHN ESTILL v. BENJAMIN SCRIVENER and used by consent in this case.] Some time in the summer of the year 1779 I was with JAMES ESTILL, MICHAEL BEDINGER and others at the spring at Estill’s old station and he shewed me that. In the year of 1780 I saw some marks at JAMES ESTILL JR. spring which I thought probably might be another claim. I then told James Estill about the marks and he told me JOHN BOUGHMAN got to marking of it and he stopped him, and he told me he marked the spring at the old station first and went on to James Estill, Jr. spring and marked it the same day. I never heard James Estill claim that last mentioned spring until after we settled the old station. I think my brother James Estill, deceased, or some of those at the station tanned leather at this spring in the year of 1780. The old buffalo road or trace lead down Muddy creek, by the improvement at James Estill, Jr. spring, plain when I first saw it. I don’t know when my brother settled the old station. I was from this country and found his family living there on my return in May 1780. He first showed me this improvement in the summer of 1779. James Estill, Michael Bedinger, JOHN SOUTH JR., JOHN WEBBER and others were with me but don’t recollect the rest. It was known as the Locust thicket improvement. The trace that was called Boone’s trace was close by the fort. In 1780 the fort was called the Little fort by some and TWITTY’s fort by others. When I first saw the spring at the old fort, it was beat about by creatures using it, Buffaloes and other wild beasts. In the year of 1780 the spring at the fort went dry and the people at the fort had to get water at BOYLE’s spring. There was some heavy cane in places where the trace went along but the creatures broke it so that it was tolerable handy passing. The fort was a few logs put in the likeness of a square cabin. There was no roof on it when I saw it. It was not built in as good a way as cabins generally are. The trace traveled was the one that went along the dividing ridge between Muddy creek. Otter creek and Silver creek and was called GALLOWAY’s trace, which lead from Boonesborough to the Blue Lick on the head of Station Camp creek. I understood the fort was built for safety from the Indians by TWITTY. The place claimed by Estill for his improvement near the old station as I first saw it in 1780 was twenty or thirty acres open land around the spring which was surrounded by very strong cane brake. Could not be easily found, Captain James Estill began to tan his hides in the spring of the year. We pulled the hide off [Buffalo] and put it in the tan trough with some water and ashes (that was the lime we had then). When the hide was limed we then took them out and washed them in Little Muddy creek and took the hair off and perhaps let them ly all night in the creek to take the lime out and the next day put them back in the trough. That’s the way we did them.

p.273, Deposition of JOSEPH PROCTOR (taken at ROBERT MILLER’s house in Madison County, on April 5, 1808): James Estill first settled the old station on March 1, 1780, and he and his company raised corn there in 1780. About six or seven families resided there. James Estill immediately after settling at said place commenced surveying land to raise corn. First became acquainted with Little Fort in spring of 1780 but don’t recollect how long it was before I saw the place. Understand it was built some years before I came to Kentucky and that TWITTY was wounded and lay there. The company that was with him built the fort for his safety.

This excerpt was taken from “Our Kentucky Pioneer Ancestry”, by June Lee Mefford Kinkead, 1992. In it she quotes “The Hart Family”, from the Memoirs of George Blackburn Kinkead. This is under the heading “Thomas Hart”.

Ancestry of Nathaniel Hart (1734-1782)

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William A. LaBach
311 Duke Road
Lexington, KY 40502
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Table of Contents

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Claiborne, Hart, Rice

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First Generation

1. Nathaniel1 Hart (Thomas2, Thomas3), son of Thomas Hart and Susanna Rice, was born in Hanover County, VA May 8, 1734. Nathaniel died July 22, 1782 in near Boonesborough, KY, at 48 years of age. His body was interred in family cemetery near Boonesborough.

He married Sarah Simpson in North Carolina, December 25, 1760. Sarah was born in Fairfax Co., VA February 24, 1743/4. Sarah was the daughter of Richard Simpson, Jr. and Mary Kincheloe. Sarah died March 1785 in Lincoln Co., KY, at 41 years of age. Her body was interred in family cemetery near Boonesborough. At 18 years of age Sarah became the mother of Keziah Hart in Caswell Co., NC, March 18, 1762. At 19 years of age Sarah became the mother of Susannah Hart in Caswell Co., NC, February 18, 1764. At 24 years of age Sarah became the mother of Simpson Hart in Caswell Co., NC, April 30, 1768. At 26 years of age Sarah became the mother of Nathaniel Hart, Jr. in Caswell Co., NC, September 30, 1770. At 27 years of age Sarah became the mother of John Hart in Caswell Co., NC, February 5, 1772. At 31 years of age Sarah became the mother of Mary Ann Hart April 7, 1775. At 32 years of age Sarah became the mother of Cumberland Hart July 17, 1776. At 35 years of age Sarah became the mother of Chinoe Hart in Boonesborough, VA (now KY), October 25, 1779. At 38 years of age Sarah became the mother of Thomas Richard Green Hart in Boonesborough, VA (now KY), June 29, 1782.

At 27 years of age Nathaniel became the father of Keziah Hart in Caswell Co., NC, March 18, 1762. At 29 years of age Nathaniel became the father of Susannah Hart in Caswell Co., NC, February 18, 1764. At 33 years of age Nathaniel became the father of Simpson Hart in Caswell Co., NC, April 30, 1768. At 36 years of age Nathaniel became the father of Nathaniel Hart, Jr. in Caswell Co., NC, September 30, 1770. At 37 years of age Nathaniel became the father of John Hart in Caswell Co., NC, February 5, 1772. At 40 years of age Nathaniel became the father of Mary Ann Hart April 7, 1775. At 42 years of age Nathaniel became the father of Cumberland Hart July 17, 1776. At 45 years of age Nathaniel became the father of Chinoe Hart in Boonesborough, VA (now KY), October 25, 1779. At 48 years of age Nathaniel became the father of Thomas Richard Green Hart in Boonesborough, VA (now KY), June 29, 1782. Nathaniel Hart was a member of the Transylvania Company and was one of the purchasers of some 20 million acres of land in Kentucky and Tennessee from the Indians in 1775. He was one of the original settlers at Boonesborough in 1775 and helped construct the fort there. His biography from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography edited by William S. Powell, Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1988, follows: Hart, Nathaniel (1734-82), pioneer, Revolutionary officer, and proprietor in and chief negotiator for the Transylvania Company of Kentucky, was born in Hanover County, Va., the son of Thomas and Susannah Rice Hart. His grandfather, Thomas Hart, a merchant, emigrated from London, England, to Hanover County about 1690 and left an only son, Thomas (1632-1755), father of Nathanlel. His mother was an aunt of Daniel Rice, the renowned Presbyterian minister who, before moving to Kentucky in 1781, is said to have taken part in the establishment of one or more early Presbyterian churches in Orange County (now Caswell County), N.C., among which Hyco (now Red House) is one of the oldest in central North Carolina. Shortly after Thomas Hart’s death, his widow and children moved to Orange County and settled on Country Line Creek, where three of her sons–Thomas, Nathaniel, and David–in the late 1750s and early 1760s obtained land grants in the area that was cut off from Orange in 1777 to form Caswell County. Nathaniel Hart’s estate, known as Red House, located at Nat’s Fork on Country Line Creek, was of considerable proportions. Referred to as “Captain Hart,” he was not only a polished member of society but also an “accomplished and complete gentleman.” As one of the proprietors of the Transylvania Company, he was a leading spirit in opening the Kentucky territory and in establishing the town of Boonesborough. At the Battle of Alamance, Hart led a company of infantrymen in Governor Tryon’s army; after the battle, he was highly complimented by the governor and his officers for the gallant and spirited behavior of the detachment under his command. Following the efforts of Daniel Boone and his brother, Squire Boone, to settle Kentucky, Richard Henderson of Granville County in association with Nathaniel Hart, Thomas Hart, John Williams, William Johnson, and John Lutterell, on 27 Aug. 1774 organized the Louisa Company for the purpose of purchasing from the Cherokee Nation a large territory lying on the west side of the mountains on the Mississippi River. In the autumn of 1774, Nathaniel Hart, the chief negotiator, along with Richard Henderson, president of the company, visited the territory and met with the chiefs of the various tribes in the Cherokee country to discuss their interest in buying the land west of the Cumberland Mountains. Nathaniel Hart, Jr., wrote that his father returned to his home with six or eight of the principal men of the Cherokee Nation, who remained with him until the latter part of the year and assisted in the selection of a large supply of goods to be used in exchange for the land. By 1775 the enterprise had outgrown the Articles of Agreement of the Louisa Company. After a reorganization, a new company, called the Transylvania Company, was formed and Daniel Boone was hired to explore the territory. Soon Nathaniel Hart and Richard Henderson brought vast quantities of goods from Cross Creek (now Fayetteville) to Sycamore on the Watauga River near what is now Elizabethton, Tenn. The Watauga meeting, arranged by Hart, lasted twenty days and was attended by 500 to 1,000 Cherokee Indians along with their chiefs. The Transylvania Company was represented by Hart and his brother Thomas, Henderson, and John Williams. Negotiations broke down and the Indians left, but it is said that Nathaniel Hart overtook them the next day, persuaded them to return, and an agreement was reached. On 17 Mar. 1775, the conveyance or treaty was signed, by which the Transylvania Company acquired all of the territory from the Kentucky to the Cumberland rivers. Title to the land was taken in the name of Richard Henderson, Nathaniel Hart, and the other seven proprietors of the company as tenants in common. This purchase was said to have been the largest private land deal ever undertaken in North America. Nathaniel Hart and his associates invested much of their time and private fortunes in the venture; they succeeded in obtaining for the colonies peaceful possession of the land from the Indians, thus permitting the opening of the Kentucky territory for colonization. Nevertheless, they received very little for their efforts. Because of a proclamation by the royal governors of Virginia and North Carolina that prohibited treaties or purchases of land from Indians by individuals, the Crown refused to recognize the transaction and declared it null and void. The same proclamation, in substance, was reenacted by the Virginia assembly after the colonies gained independence from Great Britain. As a consequence, the Transylvania Company retained only that small area of the land lying on the Green River in Kentucky and that portion lying on the North Carolina side of the Virginia line, and its plan to establish an original fourteenth colony in America resulted in failure. In 1760 Hart married Sarah Simpson, daughter of Captain Richard Simpson, a large plantation owner who was one of the earliest settlers in what is now Caswell County. Their daughter, Susanna, in 1783 married General Isaac Shelby, planner of the Battle of Cowpens and hero of the Battle of Kings Mountain, who became the first governor of the state of Kentucky and for whom the towns of Shelby, N.C., Shelbyville, Tenn., and Shelby County, Ky., were named. Nathaniel and Sarah Hart’s grandson, Thomas Hart Shelby of Traveler’s Rest, Ky., was said to have been the first importer of thoroughbred livestock, including racehorses, into the state of Kentucky. Hart was appointed a justice of the peace by the royal governor. He served as captain of militia before the outbreak of the Revolution and as captain in the army during the American Revolution. He was killed by Indians near Logan’s Station in Lincoln, Ky., where he left his will. In 1783 his widow and their son Nathaniel, Jr., went to Logan’s Station to prove the will.

SEE: John R. Alden, John Stuart and the Southern Colonial Frontier (1966); Walter Clark, ed., State Records of North Carolina, vols. 16, 19, 22, 24 (1899-1905); Lewis Collins, Historical Sketches of Kentucky (1850); Dartmouth Papers, 5, 127, 1353 (North Carolina State Archives, Raleigh); Lyman C. Draper Papers (Wisconsin Historical Society, Madison); Genealogical Narrative, “The Hart Family in the United States” (North Carolina State Library, Raleigh); Archibald Henderson, The Transylvania Company and the Founding of Henderson, Kentucky (1929); Land grants of Caswell and Orange counties (Office of the Secretary of State, Raleigh); William S. Lester, The Transylvania Colony (1935); George N. MacKenzie, Colonial Families of the United States, vol. 2 (1966); W. E Palmer, ed., Calendar of Virginia State Papers, vol. 1 (1875); William L. Saunders, ed., Colonial Records of North Carolina, vols. 6, 8-10 (1888-90); Tyler’s Quarterly 31 (1949), 32 (1950); Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 7 (1899-1900); Frederick A. Virkus, The Abridged Compendium of American Genealogy, vol. 5 (1933). VANCE E. SWIFT

A web site about the Hart family may be found at

Nathaniel Hart and Sarah Simpson had the following children:

child 2 i. Keziah Hart was born in Caswell Co., NC March 18, 1762. Keziah died February 13, 1837 at 74 years of age. She married Laurence Thompson in Boonesborough, VA (now KY), ca 1780. Laurence was born December 28, 1753. Laurence died April 21, 1835 at 81 years of age. At 27 years of age Laurence became the father of Richard Laurence Thompson March 17, 1781. At 28 years of age Laurence became the father of Sarah Finney Thompson December 15, 1782. At 31 years of age Laurence became the father of Nathaniel Hart Thompson March 13, 1785. At 33 years of age Laurence became the father of Chinoe Benton Thompson January 21, 1787. At 35 years of age Laurence became the father of Thomas Azariah Thompson March 22, 1789. At 37 years of age Laurence became the father of Mary “Polly” Simpson Thompson in Madison Co., KY, August 17, 1791. At 42 years of age Laurence became the father of Margaret W. Thompson Madison Co., KY, March 8, 1796. At 44 years of age Laurence became the father of Susan Shelby Thompson Madison Co., KY, April 23, 1798. At 46 years of age Laurence became the father of Alfred M. Thompson July 22, 1800. At 50 years of age Laurence became the father of Allen J. Thompson 1804.

At 18 years of age Keziah became the mother of Richard Laurence Thompson March 17, 1781. At 20 years of age Keziah became the mother of Sarah Finney Thompson December 15, 1782. At 22 years of age Keziah became the mother of Nathaniel Hart Thompson March 13, 1785. At 24 years of age Keziah became the mother of Chinoe Benton Thompson January 21, 1787. At 27 years of age Keziah became the mother of Thomas Azariah Thompson March 22, 1789. At 29 years of age Keziah became the mother of Mary “Polly” Simpson Thompson in Madison Co., KY, August 17, 1791. At 33 years of age Keziah became the mother of Margaret W. Thompson Madison Co., KY, March 8, 1796. At 36 years of age Keziah became the mother of Susan Shelby Thompson Madison Co., KY, April 23, 1798. At 38 years of age Keziah became the mother of Alfred M. Thompson July 22, 1800. At 42 years of age Keziah became the mother of Allen J. Thompson 1804.

child 3 ii. Susannah Hart was born in Caswell Co., NC February 18, 1764. Susannah died June 14, 1833 in Lincoln Co., KY, at 69 years of age. Her body was interred in family cemetery at Travellers Rest, Lincoln Co., KY. She married Isaac Shelby in Boonesborough, VA (now KY), April 19, 1783. Isaac was born in near Hagerstown, MD December 11, 1750. Isaac was the son of Evan Shelby, Jr. and Letitia Cox. Isaac died July 18, 1826 in Lincoln Co., KY, at 75 years of age. His body was interred in family cemetery at Travellers Rest, Lincoln Co., KY. At 33 years of age Isaac became the father of James Shelby February 13, 1784. At 34 years of age Isaac became the father of Sarah Hart Shelby October 8, 1785. At 36 years of age Isaac became the father of Evan Shelby July 27, 1787. At 38 years of age Isaac became the father of Thomas Hart Shelby in “Travellers Rest”, Lincoln Co., KY, May 27, 1789. At 40 years of age Isaac became the father of Susannah Hart Shelby March 20, 1791. At 42 years of age Isaac became the father of Nancy Shelby December 23, 1792. At 44 years of age Isaac became the father of Isaac Shelby, Jr. 1795. At 46 years of age Isaac became the father of John Shelby March 3, 1797. At 48 years of age Isaac became the father of Letitia Shelby January 11, 1799. At 50 years of age Isaac became the father of Katherine Shelby March 14, 1801. At 53 years of age Isaac became the father of Alfred Shelby in “Travellers Rest”, Woodford Co., KY, January 25, 1804.

At 19 years of age Susannah became the mother of James Shelby February 13, 1784. At 21 years of age Susannah became the mother of Sarah Hart Shelby October 8, 1785. At 23 years of age Susannah became the mother of Evan Shelby July 27, 1787. At 25 years of age Susannah became the mother of Thomas Hart Shelby in “Travellers Rest”, Lincoln Co., KY, May 27, 1789. At 27 years of age Susannah became the mother of Susannah Hart Shelby March 20, 1791. At 28 years of age Susannah became the mother of Nancy Shelby December 23, 1792. At 31 years of age Susannah became the mother of Isaac Shelby, Jr. 1795. At 33 years of age Susannah became the mother of John Shelby March 3, 1797. At 34 years of age Susannah became the mother of Letitia Shelby January 11, 1799. At 37 years of age Susannah became the mother of Katherine Shelby March 14, 1801. At 39 years of age Susannah became the mother of Alfred Shelby in “Travellers Rest”, Woodford Co., KY, January 25, 1804. Susannah Hart met Isaac Shelby at Fort Boonesborough and they married there April 19, 1783. The couple lived at Travellers Rest in Lincoln County where they raised eleven children. She is buried at the family cemetery at Travellers Rest beside her husband. She is listed in the Kentucky Encyclopedia.

child 4 iii. Simpson Hart was born in Caswell Co., NC April 30, 1768. Simpson died 1788 in Sumner Co., TN, at 20 years of age. Simpson Hart died unmarried.

child 5 iv. Nathaniel Hart, Jr. was born in Caswell Co., NC September 30, 1770. Nathaniel died February 7, 1844 in “Spring Hill”, Woodford Co., KY, at 73 years of age. His body was interred in Frankfort Cemetery, Frankfort, KY. He married Susanna Preston in Montgomery Co., VA, August 26, 1797. Susanna was born in “Greenfield”, Botetourt Co., VA October 7, 1772. Susanna was the daughter of William Preston and Susanna Smith. Susanna died June 21, 1833 in “Spring Hill”, Woodford Co., KY, at 60 years of age. Her body was interred in Frankfort Cemetery, Frankfort, KY. At 25 years of age Susanna became the mother of Susanna Smith Preston Hart August, 1798. At 27 years of age Susanna became the mother of Sarah Simpson Hart June 8, 1800. At 29 years of age Susanna became the mother of Letitia Preston Hart March 15, 1802. At 31 years of age Susanna became the mother of Louisiana Breckinridge Hart in “Spring Hill”, Woodford Co., KY, December 3, 1803. At 32 years of age Susanna became the mother of Nathaniel Hart April 27, 1805. At 34 years of age Susanna became the mother of William Preston Hart July 25, 1807. At 36 years of age Susanna became the mother of Virginia H. Hart June 14, 1809. At 38 years of age Susanna became the mother of Susanna M. Hart July 9, 1811. At 41 years of age Susanna became the mother of Mary Howard Hart July 17, 1814.

At 27 years of age Nathaniel became the father of Susanna Smith Preston Hart August, 1798. At 29 years of age Nathaniel became the father of Sarah Simpson Hart June 8, 1800. At 31 years of age Nathaniel became the father of Letitia Preston Hart March 15, 1802. At 33 years of age Nathaniel became the father of Louisiana Breckinridge Hart in “Spring Hill”, Woodford Co., KY, December 3, 1803. At 34 years of age Nathaniel became the father of Nathaniel Hart April 27, 1805. At 36 years of age Nathaniel became the father of William Preston Hart July 25, 1807. At 38 years of age Nathaniel became the father of Virginia H. Hart June 14, 1809. At 40 years of age Nathaniel became the father of Susanna M. Hart July 9, 1811. At 43 years of age Nathaniel became the father of Mary Howard Hart July 17, 1814. A brief sketch of his life from The Prestons of Smithfield and Greenfield in Virginia by John Frederick Dorman (Filson Club, 1982) follows: Susanna Preston, fourth daughter of William and Susanna (Smith) Preston, was born 7 Oct. 1772, “Greenfield,” Botetourt Co., Va., and died 21 June 1833, “Spring Hill,” Woodford Co., Ky. She married 26 Aug. 1797, Montgomery Co., Va., Nathaniel Hart, son of Nathaniel and Sarah (Simpson) Hart, who was born 30 Sept. 1770, Caswell Co., N.C., and died 7 Feb. 1844, “Spring Hill,” Woodford Co., Ky. Nathaniel Hart in his youth took part in several expeditions against the Indians and was for six months in 1794 on Gen. Anthony Wayne’s campaign as aide de camp to Gen. Joshua Barbee. He participated in the Battle of Fallen Timbers. After their marriage they lived in Lexington, Ky., and for several years in Franklin Co., Ky., before moving to Woodford County in 1807. His home thereafter was “Spring Hill,” one mile from Versailles. After the fashion of gentlemen in England, he kept about one hundred deer in his woodlands, as well as several head of elk, and at one time he owned a few American bison. In the autumn and winter of 1812 he made two trips to Philadelphia as agent of the Bank of Kentucky to transport large amounts of money in gold to Kentucky to finance war measures.

child 6 v. John Hart was born in Caswell Co., NC February 5, 1772. He married Mary Irvine. Mary is the daughter of Christopher Irvine.

child 7 vi. Mary Ann Hart was born April 7, 1775. She married Richard Dallam.

child 8 vii. Cumberland Hart was born July 17, 1776. He married Fannie Hughes.

child 9 viii. Chinoe Hart was born in Boonesborough, VA (now KY) October 25, 1779. Chinoe died January 21, 1870 in Shelby Co., TN, at 90 years of age. She married John Smith in Lincoln Co., KY, October, 1797. John was born 1765. John was the son of Francis Smith and Ann Preston. John died June 16, 1851 in Memphis, TN, at 85 years of age. At 33 years of age John became the father of Lucretia Hart Smith 1798. At 52 years of age John became the father of Ann Eliza Smith January, 1818.

At 18 years of age Chinoe became the mother of Lucretia Hart Smith 1798. At 38 years of age Chinoe became the mother of Ann Eliza Smith January, 1818.

child 10 ix. Thomas Richard Green Hart was born in Boonesborough, VA (now KY) June 29, 1782. He married Rebecca Thompson. Rebecca is the daughter of John Thompson.

Second Generation

11. Thomas2 Hart (Thomas3) was born in England circa 1679. Thomas died circa 1755 Hanover Co., VA.

He married Susanna Rice in Virginia, ca 1729. Susanna was born in New Kent Co., VA 1707. Susanna was the daughter of Thomas Rice and Marcy. Susanna died 1785 in Orange Co., NC, at 78 years of age. At 23 years of age Susanna became the mother of Thomas Hart in Hanover County, VA, December 11, 1730. At 25 years of age Susanna became the mother of Benjamin Hart in Hanover Co., NC, October 1732. At 26 years of age Susanna became the mother of Nathaniel Hart in Hanover County, VA, May 8, 1734. Susanna became the mother of David Hart Hanover Co., VA, ca 1736. Susanna became the mother of John Hart Hanover Co., VA, ca 1738. At 33 years of age Susanna became the mother of Ann Hart Hanover Co., VA, 1740.

At 51 years of age Thomas became the father of Thomas Hart in Hanover County, VA, December 11, 1730. At 53 years of age Thomas became the father of Benjamin Hart in Hanover Co., NC, October 1732. At 54 years of age Thomas became the father of Nathaniel Hart in Hanover County, VA, May 8, 1734. Thomas became the father of David Hart Hanover Co., VA, ca 1736. Thomas became the father of John Hart Hanover Co., VA, ca 1738. At 61 years of age Thomas became the father of Ann Hart Hanover Co., VA, 1740.

Thomas Hart and Susanna Rice had the following children:

child 12 i. Thomas1 Hart was born in Hanover County, VA December 11, 1730. Thomas died June 23, 1808 in Lexington, KY, at 77 years of age. His body was interred in Old Episcopal Cemetery, Lexington, KY. He married Susanna Gray in North Carolina. Susanna was born 1749. Susanna was the daughter of John Gray. Susanna died 1832 in Lexington, KY, at 83 years of age. Her body was interred in Old Episcopal Cemetery, Lexington, KY. At 19 years of age Susanna became the mother of Eliza Hart September 9, 1768. At 23 years of age Susanna became the mother of Thomas Hart 1772. At 31 years of age Susanna became the mother of Lucretia Hart March 18, 1781. Susanna became the mother of Nathaniel Gray Smith Hart in Hagerstown, MD, ca 1784.

At 37 years of age Thomas became the father of Eliza Hart September 9, 1768. At 41 years of age Thomas became the father of Thomas Hart 1772. At 50 years of age Thomas became the father of Lucretia Hart March 18, 1781. Thomas became the father of Nathaniel Gray Smith Hart in Hagerstown, MD, ca 1784. Thomas Hart was engaged in business and had an entrprenurial bent. He was a member of the Transylvania Company and was one of the purchasers of some 20 million acres of Kentucky and Tennessee from the Cherokee Indians in 1775. This purchase was later nullified by the legislatures of Virginia and North Carolina. Thomas moved to Lexington, Kentucky from Hagerstown, MD in 1794. He had moved to Hagerstown from North Carolina during the Revolutionary War for safety. His biography from Dictionary of North Carolina Biography edited by William S. Powell, Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1988 follows: Hart, Thomas (ca. 1730-23 June 1808), merchant, public official, and militia officer, the son of Thomas and Susannah Rice Hart, was born in Hanover County, Va., on a plantation settled in 1690 by his English-born grandfather, also named Thomas. John, Benjamin, David, and Nathaniel were his brothers, and Ann his only sister. The family moved to Orange County, N.C., in 1755 after their father died. By 1779, Thomas had received a total of 2,282 acres of land in grants and erected his home, Hartford, near Hillsborough. In addition to farming, he built a gristmill on the nearby Eno River and conducted other business enterprises at the location that became known as Hart’s Mill. Later he became a partner with Nathaniei Rochester and James Brown in a mercantile establishment in Hillsborough. After establishing himself financially, Hart married Susannah Gray, the daughter of the wealthy and politically prominent Colonel John Gray. In 1775, the colonel died and left his entire estate to his son-in-law, including the large plantation Grayfields. With capital resources thus increased, Hart shrewdly expanded his business and by his industrious management accumulated a considerable fortune according to the Orange County tax books for 1779. In addition to his financial prosperity, Hart was successful politically. Shortly after settling in North Carolina, he became an intimate of James Watson, James Thackston, Thomas Burke, James Hogg, William Johnston, and Richard Henderson, and an acquaintance of Governor William Tryon and Edmund Fanning. This led to his appointment as a vestryman of St. Matthew’s Parish as well as county sheriff for a two-year term and another beginning in 1768. In the latter year he was also made a captain in the Orange County militia and commissary for the troops of Orange and Granville counties. Throughout his tenure of office, the sheriff was in constant controversy with the increasingly active Regulators. In 1765, the Assembly passed a bill introduced by Edmund Fanning to award Hart £1,000 for his losses as sheriff, and the previous legislature had included Hart in a group exempt from the payment of taxes. These acts infuriated the Regulators, who claimed the sheriff had no losses, but was being rewarded at public expense for using his influence in the election of Fanning to office. Hart also displeased the government by his failure to collect the unpopular poll tax, either because he disapproved of the law or did not understand it. In 1765, the Assembly ordered him to make the collection. Whether or not he did, he settled his financial account in the colony satisfactorily, which won for him a tribute from Orange County residents because he was the only sheriff ever to do so. When Governor Tryon decided in 1768 to have Herman Husband arraigned in court for his Regulator activities, Sheriff Hart served the warrant and took the accused into custody. In the same year, and again in 1771, Hart was ordered to raise five hundred troops for the defense of the colony. He was unable to enlist the requested manpower but on both occasions accumulated sufficient provisions to sustain the troops Tryon assembled at Hillsborough. The actions of the royal government increasingly incited the wrath of the Regulators, and the sheriff was one of a group of officials they severely whipped in 1770. In view of such treatment, Hart undoubtedly received considerable satisfaction in serving as quartermaster for Tryon when the governor dispersed the Regulators at the Battle of Alamance. During the relative calm that ensued after the War of the Regulation, Hart was able to concentrate on business enterprises. The role of an entrepreneur appealed to him, and in 1774 he became one of the partners in Richard Henderson’s Louisa Company to buy and develop lands in what became Tennessee and Kentucky. Hart journeyed to the Watauga section of Tennessee as one of the company’s representatives at a meeting arranged by Daniel Boone with the Cherokee Indians. John Sevier and Isaac Shelby, who attended as spectators, saw the Indians accept several loads of “trading goods” in return for their titular rights to a huge area of western land. After this transaction, the company was reorganized as the Transylvania Company with Richard Henderson, Thomas Hart, Nathaniel Hart, William Johnston, James Hogg, John Luttrell, John Williams, David Hart, and Leonard Henly Bullock as shareholders. Trading with the Indians for western lands strictly violated the Royal Proclamation of 1763, but, as many Americans were engaging in land speculation despite the king’s fiat, the Transylvanians ignored it also. The potential profit in the venture was enormous, and the partners lost no time in enlisting settlers to buy or rent land in the territory. Thomas Hart visited the Watauga again in 1775 and his brother, Nathaniel, became a resident agent for the company in the west until he was killed by Indians in 1782. The outcome of the American Revolution relieved the Transylvania Company of any interference in its affairs from the British government but presented a new dilemma because the states of North Carolina and Virginia claimed Tennessee and Kentucky, respectively, as part of their territory. The partners determined to establish their claim to the western land if possible and years of litigation followed. The final decision rendered that the company’s purchase was illegal but a tract was awarded the partners to recompense them for the expenses incurred in the transaction. Hart traded part of his share for land in Kentucky and eventually settled on it. After the War of the Regulation, Hart continued to fill an important role in political affairs, serving as a juror; member of a commission to build a new jail in Hillsborough; member of the colonial Assembly from Orange County in 1773; and then representative in the First, Second, and Third Provincial congresses. When the Revolution began, he was appointed commissary for the Sixth North Carolina Regiment with the rank of colonel. In addition, he was elected a senator in the North Carolina General Assembly for the 1777 session where he became involved in the work of so many committees that he resigned his military commission in order to attend to them. Although Hart, with many others, could not condone the violent tactics of the Regulators, he felt no compunction in becoming an ardent patriot in the American Revolution when independence was formally declared. In doing so, he incurred the hatred of the loyal Tories who unleashed their persecutions when Lord Cornwallis approached Hillsborough with the British Army. Concerned for the safety of his wife and several daughters, Hart removed to Hagerstown, Md., accompanied by Nathaniel Rochester, one of his former business partners. Shortly after his departure the Battle of Hart’s Mill was fought on his property, which the British occupied. Hart and Rochester built a mill and a nail and rope factory, both of which prospered. The colonel gradually disposed of his North Carolina property and never returned to the state. He sold his homeplace, Hartford, to Jesse Benton, husband of his niece, Nancy, and father of Thomas Hart Benton. As the purchaser died before paying for the place, Hart became the mortgagee of the property through a friendly lawsuit and allowed the widow and her family to continue to live there. The mortage was never fully redeemed, which apparently caused no ill will as Hart left the Bentons an additional tract of land when he died. In 1794, Hart moved to Lexington, Ky., where he resided for the remainder of his life. He built up his rope and hemp business into a highly profitable commercial enterprise and engaged in various forms of trade and investment. Due to his affluence, pleasing personality, and shrewd mind, Hart soon became one of the most prominent men in Kentucky. His daughter, Ann (Nancy), married James Brown who had engaged in business with the colonel and Rochester back in Hillsborough, and who later became the U.S. minister to France. Another daughter, Lucretia, born after the Harts left North Carolina, married Henry Clay. A niece married Isaac Shelby, and the other members of the family made marital connections in influential circles. In Maryland, Hart was a communicant of All Saints’ Parish (later renamed St. John’s), of the Protestant Episcopal church. In Kentucky, he joined an Episcopal society which eventually became Christ Church in Lexington. He was buried in the Old Episcopal Graveyard in that city. No portrait of Hart has been found.

SEE: Walter Clark, ed., State Records of North Carolina, vols. 11, 16, 24 (1895, 1899, 1905); Lyman Copeland Draper Letters (Kentucky Historical Society, Frankfort); William S. Lester, The Transylvania Colony (1935); Frank Nash, Hillsboro: Colonial and Revolutionary (1953); Records of Orange County (Offices, Register of Deeds and Clerk of Courts, County Courthouse, Hillsborough); William L. Saunders, ed., Colonial Records of North Carolina, vols. 7, 8 (1890); Durward T. Stokes, “Thomas Hart in North Carolina,” North Carolina Historical Review 41 (1964).


A web site about the Hart family may be found at

child 13 ii. Benjamin Hart was born in Hanover Co., NC October 1732. Benjamin died January 2, 1802 in Brunswick, Glynn Co., GA, at 69 years of age. He married Nancy Ann Morgan in North Carolina, 1760. Nancy was born in Orange Co., NC March 17, 1747. Nancy was the daughter of Thomas Morgan and Rebecca Alexander. Nancy died 1835 in Henderson Co., KY, at 88 years of age.

child + 1 iii. Nathaniel Hart was born May 8, 1734.

child 14 iv. David Hart was born Hanover Co., VA ca 1736. He married Susanna Nunn in Orange Co., NC, ca 1763. Susanna was born Hanover Co., VA ca 1742.

child 15 v. John Hart was born Hanover Co., VA ca 1738.

child 16 vi. Ann Hart was born Hanover Co., VA 1740. She married James Gooch in Orange Co., NC, 1763. James was born Hanover Co., VA ca 1736.

17. Susanna2 Rice (Thomas3, Edward4) was born in New Kent Co., VA 1707. Susanna died 1785 in Orange Co., NC, at 78 years of age.

She married Thomas Hart in Virginia, ca 1729. Thomas was born in England circa 1679. Thomas was the son of Thomas Hart and Mary. Thomas died circa 1755 Hanover Co., VA. At 51 years of age Thomas became the father of Thomas Hart in Hanover County, VA, December 11, 1730. At 53 years of age Thomas became the father of Benjamin Hart in Hanover Co., NC, October 1732. At 54 years of age Thomas became the father of Nathaniel Hart in Hanover County, VA, May 8, 1734. Thomas became the father of David Hart Hanover Co., VA, ca 1736. Thomas became the father of John Hart Hanover Co., VA, ca 1738. At 61 years of age Thomas became the father of Ann Hart Hanover Co., VA, 1740. (See Thomas Hart for the children resulting from this marriage.)

At 23 years of age Susanna became the mother of Thomas Hart in Hanover County, VA, December 11, 1730. At 25 years of age Susanna became the mother of Benjamin Hart in Hanover Co., NC, October 1732. At 26 years of age Susanna became the mother of Nathaniel Hart in Hanover County, VA, May 8, 1734. Susanna became the mother of David Hart Hanover Co., VA, ca 1736. Susanna became the mother of John Hart Hanover Co., VA, ca 1738. At 33 years of age Susanna became the mother of Ann Hart Hanover Co., VA, 1740.

Third Generation

18. Thomas3 Hart was born in England. Thomas died Hanover Co., VA.

He married Mary in England, ca 1675. Mary was born England. Mary became the mother of Thomas Hart in England, circa 1679.

Thomas became the father of Thomas Hart in England, circa 1679. Thomas Hart immigrated to Hanover Co., Virginia from England about 1690 bringing with him his 11 year old son, Thomas.

Thomas Hart and Mary had the following child:

child + 11 i. Thomas2 Hart was born circa 1679.

19. Mary3 was born England.

She married Thomas Hart in England, ca 1675. Thomas was born in England. Thomas died Hanover Co., VA. Thomas became the father of Thomas Hart in England, circa 1679. (See Thomas Hart for the children resulting from this marriage.)

Mary became the mother of Thomas Hart in England, circa 1679.

20. Thomas3 Rice (Edward4) was born in Shirementon, Bristol, England 1656. Thomas died ca 1711 in at sea.

He married Marcy in New Kent Co., VA, 1679. Marcy was born in New Kent Co., VA 1664. Marcy died after 1722 Hanover Co., VA. At 16 years of age Marcy became the mother of David Rice in New Kent Co., VA, 1680. At 18 years of age Marcy became the mother of William Rice in New Kent Co., VA, 1682. At 20 years of age Marcy became the mother of Michael Rice in New Kent Co., VA, 1684. At 21 years of age Marcy became the mother of James Rice in New Kent Co., VA, April 4, 1686. At 23 years of age Marcy became the mother of Thomas Rice in New Kent Co., VA, June 24, 1688. At 25 years of age Marcy became the mother of Edward Rice in New Kent Co., VA, April 17, 1690. At 30 years of age Marcy became the mother of Mary Rice in New Kent Co., VA, 1694. At 34 years of age Marcy became the mother of John Rice in New Kent Co., VA, September 18, 1698. At 35 years of age Marcy became the mother of Francis Rice in New Kent Co., VA, 1699. At 38 years of age Marcy became the mother of Henry Rice in New Kent Co., VA, 1702. At 43 years of age Marcy became the mother of Susanna Rice in New Kent Co., VA, 1707. At 45 years of age Marcy became the mother of Elizabeth Rice in New Kent Co., VA, 1709.

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Two Stars In The Statuary Garden

To make a statue of someone is to immortalize that person. On July 4th. POTUS revealed his list of people he thinks are worthy of being immortalized in a protected garden. Will there be armed guards? How like ZARDOZ this mad act is. If Trump should be reelected, and this garden made, let sane people pass a petition bidding a statue of Hillary Clinton be made and inserted. Here is a former general announcing the Republicans will be conducting Cultural Warfare if their Stone Head gets elected. This call to lock up a Presidential Candidate – who got by far the majority of black votes – has led to an armed Black Militia marching to Stone Mountain. These men and women – are from the Shire and are on the right side of Justice!

Come to Stone Mountain!

There can be no doubt I am a prophet. As Sheriff Two Stars, I saw the Great Culteral Battle coming via my muse, Rena Easton, who accused me of being “left-leaning”. At High Noon……this Democracy took a major shift to the Left.. The President of the United States has flipped out and has created a wiZARD of OZ vortex, a statuary garden with statues of Billy Graham and others, Trump thought worthy of preserving in the culture war he fueled for four years. I am going to write Donald and tell him what Ed Ray (and his nameless nobodies) did to my kin Senator Thomas Hart Benton. I will tell him I am kin to Robert and Christopher Lee. I will suggest a statue of the latter be included in The Garden to represent Churchill’s alliance with America.

The STONE HEAD of my kin, Robert E. Lee, is being targeted. One armed black man pointed his rifle at it.

“Come to the Stone Head Vortex and practice your first and second rights.”


Johnny Two Stars

Sheriff Two Stars Saw The Future

I saw this coming. I never touched Belle, except to feel the goosebumps on her arm. I haven’t seen Rena in forty-seven years. I don’t have her phone number or address. Belle forgot to tell me she does not want to hear from, and sent me an e-mail saying so – after her She-Demon declared WAR ON ME. I guess Rena declared war on me when she put Deputy Sheriff, Dan Wayland, on my trail. I am a reporter for my newspaper. I have been very topical, but, only I knew it.  All news folks and messengers want to be Seers. Very few are! My stock is way up. I am in the catbird seat!


In the first video below I thank Rena for one of the greatest stories of all time in regards to her claim I was stalking her. I now recall how her letter got to me. I found out she was the member of this church in Bozeman, and I wrote the pastor a letter asking him to give it to Rena if her felt that was appropriate. That there are two groups of Christian defending and opposing Roy Moore, is manifest in my right and left wing muses. This video was made three years ago, before Roy rode into our lives – forever.

Sheriff Two Stars

An Alabama pastor who supports Senate candidate Roy Moore (R) blasted the allegations of sexual harassment against Moore, saying they’re part of a “war on men.”

More women are sexual predators than men,” Pastor Franklin Raddish told “Women are chasing young boys up and down the road, but we don’t hear about that because it’s not PC.”

If this blog is about anything, it is about the Showdown between Roy Moore, and Sheriff Two Stars in the Cultural Warfare Gun&Bible Battle of the century. I have already lost a half dozen of my Liberal Friends over this one, because they wanted to believe Jesus was good for us, even when wielded by a Conservative Maniac who piled sandbags around his bunk in Vietnam, lest he be fragged.

Here is the Evil Grunt that inspired Bill Cornwell’s father who fought me for my grandson, making me out to be a parasite and traitor. Taking away my offspring was justified because I had been an Anti-War Hippie Demonstrator in Berkley. I was a very Bad Man, because I took away some of that fake holy shine these Vietnam Warriors for Jesus wanted as they strut about with their chest stuck out, and a Bible crammed up the crack in their ass for safe-keeping as they destroy the Yellow Gooks!

Christianity affirms God’s love for the neighbor and care for the most vulnerable in society: the widow, the foreigner, and the orphan. But he has denigrated people from other countries and other faiths. He opposes the expansion of Medicaid which would provide basic healthcare for over 400,000 poor and working poor Alabamians. He seeks to deny the most basic civil rights of our fellow citizens.

An Alabama pastor who supports Senate candidate Roy Moore (R) blasted the allegations of sexual harassment against Moore, saying they’re part of a “war on men.”

“More women are sexual predators than men,” Pastor Franklin Raddish told “Women are chasing young boys up and down the road, but we don’t hear about that because it’s not PC.”

The news organization spoke to Raddish as part of an effort to speak with every pastor that endorsed Moore before the allegations against him were made public. Nineteen of the 29 pastors who responded told they were still supporting Moore.

Dozens of other Alabama pastors signed on to a letter released Friday calling Moore unfit for office and accusing him of preaching “extremist values” while comparing him to politicians who have “cynically used Christianity for their own goals.”

The letter also takes aim at Moore for the sexual misconduct allegations against him, saying his actions serve to “reopen the wounds of anyone who has been abused by leaders who should have been committed to compassion, to justice, and to healing God’s world.”

An Open Letter From Alabama Pastors About Roy Moore

Under ordinary circumstances, we clergy refrain from speaking directly about political candidates, and only speak to issues. But these are not ordinary circumstances.

Even before the recent allegations of sexual abuse, Roy Moore demonstrated that he was not fit for office, and that his extremist values and actions are not consistent with traditional Christian values or good Christian character. He and politicians like him have cynically used Christianity for their own goals. But Roy Moore does not speak for Christianity, and he acts in ways that are contrary to our faith.

Christianity affirms God’s love for the neighbor and care for the most vulnerable in society: the widow, the foreigner, and the orphan. But he has denigrated people from other countries and other faiths. He opposes the expansion of Medicaid which would provide basic healthcare for over 400,000 poor and working poor Alabamians. He seeks to deny the most basic civil rights of our fellow citizens. He has used racial slurs and casually referred to state-sponsored violence against lesbian and gay families. He has sought to deny children without parents access to loving families on the basis of sexual orientation. Kindness and justice toward widows, orphans, and foreigners are priorities in the Bible but they are not priorities for him.

Christianity thrives in religious freedom from government interference, and a government impartial toward people of all faith traditions. But instead he has sought to entangle government with religion. He has preached vehemently against Islamic religious law but he has sought government affirmation of his religious extremism and nationalism. He has claimed civil rights only apply to Christians.

Christianity rejoices in the truth and affirms the rights of abuse survivors to tell their stories without silencing. Christianity abhors sexual coercion and violence. We acknowledge that many people have been victims of sexual assault and abuse in our own places of worship. Clergy misconduct has done real and lasting harm, both physically and spiritually. We repudiate the actions of religious and political leaders like Roy Moore who have sought to silence, to cover up, and to be complicit in the sexual abuse. These actions reopen the wounds of anyone who has been abused by leaders who should have been committed to compassion, to justice, and to healing God’s world.

Why is this important?

We clergy write and sign this letter not as representatives of our own congregations but as individual faith leaders compelled by conscience to speak. Our intent is not to tell anyone how to vote, but to urge the people of Alabama to vote their conscience, regardless of political affiliation. It is our belief that in light of Roy Moore’s extremist beliefs, his patterns of behavior, and the recent allegations against him, no person of faith can, in good conscience, support him or his religious nationalism. He has done harm to our government; he has done harm to our Christian witness; and he has done harm to vulnerable people.

We do not make this statement lightly. We do so with much prayer and discernment. We believe no follower of Jesus Christ should be silent while the words of our Lord and Savior are perverted for partisan power, while our Bible is appropriated as a weapon for a false “culture war,” and while the name of our God is blasphemed by the hypocrisy of those who claim the name of Christ


Pastor’s Letter

Dear friends and fellow Alabamians,

From the pulpit to hospital rooms, from wedding altars to the funeral home, from the Capitol to our prisons, we are called to serve Jesus Christ in every area of life. With our calling comes a responsibility to address such compelling cultural issues as the special election for United States Senate. We have the opportunity this Tuesday, August 15, to send a man to Washington who shares our convictions, will fight for morality, and will restore integrity in the halls of Congress. That man is Judge Roy Moore.


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Son of The Star

Everything points to me being The Son of the Star.

John ‘The End Time Elijah’

I Am The Son of The Star

God placed a barrier of Truth around this planet to save it from large asteroids and meteorites. That barrier is being eroded because of the gush of lies spewing out of the mouth of Satan-Trump, who was elected by false Christian followers of John Darby who invented the Rapture and fake End Time.

I was born during an amazing star shower. My work has been kept a secret, as is the case of all Sons of God’s Truth before me. We do not live forever. Our mission may not live forever. There are indication the Star Shield – will fail. There is evidence, a giant asteroid in on a collision course with earth.

I suspect Jesus diverted a large meteorite by dying on the cross. It was a close call. It’s tail blocked out the sunlight and a shock wave tore the curtain in the temple. The ground shook, and tomb were opened. Jewish Saints blamed the Roman Slave Masters for degrading the Kingdom of Truth. Caesar, the Czar, ordered the truth of these events to be silenced. He hired Saul-Paul to make THE TRUTH go away. He hunted down the followers of Son of The Star, and murdered them. I am – back! So are my disciples that I raised from the dead. We are of a different planet. We survived a shipwreck. We are of…….

The Ghost Fleet

President Trump was given the truth when given the nuclear football. He flipped out. He couldn’t handle the truth. He knows there is a good chance the world is going to end. So does Putin. How about Israel? Why move our embassy to Jerusalem.

In watching the video of me in front of Kesey’s cottage, I saw again the gold rays of sunlight bouncing off my Star, my badge – giving me away. Try as I am, I can not get around the truth Belle Burch has………………destroyed the world. This is why I forgive her. She didn’t know any better. You have to laugh! Beauty and ‘The Beast’ the name we gave the Star of Doom. Do the math………..666.

Jon ‘The Dream Seer’

Copyright 2018

A team of scientists is scanning the Pacific Ocean depths to find fragments of a huge meteor.

Research vessel E/V Nautilus will be attempting to find the remains of a meteor that flashed across the skies of the Pacific Northwest on March 7, 2018, before hitting the ocean. The meteor was visible in parts of Washington state, Oregon and British Columbia, according to the American Meteor Society.

The Ocean Exploration Trust is working with experts from the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary, NASA and the University of Washington to locate the site of the meteorite fall. E/V Nautilus will map an area of about 0.4 square miles. Undersea drones will be used to search the area and recover any fragments found. The search will be livestreamed from between 12 p.m. ET and 7 p.m. ET.

If pieces of the space rock are successfully retrieved from the seabed, it will be the first known recovery of a meteorite from the ocean, the Ocean Exploration Trust says. “If found, meteorite fragments will be shipped to the Smithsonian Museum in Washington, D.C. and become part of their research collections,” it added, in a statement.

MOSCOW, June 30. /TASS/. Russia’s state nuclear corporation, Rosatom, has launched a research into technologies that would allow to protect the planet from the asteroid and meteorite threat, a senior Russian researcher has told TASS.

“Our study is only a part of the quest to create an asteroid protection system. The priorities here are detection, classification and high-precision monitoring of a celestial body. After that, a bomb should be designed, which would be safe enough during the launch. A carrier rocket will have to be designed, too,” said Vladimir Rogachev, the deputy head of the laser physics institute at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center (VNIIEF), part of the Rosatom corporation.

“This is an international task of impressive scope. We have something to offer. But there are also things that we need to borrow,” he went on.

“Regretfully, international politics and the current state of international relations necessitate a different format of communications, so we have to wait. But we should not procrastinate: when a dangerous asteroid approaches the Earth, it will be too late,” the researcher added.

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Jesus Was A National Messiah

Jesus was a Nationalist come to save Judea – and not spread a anti-Semitic teaching all over the known world. Jesus was born in a Sukkot Booth and read from the Book of Ruth on the Mount of Olives. The Last Supper was about declaring the land under Herod’s temple belong to him because he descended from Ruth and Boaz. Jesus sent his older brother to pay the Jubilee fee because the land could not be sold – forever! This is why they came and arrested Jesus – and crucified him and his followers! This was later changed by Satan-Paul who claimed the Messiah died for the sins of Pagans so they will know eternal life. He is a liar!

The Sprit of the Lord is upon me, and this Holy Ghost tells me to help restore the stolen lands to the Native Americans. Every document that shows a sale to whites, is now undone. These deeded lands are returned to the true owners.

John ‘The Nazarite’

The Book of Ruth is an important historical work in Hebrew Scripture, our Old Testament of the Bible, as it traces the lineage of King David and ultimately that of the Messiah, Jesus Christ. Ruth was a Moabite woman, whose sense of piety and devotion to her mother-in-law Naomi led to her marriage to the prominent Boaz of Bethlehem in Judah.

The Book of Ruth was part of the Writings of Hebrew Scripture. Ruth follows Joshua and Judges, and precedes the Books of Samuel and Kings in the Historical Books of the Greek Septuagint Old Testament, and continues as such in the Latin Vulgate and our Christian Old Testament. The Book of Ruth is called ῾Ρούθ in the Greek Septuagint.

The Book of Ruth is read in synagogues on Pentecost, the Feast of the Lord known as the Feast of Weeks or Shavuot – שָׁבוּעוֹת – the Spring Jewish Harvest Festival in the lunar month of Sivan (May or early June). It is the second of five Megillot or Scrolls that are read during the Festivals of the Lord (Leviticus 23) or Jewish Memorial Holidays. See also Song of Songs, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Esther. The Book shows that God’s love is open to both Christian and Gentile, as he blessed the Moabite woman who chose the Lord for her God (1:16), and placed her life under his wing (2:12). Ruth and the lineage of King David in the last lines of the book (4:17-22) are repeated in the genealogy of Jesus Christ in the Gospel of Matthew (1:4-6) in the New Testament of the Bible.

Why Throw Jesus Off A Cliff?

For ten years I have been trying to figure out why they tried to throw Jesus off a cliff. I thought it was because he restored the Jubilee, which he did, but after restoring God’s Clock, he restarted the Count Down to The End of Days, that was going to happen in HIS LIFETIME! This appears to happen in Matthew 27:53, when graves are opened, and the occupants inside, rise and go talk to folks in Jerusalem. What went wrong? Why didn’t the world end? Was only a small section of the world going to end? Roman Slavery was not abolished, was it? Then, here come Saul-Paul with a new teaching.

Luke was written after the Jewish War that got started with the burning of the debt archives. Why elude to Jesus being a part of this? Because, the Jews, and thus God, lost His Abolitionist War with the Roman Slave Masters, and, His alleged Son, failed to bring the world to an end.

When Jesus was dragged to the edge of the cliff, he probably rebuked the crowd, telling them that killing the Messenger will not deter what God wills, and this attempt to do so, rendered them blasphemers!. Makes sense to me! This is ‘The Missing Lesson of Jesus’. 

On this day, July 2, I declare all Christian Religions – DEAD! It is finished!

You can thank the evil and twisted teaching of Denish D’Souza for bringing about the end of Christianity, along with the help of the False Messiah of the Jews – who rarely tells the truth! These two have laid the stinkiest brown turd that Satan ever lay on God’s green earth! God hates these two – with a passion! They have played God – with the truth!


John ‘The Nazarite’

Copyright 2018

Jesus Rejected at Nazareth

14 Jesus returned to Galilee in the power of the Spirit, and news about him spread through the whole countryside. 15 He was teaching in their synagogues, and everyone praised him.

16 He went to Nazareth, where he had been brought up, and on the Sabbath day he went into the synagogue, as was his custom. He stood up to read, 17 and the scroll of the prophet Isaiah was handed to him. Unrolling it, he found the place where it is written:

1“The Spirit of the Lord is on me,
    because he has anointed me
    to proclaim good news to the poor.
He has sent me to proclaim freedom for the prisoners
    and recovery of sight for the blind,
to set the oppressed free,
19     to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor.[f]

20 Then he rolled up the scroll, gave it back to the attendant and sat down. The eyes of everyone in the synagogue were fastened on him. 21 He began by saying to them, “Today this scripture is fulfilled in your hearing.”

22 All spoke well of him and were amazed at the gracious words that came from his lips. “Isn’t this Joseph’s son?” they asked.

23 Jesus said to them, “Surely you will quote this proverb to me: ‘Physician, heal yourself!’ And you will tell me, ‘Do here in your hometown what we have heard that you did in Capernaum.’”

24 “Truly I tell you,” he continued, “no prophet is accepted in his hometown. 25 I assure you that there were many widows in Israel in Elijah’s time, when the sky was shut for three and a half years and there was a severe famine throughout the land. 26 Yet Elijah was not sent to any of them, but to a widow in Zarephath in the region of Sidon. 27 And there were many in Israel with leprosy[g] in the time of Elisha the prophet, yet not one of them was cleansed—only Naaman the Syrian.”

28 All the people in the synagogue were furious when they heard this. 29 They got up, drove him out of the town, and took him to the brow of the hill on which the town was built, in order to throw him off the cliff. 30 But he walked right through the crowd and went on his way.

14 “That terrible day of the Lord is near.
    Swiftly it comes—
a day of bitter tears,
    a day when even strong men will cry out.
15 It will be a day when the Lord’s anger is poured out—
    a day of terrible distress and anguish,
a day of ruin and desolation,
    a day of darkness and gloom,
a day of clouds and blackness,
16     a day of trumpet calls and battle cries.
Down go the walled cities
    and the strongest battlements!

nsults on him.

The Death of Jesus

45 From noon until three in the afternoon darkness came over all the land. 46 About three in the afternoon Jesus cried out in a loud voice, “Eli, Eli,[c] lema sabachthani?” (which means “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?”).[d]

47 When some of those standing there heard this, they said, “He’s calling Elijah.”

48 Immediately one of them ran and got a sponge. He filled it with wine vinegar, put it on a staff, and offered it to Jesus to drink. 49 The rest said, “Now leave him alone. Let’s see if Elijah comes to save him.”

50 And when Jesus had cried out again in a loud voice, he gave up his spirit.

51 At that moment the curtain of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom. The earth shook, the rocks split 52 and the tombs broke open. The bodies of many holy people who had died were raised to life. 53 They came out of the tombs after Jesus’ resurrection and[e] went into the holy city and appeared to many people.

54 When the centurion and those with him who were guarding Jesus saw the earthquake and all that had happened, they were terrified, and exclaimed, “Surely he was the Son of God!”

Throwing Jesus Off A Cliff

Jesus began a tax rebellion that led to the war with Rome. Jesus was very aware slave economics was destroying the Kingdon of God, and other civilizations that sought Liberty.

The American tax rebellion is funded by the rich so they can aim it at the poor – steer it away from themselves! The rich are expendable – too! They can be replaced.

Below is a post I made a year ago.


I have been asking folks why there was an attempt to throw Jesus off a cliff. There are three possible answers:

1. He was recognized as the Scapegoat worthy of human sacrifice.
2. He had promised to restore the Jubilee in the place of his birth and evict the false landlords from the property of his kinfolk who had become indentured slaves.
3. He promises to save the Gentiles and not the Jews.

“No prophet is accepted in his hometown… There were many in Israel with leprosy in the time of Elisha the prophet, yet only one of them was cleansed-only Naaman the Syrian”. (Luke 4:24, 27).

In looking at the genealogy of my kindred, the Rougemonts, I discovered they were Knights Templar who owned the shroud of Turin. Eight years ago I found an article that said Rougemont Castle was bought by a consortium of un-named men. The Templars were alleged prophets – and bankers. I suspect Rougemont Castle was bought by world bankers who made Rougemont a capital of offshore banking.

There has been several attempt to throw my revelations off a cliff.

Jon Presco


Bank Account and Debit card in Rougemont
Offshore Bank Account in Rougemont
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Total commercialization; everywhere perversities; rebellious youth
When the millennium begins, which comes after the millennium
Will gold be in the blood
Who looks at the sky, there are dollars
Whoever steps into the temple, where traders meet
The lenders will be money changers and usurers.
But the fire will smolder
Each city will be a Sodom and Gomorrah
And the children will become a glowing clouds
They will lift the old flags.

Luke 4:21-30 provides us with a glimpse of the ramifications of Jesus’ homecoming to Nazareth. It all begins rather well earlier in the chapter, when Jesus–being filled with the Holy Spirit after his temptations in the wilderness–returns to Galilee and to his hometown of Nazareth. Once there he goes to the Synagogue on the Sabbath day (which, as Luke reminds us, was his custom). While there he exercises the right of every Jewish man to take part in the reading and interpretation of scripture (as an aside, the account given here of Synagogue worship is among the earliest accounts we have). He reads the following passage from Isaiah, saying:
“The Spirit of the Lord is upon me,
because he has anointed me
to bring good news to the poor.
He has sent me to proclaim release to the captives
and recovery of sight to the blind,
to let the oppressed go free,
to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favour.”

In Luke 4, Jesus visited his hometown of Nazareth. He had already achieved considerable local fame, owing to his extraordinary teaching and miracles (4:14). So, when the Sabbath came around, Jesus was invited to read the Scriptures in the synagogue. He selected a passage from chapter 61 of Isaiah, a text that announces the mission of the Messiah. After reading this passage, Jesus sat down, assuming the posture of a teacher. Then he said, “The Scripture you’ve just heard has been fulfilled this very day” (4:21).
At first the people in the synagogue were impressed by what Jesus said. But then he stirred the pot by predicting that he would not be accepted in Nazareth and by connecting his ministry to the actions of the prophets Elijah and Elisha, who healed Gentiles but not their fellow Jews. This angered the synagogue congregation, which drove Jesus to the edge of a hill so as to push him off. Somehow, he managed to escape.
Why did the people in Nazareth spurn Jesus? To put it simply, he failed to meet their expectations. When he refused to do what they wanted, they were quick to reject him. Plus, they were understandably fearful that his messianic message might bring Roman wrath down upon them. Better to get rid of Jesus than to let him mess up their lives!

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Jubilee Deliverance Ghost Dance

The Jubilee of the Native Americans has begun on the Fourth of July. Ancient land will be returned to the original owners.

John ‘The Nazarite’

Trump also went after protesters who’ve rallied to take down statues and monuments that honor Confederate leaders and others known to have supported or profited off of slavery and racism.

“We will never allow an angry mob to tear down our statues, erase our history, indoctrinate our children, or trample on our freedoms,” he said.

Trump said media outlets “slander” him and “falsely and consistently label their opponents as racists.”

The president also returned to his call for the creation of the National Garden of American Heroes, for which he signed an executive order on Friday.

He said his administration has already selected “30 legends,” men and women that include: John Adams, Susan B. Anthony, Clara Barton, Daniel Boone, Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, Henry Clay, Davy Crockett, Frederick Douglass, Amelia Earhart, Benjamin Franklin, Billy Graham, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, Martin Luther King Jr., Abraham Lincoln, Douglas MacArthur, Dolley Madison, James Madison, Christa McAuliffe, Audie Murphy, George S. Patton, Ronald Reagan, Jackie Robinson, Betsy Ross, Antonin Scalia, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Harriet Tubman, Booker T. Washington, George Washington, and Orville and Wilbur Wright.


Year at the end of seven cycles of shmita (Sabbatical years)

Israeli stamp commemorating the Jewish National Fund and quoting Leviticus 25:23: “The land must not be sold permanently…”

The Jubilee (Hebrew: יובלyōḇel; Yiddish: yoyvl) is the year at the end of seven cycles of shmita (Sabbatical years) and, according to Biblical regulations, had a special impact on the ownership and management of land in the Land of Israel. According to the Book of Leviticus, Hebrew slaves and prisoners would be freed, debts would be forgiven, and the mercies of God would be particularly manifest.

Rabbinic literature mentions a dispute between the Sages and Rabbi Yehuda over whether it was the 49th year (the last year of seven sabbatical cycles, referred to as the Sabbath’s Sabbath), or whether it was the following (50th) year.[1] The Jubilee (“Year of Release”) deals largely with land, property, and property rights.

The biblical rules concerning Sabbatical years are still observed by many religious Jews in Israel, but the regulations for the Jubilee year have not been observed for many centuries. According to the Torah, observance of Jubilee only applies when the Jewish people live in the land of Israel according to their tribes. Thus, with the exile of the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and Manasseh (about 600 BCE), Jubilee has not been applicable.[2]


The Septuagint rendered the Hebrew yovel as “a trumpet-blast of liberty” (ἀφέσεως σημασία apheseôs sêmasia), and the Vulgate by Latin iobeleus. Traditionally, it was thought that the English term Jubilee derives from the Hebrew term yobel (via Latin Jubilaeus), which in turn derives from yobhel, meaning ram;[citation needed] the Jubilee year was announced by a blast on a shofar, an instrument made from a ram’s horn, during that year’s Yom Kippur.[3]

An alternative etymology notes that the Latin verb iūbilō, “shout for joy,” predates the Vulgate, and proposes that instead the Latin jubilo (meaning shout, from Proto-Italic *), as well as Middle Irish ilach (victory cry), English yowl, and Ancient Greek iuzō (ἰύζω: shout), derived from a Proto-Indo-European root *yu- (shout for joy).[4] In this theory, the Hebrew term for “jubilee” is a borrowing from neighboring Indo-European languages, rather than deriving from another Hebrew word.

Origin and purpose[edit]

The Levites sound the trumpet of Jubilee (1873 illustration)

Leviticus 25:8–13 states:

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You shall count off seven Sabbaths of years, seven times seven years; and there shall be to you the days of seven Sabbaths of years, even forty-nine years. Then you shall sound the loud trumpet on the tenth day of the seventh month. On the Day of Atonement you shall sound the trumpet throughout all your land. You shall make the fiftieth year holy, and proclaim liberty throughout the land to all its inhabitants. It shall be a jubilee to you; and each of you shall return to his own property, and each of you shall return to his family. That fiftieth year shall be a jubilee to you. In it you shall not sow, neither reap that which grows of itself, nor gather from the undressed vines. For it is a jubilee; it shall be holy to you. You shall eat of its increase out of the field. In this Year of Jubilee each of you shall return to his property. (WEB)

Ancient Near Eastern societies regularly declared noncommercial debts void, typically at the coronation of a new king or at the king’s order.[5] Biblical scholars once argued that the Jubilee was an obvious development of the Sabbatical year.[6] Rather than waiting for the 50th or 49th year, the Deuteronomic Code requires that Hebrew slaves be liberated during their 7th year of service,[7] as does the Covenant Code,[8] which some textual scholars regard as pre-dating the Holiness code;[9] the Book of Ezekiel, which some textual scholars also regard as earlier than the Holiness Code, refers to a year of liberty (שנת דרור), during which property is returned to the original owner (or their heirs),[10] (earlier written mentioning in Sum: ama-gi, ama-ar-gi, ‘return to the mother’) but the word דרור is used by Jeremiah to describe the release of slaves during the Sabbatical year,[11] which various scholars take to imply that Ezekiel must have been referring to the sabbatical year.[6] Scholars suspect that the transfer of these regulations to 49th or 50th year was a deliberate attempt to parallel the fact that Shavuot is 50 days after Passover, and follows seven weeks of harvest;[6] this parallel is regarded as significant in Kabbalah.[12]

According to the documentary hypothesis, originally proposed by Julius Wellhausen, the Biblical chapters that contain the Jubilee and Sabbatical-year legislation (chapters 25 and 27 of Leviticus) were part of the so-called “P” or Priestly Code that Wellhausen believed represented the last stage in the development of Israel’s religion. [13] Wellhausen dated those chapters to a late exilic or post-exilic period though many modern proponents of the Documentary Hypothesis have arrived at different datings.

Wellhausen’s theory that the Jubilee and Sabbatical-year legislation was written in the exilic or post-exilic period, specifically after the time of Ezekiel, has always been challenged by scholars who have maintained the traditional position of Judaism and Christianity for the Mosaic authorship of Leviticus. Recently, however, the theories of Wellhausen and others who date the Jubilee and Sabbatical-year legislation to the exilic period or later have also been challenged by scholars who generally do not have a conservative view of the Bible. Yehezekel Kaufmann has argued that the book of Ezekiel quotes from the Sabbatical and Jubilee legislation of the Book of Leviticus, which must have been in existence before Ezekiel’s writings.[14] This argument has been expanded by Risa Levitt Kohn. Kohn examined in detail the 97 terms and phrases that are shared between Ezekiel and the Priestly Code.[15][16] She concludes:

Here are some poems and books written in America by my great grandfather, Reverend John Wilson. Moses made me aware John was a Missionary in a strange land full of non-white people. He was a compatriot of John Eliot.

John ‘The Nazarite’

A song of deliverance for the lasting remembrance of Gods wonderful works never to be forgotten. Containing in it the wonderful defeat of the Spanish-Armado, anno, 1588. the woful plague, anno, 1603. soon upon the entrance of King James of famous memory, unto the Crown of England. : With the discovery of the Povvder Plot, anno, 1605. and the downfall of Black Fryers, when an hellish crew of papists met to hear Drury a popish priest, anno 1623. Also the grievous plague anno, 1625. with poems both Latin and English, and the verses of that learned Theodore Beza.

Wilson, John, 1588-1667.

Page  [unnumbered]

Christian Reader.

COnsidering how excedingly pretious the remem|brance of this heavenly man of God is (whose Poems these are) unto all that knew him, yea, and the thoughts of that sacred ashes locked up within his Tomb, the thoughts of whom is enough to cause Fountains to run over, and to trickle down mine Eyes, and the Eyes of all tender hearts that loved him, this emboldneth me to present unto you this heavenly Song. Endited by him, or rather the holy Spirit of God unto him many years agoe, hoping they will find acceptanec with you, os he had a fluent strain in Poetry, so how ex|cellent was the matter contained in the same, being full of Direction, Correction, and Consolation, suiting much unto spiritual Edification. What Volums hath he penned for the help of others in their several changes of condition, which if they were all compiled together, would questionless make a large Folio. How was his heart full of good matter? He was another sweet sing|er of Israel, whoss heavenly Verses passed like to the handkerchief carryed from Paul to help and uphold dis|consolate ones, and to heal their wracked Souls, by the effectual prisence of Gods holy Spirit. Seeing those are not so visible unto the World, he pleased to peruse these, redivived by this present Impression, wherein we may obsrve what were Gods former mercyes towards his People in great Brittain, his wonderful mercy to King, Peers, and People, and unto our Fathers; when the Spanish Popish Plot was dashed in pieces, and the half Moon of their Navy, (whose horns stood seven Page  [unnumbered] mile asunder) was shattred into Confusion. Gods Judgements also in the two dreadful plagues (which are mentioned in this Book) and Gods healing hand. The discovery also, and defeating the hellish Powder Plot. The woful downfall at Black Friers, where Drury with many of his Attendants breathed their last breath. What sayth Asaph, Psal. 78.2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. I will open my mouth in a Parable, I will utter dark sayings of old, which we have heard, and known, and our Fathers have told us, we will not hide them from their Children, which should be born, who should arise, and declare them unto their Chil|dren, that they might set their hope in God, and not forget the works of God: but keep his Commandments: And what can be 〈◊〉 suitable to read over, then what is here presented. Considering (as hretofore) the Devil with his Instruments have contrived to swallow up that famous Kingdome, and the Church of Christ in it, so now, are not all the Devils of Hell, with such whom they employ, busying themselves to batter down the walls of Zion, and to make breaches at the gates thereof, that so they might exe|cute the utmost Butcheries that can be invented, thereby to over|throw the Kingdome of Christ here on Earth in every place? but that God who hath been the refuge of his People hitherto, that over|threw the Egyptians at the red Sea, that destroyed Sisera with his Army, he can save his People now in all places. Only let us thankefully remember Gods former mercyes shewed to his people in both Eng|lands, really and unfeignedly repent of whatsoever we have provo|ked him with; Call and cry earnestly to him, and trust in the only Rock of Jesus Christ, who is our hope and Salvation for ever. Take in good part what is here presented to you from the Son of him who is 〈◊〉, so pretious a Father, who heartily wisheth your welfare, and the peace of all Gods Israel.

Yours to serve in Christ Jesus John Wilson.

John Eliot (missionary)

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John Eliot
Portrait of John Eliot.jpg
Born 1604

Widford, Hertfordshire, England
Died 21 May 1690(1690-05-21) (aged 85–86)
Occupation Puritan missionary to Native Americans
Appletons' Eliot John signature.jpg

John Eliot (c. 1604 – 21 May 1690) was a Puritan missionary to the American Indians who some called “the apostle to the Indians”[1][2][3] and the founder of Roxbury Latin School in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1645.

Cuckoos Farm, Little Baddow, Eliot’s home around 1629

John Eliot was born in Widford, Hertfordshire, England and lived at Nazeing as a boy. He attended Jesus College, Cambridge.[4] After college, he became assistant to Thomas Hooker at a private school in Little Baddow, Essex.[5] After Hooker was forced to flee to Holland, Eliot emigrated to Boston, Massachusetts, arranging passage as chaplain on the ship Lyon and arriving on November 3, 1631. Eliot became minister and “teaching elder” at the First Church in Roxbury.[3]

From 1637 to 1638 Eliot participated in both the civil and church trials of Anne Hutchinson during the Antinomian Controversy. Eliot disapproved of Hutchinson’s views and actions, and was one of the two ministers representing Roxbury in the proceedings which led to her excommunication and exile.[6] In 1645, Eliot founded the Roxbury Latin School. He and fellow ministers Thomas Weld (also of Roxbury), Thomas Mayhew of Martha’s Vineyard, and Richard Mather of Dorchester, are credited with editing the Bay Psalm Book, the first book published in the British North American colonies (1640). From 1649 to 1674, Samuel Danforth assisted Eliot in his Roxbury ministry.[1]

Roxbury and Dorchester, Massachusetts[edit]

There are many connections between the towns of Roxbury and Dorchester and John Eliot. After working for a short time as pastor in Boston as the temporary replacement for Mr. John Wilson at Boston’s first church society, John Eliot settled in Roxbury with other Puritans from Essex, England.[7] He was the teacher at The First Church in Roxbury for sixty years and was their sole pastor for forty years.[8]

For the first forty years in Roxbury, Eliot preached in the 20′ by 30 ‘foot meetinghouse with thatched roof and plastered walls that stood on Meetinghouse Hill. Eliot founded the Roxbury Grammar School and he worked hard to keep it prosperous and relevant.[8] Eliot also preached at times in the Dorchester church, he was given land by Dorchester for use in his missionary efforts. And in 1649 he gave half of a donation he received from a man in London to the schoolmaster of Dorchester.[9]

Use of the Massachusett language[edit]

The chief barrier to preaching to the American Indians was language.[8] Gestures and pidgin English were used for trade but could not be used to convey a sermon. John Eliot began to study the Massachusett or Wampanoag language, which was the language of the local Indians.[10] To help him with this task, Eliot relied on a young Indian[3] named “Cockenoe“.[11][10] Cockenoe had been captured in the Pequot War of 1637[12] and became a servant of an Englishman named Richard Collicott.[10][13] John Eliot said, “he was the first that I made use of to teach me words, and to be my interpreter.”[10] Cockenoe could not write but he could speak Massachusett and English. With his help, Eliot was able to translate the Ten Commandments, the Lord’s Prayer and other scriptures and prayers.[10]

The first time Eliot attempted to preach to Indians (led by Cutshamekin) in 1646 at Dorchester Mills,[14] he failed and said that they, “gave no heed unto it, but were weary and despised what I said.”[10] The second time he preached to the Indians was at the wigwam of Waban near Watertown Mill which was later called Nonantum, now Newton, MA.[10] John Eliot was not the first Puritan missionary to try to convert the Indians to Christianity but he was the first to produce printed publications for the Algonquian Indians in their own language.[10]

This was important because the settlements of “praying Indians” could be provided with other preachers and teachers to continue the work John Eliot started.[10] By translating sermons to the Massachusett language, John Eliot brought the Indians an understanding of Christianity but also an understanding of written language. They did not have an equivalent written “alphabet” of their own and relied mainly on spoken language and pictorial language.[15]

Missionary career[edit]

First Bible printed in New World, 1663

An important part of Eliot’s ministry focused on the conversion of Massachusett and other Algonquian Indians. Accordingly, Eliot translated the Bible into the Massachusett language and published it in 1663 as Mamusse Wunneetupanatamwe Up-Biblum God.[16] It was the first complete Bible printed in the Western hemisphere; Stephen Daye printed 1,000 copies on the first printing press in the American colonies.[17]

In 1666, Eliot published “The Indian Grammar Begun”, again concerning the Massachusett language. As a missionary, Eliot strove to consolidate the Algonquian Indians in planned towns, thereby encouraging them to recreate a Christian society. At one point, there were 14 towns of so-called “Praying Indians“, the best documented being at Natick, Massachusetts. Other praying Indian towns included: Littleton (Nashoba), Lowell (Wamesit, initially incorporated as part of Chelmsford), Grafton (Hassanamessit), Marlborough (Okommakamesit), a portion of Hopkinton that is now in the Town of Ashland (Makunkokoag), Canton (Punkapoag), and Mendon-Uxbridge (Wacentug).[18]

In 1662, Eliot witnessed the signing of the deed for Mendon with Nipmuck Indians for “Squinshepauk Plantation”. Eliot’s better intentions can be seen in his involvement in the legal case, The Town of Dedham v. The Indians of Natick, which concerned a boundary dispute. Besides answering Dedham’s complaint point by point, Eliot stated that the colony’s purpose was to benefit the Algonquian people.[18]

Praying Indian towns were also established by other missionaries, including the Presbyterian Samson Occom, himself of Mohegan descent. All praying Indian towns suffered disruption during King Philip’s War (1675), and for the most part lost their special status as Indian self-governing communities in the course of the 18th and 19th centuries, in some cases being paid to move to Wisconsin and other areas further West.[19]

Eliot also wrote The Christian Commonwealth: or, The Civil Policy Of The Rising Kingdom of Jesus Christ, considered the first book on politics written by an American, as well as the first book to be banned by a North American governmental unit. Written in the late 1640s, and published in England in 1659, it proposed a new model of civil government based on the system Eliot instituted among the converted Indians, which was based in turn on the government Moses instituted among the Israelites in the wilderness (Exodus 18).

Eliot asserted that “Christ is the only right Heir of the Crown of England,” and called for an elected theocracy in England and throughout the world. The accession to the throne of Charles II of England made the book an embarrassment to the Massachusetts colony. In 1661 the General Court forced Eliot to issue a public retraction and apology, banned the book and ordered all copies destroyed.

In 1709 a special edition of the Massachusett Bible was co-authored by Experience Mayhew and Thomas Prince with the Indian words in one column and the English words in the opposite column. The 1709 Massachusett Bible text book is also referred to as the Massachusett Psalter. This 1709 edition is based on the Geneva Bible, like the Eliot Indian Bible.


John Eliot married Hanna Mumford. They had six children, five sons and one daughter.[20] Their daughter Hannah Eliot married Habbakuk Glover .[21] Their son, John Eliot, Jr., was the first pastor of the First Church of Christ in Newton,[22] Another son, Joseph Eliot, became a pastor in Guilford, Connecticut, and later fathered Jared Eliot, a noted agricultural writer and pastor. John Eliot’s sister, Mary Eliot, married Edward Payson, founder of the Payson family in America, and great-great grandfather of the Rev. Edward Payson.


Eliot died in 1690, aged 85, his last words being “welcome joy!” His descendants became one branch of a Boston Brahmin family.


Natick remembers him with a monument on the grounds of the Bacon Free Library. The John Eliot Elementary School in Needham, Massachusetts, founded in 1956, is named after him.[23] The liturgical calendar of the Episcopal Church (USA) remembers Eliot with a feast day on May 21. Puritan “remembrancer” Cotton Mather called his missionary career the epitome of the ideals of New England Puritanism.[24] William Carey considered Eliot alongside the Apostle Paul and David Brainerd (1718–47) as “canonized heroes” and “enkindlers” in his groundbreaking An Enquiry Into the Obligation of Christians to Use Means for the Conversion of the Heathen (1792).[25]

In 1689, he donated 75 acres (30 ha) of land to support the Eliot School in what was then Roxbury’s Jamaica Plain district and now is a historic Boston neighborhood. Two other Puritans had donated land on which to build the school in 1676, but boarding students especially required support. Eliot’s donation required the school (renamed in his honor) to accept both Negroes and Indians without prejudice, very unusual at the time.[26] The school continues near its original location today, with continued admissions of all ethnicities, but now includes lifelong learning.[27]

The town of Eliot, Maine which was in Massachusetts during its incorporation was named after John.

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I Am Engaged To Mary

A week ago I fell in love with Mary. She proposed marriage to me and said she wanted us to have children – all in a hour of chatting! She is eighteen! I told her I wanted her to be my Muse – even though I doubted her sincerity! My daughter – was never sincere! She has two children my two men she never married. She had a chance to take my surname, Presco, and did not.

And hour ago I told my fiancé that she can take a lover and I will adopt the children they produce. She agreed. She also agreed she would pose nude. We talked about my inability to have a errection and produce sperm due to prostate cancer. She kept asking how we could have children. Problem solved. I am the last Presco because Mark’s son changed his name to O’Brian after his stepfather. Mary and my adopted children will have the surname, Presco. My penname is…..JOHN ROSAMOND PRESCO.

Four days ago I told her first task as my dutiful wife is to talk to my late father’s fiancé, Consuela (Connie) who lives in Mexico.  I am not sure if Victor Presco and Connie got married. She had seven children that my father was going to adopt. He also left Connie most of his share of the Partnership prints that were produced especially for this contract between Christine Rosamond Benton, Vicki Presco, and Victor Presco….whose contribution was made up of the legacy of Melba Wilkins, a friend of the writer and poet, Juaquin Miller. I doubt Vicki gave these prints to Connie, and thus put more fraud upon a important artistic and literary legacy – that is more famous due to Raymond Chandler. Vicki did not fulfill other obligations Executor Sydney Morris filed in the Supervisor Court of Monterey. If we find Connie and her grandchildren, we will embrace them in our family – which will be quite large! Connie will embrace Mary with tears of joy! She will be like a member of her family. We will be surrounded by many children at our villa in Rancho Santana.

“All’s well, that ends well!”

In the drama of our meeting, I became inspired to author a Detective Novel. My heroine is from Guatemala. Her name is Smoky. In studying Mary’s country, and how Smoky became a Private Investigator, I discovered how Chandler became a writer. He emulated Erl Stanley Gardener who my grandfather taught to write. This is a great literary discovery. Smoky is a hardboiled detective who takes on the mysterious death of the famous Carmel Artist…..Rosamond!

I love Mary so much. She does not understand why. She my Great Love’  at the end of my life. She is mine – completely? We will be the mother and father of a great family – made even greater when I give back most of America to the Native Americans in the Judging of the Sotah and Jubilee Ceremony that will restore the rightful owners to the land of their ancestors.

Of course Mary understands nothing of what I say, but, wanting to be a loyal wife, she says many “O.K.’s”.

John Rosamond Presco

Fiancé of the beloved Mary

Copyright 2020

Endless Love
My love, there’s only you in my life
The only thing that’s bright
My first love,
You’re every breath that I take
You’re every step I make
And I, I want to share
All my love with you
No one else will do
And your eyes, your eyes, your eyes
They tell me how much you care
Ooh yes,
You will always be
My endless love
Two hearts,
Two hearts that beat as one
Our lives have just begun
Forever (Oh)
I’ll hold you close in my arms
I can’t resist your charms
And love, oh love
I’ll be a fool, for you I’m sure
You know I don’t mind (Oh)
You know I don’t mind
‘Cause you,
You mean the world to me (Oh)
I know I know
I’ve found, I’ve found in you
My endless love



In straitened financial circumstances during the Great Depression, Chandler turned to his latent writing talent to earn a living, teaching himself to write pulp fiction by analyzing and imitating a novelette by Erle Stanley Gardner. Chandler’s first professional work, “Blackmailers Don’t Shoot”, was published in Black Mask magazine in 1933. According to genre historian Herbert Ruhm, “Chandler, who worked slowly and painstakingly, revising again and again, had taken five months to write the story. Erle Stanley Gardner could turn out a pulp story in three or four days—and turned out an estimated one thousand.”[14]

His first novel, The Big Sleep, was published in 1939, featuring the detective Philip Marlowe, speaking in the first person. In 1950, Chandler described in a letter to his English publisher, Hamish Hamilton, why he began reading pulp magazines and later wrote for them:

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“His Red Nation”

Yesterday, on July 3rd. the Holy Spirit entered me after I told myself it is time to begin a New Ghost Dance. This morning I read again the diary of my kin, Henry Wieneke, who mentioned the war with Little Crow. He names the white women who were captured by him and the Santee Sioux. He suggests the British, or the Confederacy, paid the Santee to go on the warpath. Henry said the company commander deserted his troupes in order to fight for the Confederacy. Little Crow went to war because monies promised to his tribe were diverted by Lincoln to fight The Red State Traitors who made Trump the Commander in Chief. Donald never served in the military, yet he stood at the base of the Mount Rushmore, with his wife that posed naked, and declared more cultural warfare on everyone who is not a white evangelical Republican.

Jesus did not bid our Founding Fathers to free the slaves in the Thirteen Colonies, or, give any women the Right to Vote. Jesus did not bid the white man to go West – beyond the Missippippi. The holy spirit of Jesus did not tell Thomas Jefferson to purchase the Louisiana Territory – which I claimed and offered to my ex fiancé.

Trump mocked The New Red Nation with redneck cowboy music boosting up his fake claim for the Pale Faces. I am kin to Robert E. Lee. Now add Henry’s blood to my Rose of the World Family Tree! I claim all that white men have claimed. I gift it back to The People!

Henry Wieneke was stationed at Fort Randell, where there were debate clubs and meetings of the Good Templars. Soldiers on both sides were struggling with the disease of alcoholism which is why I bid the New Spirit Dancers to take the vow of the Nazarite – even if they do not drink!

I gave Henry’s Diary to my friend, Joy, whose grandfather’s were Oglala Chiefs. Little Crow was scalped by whites, and his body humiliated by Christians. Henry said there were 1,500 Sioux camped around Fort Randall because they had become dependent on foods provided to them in treaties. Monies for their food went to fight Confederate TRAITORS who Trump honors. He and his neo-confederate TRAITORS promise to protect and preserve statues.

My Rosamond ancestors were True Patriots. I believe a tax should be levied against every Red State Republican who voted for Trump, in order to purchase the State of South Dakota for the Sioux Nation. Dakota did not become a State until 1886, and Minnesota, in 1858. His Red Nation had every right to go to war with the whites in order to SAVE his people. He was a – SAVIOR!

John Presco

Little Crow V (Dakota: Thaóyate Dúta; ca. 1810 – July 3, 1863) was a chief of a band of the Mdewakanton Dakota people, who were based along the Minnesota River. His given name translates as “His Red Nation,” (Thaóyate Dúta). He was known as Little Crow because of a mistranslation by Europeans of his grandfather’s name, Čhetáŋ Wakhúwa Máni (literally, “Hawk that chases/hunts walking”).

Little Crow is notable for his role in negotiating the treaties of Traverse des Sioux and Mendota of 1851, in which he agreed to remove his band of Dakota to a reservation near the Minnesota River in exchange for annuity goods and payments. In the summer of 1862, the federal government failed to deliver annuities in a timely way, and there were rumors that the ‘Great Council’ Congress had expended all their gold fighting the great Civil War and could not send any money to the indians, which left the Dakota starving.[1] Little Crow supported the decision of a Dakota war council in August 1862 to try to drive the whites out of the region. Little Crow led warriors in the Dakota War of 1862, but retreated in September 1862 before the war’s conclusion in December of that year.

Little Crow was shot and killed on July 3, 1863 by two white settlers, a man and his son. He was scalped and his body was taken to Hutchinson, Minnesota, where it was ritually humiliated and mutilated by white settlers. Some time later his remains were exhumed by Army troops, and eventually the Minnesota Historical Society held and displayed them publicly.[2] In 1971 the Society repatriated his remains, giving them to his grandson. He had Little Crow reinterred at the First Presbyterian Church and Cemetery in Flandreau, South Dakota. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2017.

Standing in a packed amphitheater in front of Mount Rushmore for an Independence Day celebration, President Trump delivered a dark and divisive speech on Friday that cast his struggling effort to win a second term as a battle against a “new far-left fascism” seeking to wipe out the nation’s values and history.

Our nation is witnessing a merciless campaign to wipe out our history, defame our heroes, erase our values and indoctrinate our children,” Mr. Trump said, addressing a packed crowd of sign-waving supporters, few of whom wore masks. “Angry mobs are trying to tear down statues of our founders, deface our most sacred memorials and unleash a wave of violent crime in our cities.”


Fink’s Cigar Store

finks2 finks3 finks4Rosamonds 1919 June, Bonnie & Mary

Henry Wieneke owned Fink’s Cigar Store. Is that my kin leaning on the wooden Indian?


Fink’s Cigar Store next to the University Book Store

Photographer: Frederick W. Kent

Top Photo Source:

Fink’s Bazaar, Cigar, and Notion Store, Iowa City, Iowa, was in the St. James Hotel building on Clinton Street.  Henry J. Wieneke was the manager of the store, which was located the first door south of the post office, according to the 1883 History of Johnson County. This photo was taken ca. 1890.

Photographer: Unknown

Bottom Photo Source:

“From there we followed the trail of the Sioux northward to near the border of Manitoba, and then we turned southward to the land of the living” – for complete extract of his Diary during his time in the Sioux Wars, go to Iowa Journal of History and Politics

“Mr. Wieneke, on his eightieth birthday, is witnessed a local personality, whose connection with Iowa City has little short of romantic interest” – for more information on Henry J. Wieneke, visit the Year Book of the Old Settlers’ Association, Johnson County

Fink’s Cigar Store was destroyed in 1915 by a fire.

The first Wieneke reunion was held at the home of Mary M. and Margaret Schmitz, Sunday, June 26, 1927, at Urbana. The former is a daughter of the late Margaret Wieneke Ernst, whose parents came to Iowa as pioneers and settled west of Cedar Rapids on the farm now owned by Henry Stark.

Henry Wieneke owned Fink’s Cigar Store. Is that my kin leaning on the wooden Indian?


Fink’s Cigar Store next to the University Book Store

Photographer: Frederick W. Kent

Top Photo Source:

Fink’s Bazaar, Cigar, and Notion Store, Iowa City, Iowa, was in the St. James Hotel building on Clinton Street.  Henry J. Wieneke was the manager of the store, which was located the first door south of the post office, according to the 1883 History of Johnson County. This photo was taken ca. 1890.


Here is the Diary of a possible relative.



Based on the Diaries and Letters of
Henry J. Wieneke

Edited by Mildred Jhrone*

A phase of the Civil War which received little notice at the time, or since,
was that of the frontier posts of the western territories. There a handful of
soldiers dragged out a weary existence, enlivened only now and then by
brushes with the Indians, while they counted the days until their enlistments
would be over and read with envy the exploits of their friends and neigh-
bors fighting the “rebels” in the South. The regular army troops stationed
at the frontier posts to protect settlers against Indian raids were needed in
the eastern theater of the war; therefore, companies of the newly recruited
volunteers from the states closest to the frontier were sent west to relieve
them. The first Iowa troops sent to Dakota Territory were Companies A,
B, and C of the 14th Iowa Infantry, mustered in at Iowa City on October
23 to 25, 1861. They left Iowa City on November 2 for Fort Randall,
Dakota Territory. 1

In September of 1862 these three companies, numbering 267 men, were
detached from the 14th and designated the 41st Iowa Infantry Battalion;
still later (April, 1863) they were transferred to the 7th Iowa Cavalry
as Companies K, L, and M. Another Iowa cavalry regiment, the 6th, also
served in Dakota, arriving there in the spring of 1863. 2

Fort Randall, one of several military posts in Dakota Territory was lo-
cated on the Missouri River near what is now the border between Nebraska
and South Dakota. The site had been selected in 1856 by Major General
William S. Harney, who had been conducting an expedition against the
Sioux. In 1861 five companies of the Fourth Artillery were stationed at
Randall; in May, three companies were sent east, while two remained in

*Mildred Throne is associate editor of the State Historical Society of Iowa.

1 Roster and Record of Iowa Soldiers in the “War of the Rebellion … (6 vols.,
Des Moines, 1908-1911), 2:721. (Hereafter cited as Roster and Record .)

2 7 bid., 4:1115, 1253; 5:1159-60.




Dakota, nnder command of Captain John A. Brown, a native of Maryland,
who soon deserted his post to join the Confederacy. For six months the
two companies, commanded by Second Lieutenant T. R. Tannatt, remained,
seemingly forgotten. Then, in the middle of December, 1861, die three
Iowa companies of the 14th regiment arrived to relieve the regulars, who at
once departed for the more exciting scenes in the east. 3

The first year of service in Dakota was a period of dull routine. Then, in
August of 1862 the Indian massacres in Minnesota aroused the whole fron-
tier. In 1863 a joint military expedition from Minnesota and Dakota failed
to trap die Indians who had fled from Minnesota into Dakota Territory.
A bitter Dakota winter immobilized both the soldiers and the Indians, but
in the summer of 1864 another expedition, under Brigadier General Alfred
Sully, w T ent as far north and w’est as the confluence of the .Missouri and the
Yellow’stone rivers. Following the expedition, most of the Iowa soldiers,
their three-year enlistment over, returned to Sioux Gty to be mustered out.

The following documents relating the experiences of the Iowa troops in
Dakota during 1861-1864 consist of diaries and letters of Henry J. Wieneke
of Iowa Gty, a member of Company B, 14th Iow r a, and of numerous letters
from various members of the regiment published in the Iowa City papers.
Together, these documents, arranged chronologically, tell a story of the
monotony of a frontier army post, give accounts of the Indians, both friend-
ly and hostile, and reflect the disappointment of men far removed from the
real war.

Henry J. Wieneke was bom in Ohio of German parentage in 1837. His
parents moved to Johnson County, Iowa, in 1844. As a young man, Henry
established a bakery in Iowa City, tried the cabinet trade for a while, then
returned to the bakery business until his enlistment in the fall of 1861.
Meanwhile, in 1857 he had married Caroline Kembel. After the war Henry
Wieneke, his health impaired by the exposure and hardship of his army
experiences, sought some lighter work than baking or cabinet making, and
he opened a store handling cigars and stationery, continuing in that business
until his death in 1923. 4 In 1922 Wieneke revised a part of his 1864 diary

3 Frederick T. Wilson, “Tort Pierre and Its Neighbors,” South Dakota Historical
Collections, 1:293-4 (1902).

4 Biographical sketch of Wieneke in Clarence Ray Aumer, Leading Events in John-
son County 3owa History (2 vols., Cedar Rapids, 1913), 2:651-3.



for publication in the Journal, together with the diary and letters of Amos
R. Cherry, a sergeant of Company B. 5

Several years ago the complete Wieneke diaries and letters were turned
over to the State Historical Society of Iowa. The relevant parts of the
diaries and letters are here reproduced, interspersed with letters from other
members of the regiment, to give as complete a story as possible of the
Iowans in Dakota.

[Wieneke Diary]

Wednesday] Oct 23rd 1861 Sworn in to U. S. service. Cold that I
could hardly finger the fiffe. 6 . . .

Monday Oct 28th This day we commenced Cooking for the Co. . . .
Sat Nov 2nd Started from Clark’s mill Camp and Camped at Camp
Douglass on Douglass farm. . . .

Sunday Nov 3rd 1861 up to within 3 miles of Marengo. . . . headache
very bad took medicine in the evening, traveled 18 miles

[Letter in Iowa City Republican, Nov. 6, 1861, signed Asa Ruckman.] 7

Homestead, November 3, 1861

Messrs, editors : — Companies A, B and C, of the 1 4th regiment, are all
right, have just eaten their dinner, and are moving westward. They are as
good boys as ever trod terra firma and should they ever have a chance on
the bloody field of battle, they will add new laurels to the honored name of
Iowa. The Ladies of Clear Creek township came to “camp Washburn” last
evening, and presented this portion of the Iowa 14th with a magnificent
Flag. Mr. Evans, in behalf of the Ladies, made an appropriate speech, and
was responded to by Capt. Pattee and Lieut. Luse. 8 The most captivating

5 “Iowa Troops in the Sully Campaign,” Iowa Journal of History and Politics,.
20:364-443 (July, 1922). See note 121.

6 Companies A, B, and C, 14th Iowa, rendezvoused at Iowa City and were sworn
into the service on Oct. 23-25, 1861. By an order of the War Department, these
three companies were then detached from the 14th and ordered to Fort Randall, Da-
kota Territory. Roster and Record, 2:721. Wieneke is listed in the regiment as a
drummer, but, as will be seen in the diary, he played a fife, or a flute, and was also
company cook. Ibid., 753.

7 Asa Ruckman is not listed as a member of the 14th Iowa; probably, he was a
resident of Johnson County, traveling a short distance with the troops.

8 Capt. John Pattee of Co. A, a native of Canada and resident of Iowa City. As
senior captain, he was in command of the men marching to Dakota. First Lieut. Mar-



and patriotic address I ever listened to, was delivered by Miss Washburn of
Iowa City. Patriotic songs were sung by Prof. Kelly 9 and others. The
Professor is one of the cleverest men in Iowa, and in his new position of
Orderly Sergeant, will sing a different song, provided he is ever permitted
to have a class of secessionists to deal with. . . .

[Wieneke Diary]

Monday nov 4th 1861 Spent a miserable night verry strong fever, head
felt like bursting, went into Ma[rengo] and bought Crackers &c and Car-
ried crackers until dinner time when I caught up with the team we traveled
13 miles Encamped on mud Creeke.

Tuesday 5th Went ahead with team and Begged Bread had enough to
feed them for dinner. Rested about 3 miles from Brooklyn went in town
and loafed until 4 oclock camped north of town on big Bear Creek

Wednesday Nov 6th Started at Six this morning and traveled 18 miles
to grinel Powsheik Co went ahead of the train and begged Bread enough
for Supper the Country this day was all prarie and you could travel for
[illegible] Hours without seeing a house, had another attack of fever this
evening being the third got medicine from the Surgeon must Start at six
tomorrow morning ahead of the train

Thursday Nov 7 Started in good time but on the wrong road and trav-
eled 3 miles when I had to go overland or under land for it was all through
sloughs for about 2 miles I traveled purety fast and made Newton by 2
oclock P. M. in the evening went up town with 200 wt [weight] of flour
and took it around to different houses for baking, then unhitched on an
open lot and went to sleep

Friday Nov 8 Capt Mahanna 10 arrived this morning at 5 oclock went

vin R. Luse, Co. B, a native of Pennsylvania, was also a resident of Iowa City.
Roster and Record, 2:744, 747. Luse, an auctioneer and later a merchant in Iowa
City, was the son-in-law of Capt. Bradley Mahana of Co. B. History of Johnson
County, Jowa . . . (Iowa City, 1883), 867-8.

9 William Kelly of Iowa City, Second Sergeant of Co. A, Roster and Record, 2:743.

10 Bradley Mahana of Iowa City, Capt. of Co. B, ibid., 2:745. Mahana was bom
in 1806 in Pennsylvania, came to Iowa City in 1855 after considerable military ex-
perience in Pennsylvania. He served in Co. B of the 1st Iowa Infantry, the 100-day
regiment which fought at the battle of Wilson’s Creek. After the 1st Iowa was dis-
banded, Mahana raised another company for the 14th Iowa — Co. B. He was a
Democrat, which may account for part of his personal conflict with Capt. Pattee, a
Republican and brother-in-law to Iowa’s Governor S. J. Kirkwood. See History of
Johnson County, 869-70.



around and gathered Bread got about 150 Lbs went down to Camp and
went out on the State road Stopped at a farm house and Eat Dinner Went
on made 20 miles this day the Sandiest road I ever saw Capt Mahanna
gave me a letter from Carie 11 this evening it did me more good than if
someone had given me 50 D[olIars] am very tired this evening about 5
miles of the road was verry bad all sand the Horse Could hardly travel
over it. . . .

Sat 9th 1861 Started ahead again and made 15 miles to Des Moins by
12 Oclock had a hard snow Storm this morning but cleared up by noon
Camped about half past 3 oclock in the forks of the Des moin and Skunk
[sic. Raccoon] Rivers Des Moins is about as large as Iowa City

Sunday Nov 10th we did not move from here this day 1 man in Co
C verry sick, not expected to live. . . .

Monday Nov 11th 1861 Member of Co C Died last night 12 We
staid in Camp all day he was Buried with Millitary Honors at 2 oclock
P. M. it has been Cool and windy all day froz V 2 inch in our kettles last
night. . . .

Nov 12th 1861 Started at 9 Oc[lock] and traveled 14 miles and camped
for the night Weather verry fine all day such weather is verry pleasant
Camping out if it only stays so until we get to the fort I feel better this
eve than I have since leaving the City

Wednesday Nov 1 3 Camp No 1 1 Marched 22 miles and waded Skunk
River [sic. Raccoon] Camped on west Bank went ahead today and Bought
1 V 2 Bushel potatoes they are verry scarce the farmers say the season
was too dry the Country was verry pleasant and fine today large farms
and good houses passed through Adell 11 miles from last nights camp
and Irish town is on the other side of Skunk from our Camp

Thursday Nov 14 Camp 12 Cool all day with verry sharp wind
Country for 5 miles this morning verry hilly and rough we traveled for
7 miles without seeing a house they have been having a verry large fire
through here burning Bams &c we came 22 miles today a verry hard
tramp for the Boys Camped on high ground without wood and must Carry
water half mile

Friday Nov 15th Camp No. 12 [sic] Traveled 18 miles and Camped

^Wieneke’s wife, Caroline.

12 This was Wilson S. Maxwell of Wapello, Louisa County. See “Iowa Troops in
the Sully Campaign,” 386-7.



on [blank space] Creek a pleasant place the road this day was verry
Rough up and down hill the boys went out this evening and found a
Bee Tree and brought in about 40# of Honey Baked Bread until 12
oclock P. JM. had a verry bad Head ache all day and still the toothache
the weather purety cold this night, it friezes the Dough stiff for us. a
hard life

Sat Nov 16th 1861 Camp No. 13 morning verry cold and windy
Started and went 17 miles Camped U /2 miles East of the village of Louis
[sic. Lewis] on [Nishnabotna] Creek, commenced Sleating as we went
into Camp the tent wagon of Co C went ahead and it was 5 oclock [when]
it Came back to Camp we had hard times to Cook supper The Slap
Jacks were wet and like Dough no difference how long we baked them,
this is a new side to Camp life, and a hard one. If we were only in the
fort it would be all right then everry tooth in my mouth is sore and
aching and has been for a week or more. I went into a store in the town
of Lewis this afternoon and it was so warm it made my head ache right
away I could not stand it. did not wash the dishes this evening as it was
so wet. it is a little cold this evening but I do not feel it I have got so
much used to the Cold I do not think I could stand it in a house with a
fire now it would do as it did to me this evening in that store Went to
bed at 8 oclock this eve

Sunday Nov 17th 1861 got up at 2 Oclock and went to work, baked and
cooked and started at Half past Sevon the roads were bad being wet
and frozen went 25 miles this day and camped on the west side of [blank
space] creek the day was verry pleasant if the roads had only been good,
expect to get into Council Bluffs tomorrow I am very anxious to get
there so that I can hear from home I have been verry homesick this
day. . . .

Monday Nov 18th 1861 this morning was waked up by the Cry of
fire fire The Co B Comissary Wagon is on fire why in the Hell don’t you
holler fire, and other such cries as the above one I was out of the wagon
in less time than I ever went out before the wagon was all lit up I
sprung for it and pulled up the cover then I pulled at the potato bag
but it came out in pieces the Bean bag did the same flour Coffee, Beans
potatoes and every thing else was mixed up we pulled out about 300#
of flour 16# of Coffee HV 2 Bush potatoes peck of Beans and some



other things [several words illegible] we scouped them out on the ground
and put out the fire when I happened to think that my feet were burned
and verry cold Started on and marched on 23 miles

Tuesday Nov 19th went into town this morning and got a letter from
my wife the child has been unwell the rest are all well came back and
brought 100 of Com meal with me that I Bought there, about 3 odock
it turned up verry stormy the wind viered around from South to north-
west and it rained until about 8 oclock in the evining when it deared up
it is purety cold now

Wednesday Nov 20 Clear this morning but a little cold got up at
about half past 4 oclock and cooked breakfast the day was verry
pleasant, staid in camp all day cooked dinner at half past 3 this even-
ing. … no news from home am verry anxious to hear from home again
how my Dear wife and children are if I only had them near enough to
see them once every day I would be satisfied but it cannot be. the men
are all verry much Dissatisfied with Pattee and getting more so all the
time 13 . . .

Monday Nov 25th Started at 7 Oc ahead of the train with Lieut Leuse
and went on to Soux City 46 miles and got in the City at half past 7
odock and stopped at the Heagy house got a good Supper I wish I
could only get a letter from home then I would be all right.

Tuesday Nov 26th 61 this morning it looked like rain and about 12
oclo it commenced by 3 PM the wind viered round to the northwest
and began to get Cold men came in stragling by 3 s or 4s at once this
evening it is verry cold more so than any day since we started the old
horse is not well had to trade off a pair of goggles to get him some medi-
dne as I did not have a cent of money at five Oclock started with the
team and flour and took it around to the different houses to have it baked

Wednesday Nov 27 the train Started at 1 1 A. M. leaving 1 team and
several men at town myself amongst the rest to get what Bread the women
had baked for us we waited until 3 Oc when we started …. we went
around and gathered Bread until 6 oclock when we started out with about
600 lbs the teamster who was an Irishman got so drunk this afternoon
that we left him in a Stable when we Started for the Bread and he only

13 The food supply was very short, and the men blamed it on Capt. Pattee. For
their attitude toward him and the feud between Pattee and Mahana, see Amos R.
Cherry’s account in “Iowa Troops in the Sully Campaign/’ pp. 384ff.



Caught up when we had started, still stupid we drove out on a verry
rough road over bluffs as rough as any we have been on yet — and got
off of the road — when we were about 4 miles off from town and Sargent
Trask 14 and myself went ahead and hunted until we got to the ferry
when we had to go back for the team headed by the ferryman and got
into Camp at 9 Oclock. . . .

Friday Nov 29th 61 this morning it is Clear but Cold the thermometer
must be about 15 Deg below Zero we started and marched to Vermillion
the Seat of Government of Dacotah Teritory here we had a verry good
Camping ground with plenty of water I forgot to mention that last night
we had to Carry all of Our water from one well half mile from Camp and
had not enough to Cook Coffee. . . .

Sat Nov 30th 1861 Cold this momg but no wind looked as though it
would rain also like snow marched 22 miles one man in our Company
named Cannon 15 an Irishman stopped at a house on the side of Gim 16
river and Sold a blanket that he had stolen from one of his mess mates and
traded it off for 1 qt whisky the officers sent a Corporal and 6 men back
with him to the house and made him get the blanket and bring it home and
then got a board & marked it with Chalk (stole a Blanket and trade it off
for whiskey) then parraded him through the whole Camp.

Sunday Dec 1st Cold, Cold, verry Cold got up and started at Sevon
Oclock the wind blowing sharp from north west traveled 17 miles the
day was the Coldest we have had some of the Boys froze their fingers
hands & Ears, was sick with the Diarraeh had the home sickness more this
day than any since we left the City. . . .

Tuesday Dec 3rd this the 4th anniversary of my Wedding opened up
verry fine warm and pleasant as a morning in April Started and travelled
22 miles into the Indian Reserve — 2 miles back from our Camp we came
across lodges of Indians in a Deep hollow. The Squaws & Children Crawled
through the grass looked like a flock of quail we did not get down to
them as we wanted to get on and camp our camp this evening is in a verry
lovely spot the pleasantest since we have left the City it is on a flat [il-
legible] north east with the back toward a run on the opposite side of which

14 Eugene F. Trask of Iowa City, Second Sergeant of Co. B. Roster and Record ,

15 Edward Cannon, aged 40, native of Ireland, resident of Iowa City. Ibid., 2:736.

16 The Janies, or Jim, River in South Dakota.



were verry high Bluffs covered with Cedar ash and Other kinds of trees
the run was not frozen and the bottom pebbly I could have spent a week
there verry pleasantly in such weather as we had

Wednesday Dec 4th still verry pleasant and warm this mom Started at
sunrise and made the station by noon 17 miles the station as it is called is
situated on the river Bottom and Consists of a large warehouse sawmill and
lot of Indian Cabbins here you could see the natives in all states from those
who were dressed in their skins to those who lived in houses and dressed
better than I can here the Captain received orders to Cross the river and
take up the west side but the teams would not do it as they feared that the
Ice would break. I vollunteered to cross with my horse & wagon and did
so after I had crossed the Captain reed another order brought by an Indian
from Pattee 17 that we were to Keep on up this side for sevon miles further
and then Cross so I had to go back we then marched up 2 miles and
camped on the Bottom this evening our Camp was crowded with Indians
until the guard had to drive them out. . . .

Thursday Dec 5th 61 Started and made 7 miles up the river 7 mi &
Crossed the river on the Ice went up 2 miles when we met Pattee & were
marched off to the right of the post on the river Bottom & camped

Friday Dec 6th 61 this morning is verry nice again Gear & warm
this afternoon I went into the fort [Randall] it is situated on a bott[om]
the Seccond Bottom from the River on the west is a high Bluff the fort is
on as good ground as can be wished for our quarters are good

Sat Dec 7th 1861 Started into the fort at 12 oclock the Cooking Qrts
are verry Dirty made Dinner by 4.30 boys all verry well satisfied reed
2 letters from home and am verry much relieved to hear that my family is
all well. . . .

[Letter signed f< W. A. M” 18 in Iowa City State Press , Jan. 22, 1862.]

Fort Randall
Dec 28, 1861

… We arrived here about three weeks ago; in good health and fine
spirits. We had a pretty hard march of it, I tell you; but after all our trials,

17 When the troops camped on Dec. 3rd, Capt. Pattee had taken the stage and
gone ahead to Fort Randall, where the two companies of the 4th Artillery were
eager to leave. John Pattee, ff Dakota Campaigns/’ South Dakota ‘Historical Collec-
tions, 5:275-6 (1910).

18 Possibly William A. McCaddon, private, Co. B, 14th Iowa. Roster and Record ,



and troubles, we have at last reached our place of destination, and found
everything in much better order than we expected. We have just as good
and comfortable quarters as any of us could wish. We have had splendid
weather in our corner of the world, until within the last few days when it
turned in very cold and stormy. How did you all spend Christmas at home?
I expect you had line times; for my part I stood guard all day but had a
splendid dinner that one of the citizens prepared expressly for our mess.
You wished to know what kind of a place we sleep in and what we have to
eat and also how we get our washing done. In the first place I will tell you
how we sleep. We have large comfortable mess rooms with bunks in each
one, to accommodate 16 men. We have plenty of bed clothing, a large stove
and plenty of wood to each room. I will just give you our bill of fare and
you can judge for yourself as to whether we have enough to eat or not. —
We have plenty of bread, coffee, beef, bacon, beans, rice, soup, &c. We are
allowed fresh beef only two days in a week, and the rest of the time have
bacon that I think was killed when Adam was a boy; it has actually been
killed so long that its day of resurrection has come and it is all coming to
life again. Some of it is able to crawl now. I expect we will have it to
butcher over again before it is all used up, as we have about twenty tons of
it yet. There are about 20 of the regulars* wives here to wash for us besides
the women that came along with us. The regulars left here the day after we
arrived, their families will probably stay here ’till next summer.

We have organized a debating society and have fine times. We also have
a sabbath school and Good Templar’s association. Capt. Mahanna is super-
intendent of the Sunday School. We also have a theatre once a month.
There is a large theatre hall here large enough to seat four hundred persons;
it is fitted up in style, with a splendid set of scenery. We have good times
here if we are away out in the world, but it would be considerable better if
there were about 500 girls here. They are a very scarce article about these
diggings. There is any number of the true American ladies here but they
don’t exactly suit my style. There are about fifteen hundred of the red
devils about the country here, and about two hundred hanging around the
fort all the time. They are the dirtiest, laziest, lousiest, set of creatures I
ever saw; I dont see how they live at all. There is no game around here for
them to kill. I believe they just live on what little they get around the fort.

W. A. M.



[Letter signed A. R. C. [Amos R. Cherry], 19 in the Iowa City State Press ,
Feb. 19, 1862.]

Fort Randall,
Feb. 5, 1862.

MR. editor: As I was a resident of Iowa City and acquainted with many
in that place and vicinity, and was an occasional reader of your paper, per-
haps a few lines from me would not be out of place, for the greater portion
of our company is from Iowa City or from Johnson county. . . . The sol-
diers in Ft. Randall have written a great many communications for the Re-
publican but for some cause they are not published. Mr. Republican, why
is this? But I think I can answer the question, and save the precious time
of the ones that run that party -machine. 20 The soldiers here being Union
men, uttering their true sentiments, irrespective of party, perhaps did not
suit the style of that partizan sheet. Perhaps their letters censured some of
their party friends who are in position in the battalion, and if they did so, I
have no doubt but they gave a truthful representation of affairs here, and of
our usage and misusage on the march to this place. . . .

We arrived here on Dec. 5th, very much worn down by our long march;
remained in camp two days outside the garrison to give the regulars time to
get moved out of the quarters; took possession on the 7th; and we had al-
most forgotten how to keep house after living so long in tents. All the trou-
ble we had was how to occupy all the room. Having been so long accus-
tomed to sleeping four deep and mixing up so thick in our six by seven
mansions, it seemed very odd to us to spread out and live like white men
once more. The quarters here are excellent, and provided with plenty to
eat, which is cooked up in fine style by our friend, and accommodating
cook, Julius Winekie [sic]. The members of Co. B are all well; not a man on
the sick list from our company; and we are having very easy times during
the cold weather. Since it became so severe, we have not drilled much; in
fact not at all out of doors, but four hours each day in our rooms. Co. B is
well drilled in the manual of arms, and I think not inferior to any company

19 Amos R. Cherry of Iowa City was Fifth Sergeant of Co. B. See “Iowa Troops
in the Sully Campaigns/’ 374-440.

20 This reflects the party animus of the times. The Iowa City “Press was a Demo-
cratic paper, the Iowa City “Republican , naturally, Republican. It is very possible that
letters written to the Republican , criticizing officers who may have been prominent
Republicans, would not have been published by the organ of that party. Likewise,
the Press would probably have suppressed letters attacking Democratic officers.



that ever left Iowa City for the war. We have been drilling some in the
skirmish drill, since we came here. This is fine exercise and the men take a
deep interest in it, and of course learn very fast indeed.

And now a word concerning our officers. Capt. Mahanna is well and
looks finely. He is the best captain that ever had the command of a com-
pany of brave men; beloved by every man in his company. Whenever we
parade for inspection or drill, he has some good advice and counsel to give
us, and I assure you it is taken and acted upon by the men. I often heard
it said by men in Iowa City that they would never go to Ft. Randall with
him, and that they had no confidence in him as a military man, and many
other unpleasant remarks were made concerning him, which were all gross
misrepresentations. He exercises no unnecessary authority over his men,
and only such as a father exercises over his children; for their good and
comfort seems to be his whole study and aim. And if he has not the confi-
dence of the cowardly stay-at-homes in Iowa City, who are jealous of him
in his proud position, he certainly has both the respect and confidence of
the men he has the honor to command; and if his enemies have anything to
say disrespectful of him before any member of this company, it will be re-
sented as soon as if it was concerning ourselves.

Lieut. Luse is one of the best officers in the battalion, universally re-
spected by the whole command. I often heard it remarked before we left,
that he would be very nice until we were in his power and then he would
show us the cloven foot. This was the most unjust remark that ever was
made concerning a decent man. Lieut. Luse is one of the best fellows I ever
knew; courteous and pleasant in his manner of addressing the men when off
duty, and when he gives the command, “Attention Company ” it seems to be
a pleasure to the men to obey his orders.

Lieut. Schell 21 is young but an accomplished officer and brave soldier,
and even to his seniors in rank, an example, and beloved by all.

We are in hopes of being removed from here and sent South in the
spring to join our comrades in arms who are with the devoted and true of
the Northwest. Not but we are contented and comfortable in this our Fort
Randall home, and well satisfied to remain, as far as comfort and ease are
concerned, but this is not the height of our ambition. We are anxious to

21 Joseph F. Schell of Iowa City, Second Lieut, of Co. B. “Roster and Record,
5 : 1185 .



take an active part in this struggle for national existence, and distinguish
ourselves for something more than masterly inactivity, that the name of this
battalion may be recorded upon the pages of our country’s history as one
that acted well its part in maintaining our country’s rights and restoring
peace and harmony to its now torn and distracted States.

We are having trouble with a man from this Territory by the name of
Lyman, 22 who came here on the 3d and reported himself to the sergeant of
the guard as the commander of the post. He notified Capt. Pattee on the
morning of the 4th that he would take command in the morning at guard
mounting, but Pattee did not feel disposed to give up his position, until this
new man produced satisfactory evidence that he was entitled to the com-
mand, which it seems he has not done. He has issued several orders but
none of them are executed as we consider ourselves subject only to the
orders of Capt. John Pattee. Last night, Lyman issued an order that there
would be no dress parade that night. Capt. Pattee gave an order for dress
parade, and of course, we obeyed, and appeared to receive the orders of
John Pattee, Captain commanding the post. Pattee is now under arrest for
not obeying the instructions of this new comer, and Pattee has issued an
order notifying this gentleman that he must leave the garrison within 24
hours, or he would place him under arrest. To-day Capt. Mahanna of Co.
B and Capt Wolf 23 of Co. C had a conversation with Lyman, and they
appear to feel satisfied that this man’s papers are all right and that he is
entitled to the command. They say Mr. Lyman treated them with a great
deal of respect and expressed his regret that anything of the kind happened.
Perhaps he has been misrepresented and I will not judge him too harshly,
until I am assured that he deserves it.

William P. Lyman was “major” of the Dakota Volunteer Cavalry which con-
sisted of only one company. When he presented his papers to Pattee” and stated
that he had been appointed to take over command at Fort Randall, Pattee refused to
honor his commission, which was so full of erasures and interlinings as to be un-
intelligible. Also, as Pattee explains, no one could be appointed a major of less than
two companies. Lyman succeeded in taking over the post, however, and placing
Pattee under arrest. Pattee at once communicated with his brother-in-law, Governor
Kirkwood of Iowa, and with Senator James Harlan. The War Department examined
the case and at once relieved Lyman, who left the fort, turning over command to
Capt Mahana of Co. B rather than to Pattee, who remained under arrest until word
came from Kirkwood and Harlan that he was to be restored to command. The whole
incident is an instance of local Dakota politics, coupled with the animosity between
Mahana and Pattee. For Pattee’s account, see Pattee, “Dakota Campaigns,” 278-82.

23 George H. Wolfe of Jones County, Capt. of Co. C. Roster and Record , 5:1190.



We have been favored with a visit from our red brethren, about sixty in
number, who were on their way to their great buffalo hunt and wished to
get some eatables. Pattee issued out to them two barrels of pork, three bar-
rels of crackers, some tobacco, and three buckets of sugar, with which they
seemed well pleased. They say Pattee is the best man that ever was in com-
mand here, and they are, of course, his fast friends.

Respectfully yours,

A. R. C.

P.S. Since writing the above, I have been informed by Capt. Mahanna
that he and Capt. Wolf of Co. C had become satisfied that Major Lyman’s
papers were correct, and entitled him to the command of the post, and
Mahanna and Wolf notified Pattee that they should report to Lyman for
orders; and at the same time told him that they thought he had better sub-
mit; but he obstinately refused to do so, saying that he should hold com-
mand at all hazards. He also told Mahanna that if he reported to Lyman
he would have him under arrest. Lyman also said [that if] they refused to
execute his orders he would arrest them. This was placing our Captain in
an unpleasant position, but I think our Captain and Capt. Wolf have acted
the wise part. We are now under the command and subject to the orders of
Major Lyman and received his orders tonight on parade, so you will see we
are in a critical position. Pattee is ordered under arrest in his quarters by
Major Lyman.

A. R. C.

[Letter signed fr W. W., Co. A” 24 in Iowa City Republican, Feb. 26, 1862.]

Fort Randall, Dacotah Ty.,
Feb. 8th, 1862.


Excitement being on “tip toe” and the cause the subject of conversation
in every circle, I thought I would take my pen (although occupying quar-
ters in the hospital) to let your many readers learn that we are even at Fort
Randall, subject to excitements and changes.

Some four or six weeks ago, it was reported that the War Department
had authorized the Governor of Dacotah to fill and garrison this post with
Dacotah volunteers, and the Iowa boys to leave for the sunny South, and

24 There is no man with the initials “W. W.” in Co. A. It is possible that the
initials are those of William W. Jones of Iowa City, a private in Co. A. Jbid., 5:1175.



join their regiment for more active service, which caused considerable vocal
speculation, murmur and much dissatisfaction.

This report was a number of times contradicted and affirmed, but some
two weeks ago, it was proven that the Dacotah volunteering had turned out
an entire failure/ not being able to raise a respectable corporal’s guard. I
wish the friends in Iowa to understand that the Iowa boys never once feared
leaving for a field of more active service — but having traveled through a
bitter Northwestern autumn, the fatiguing march of over five hundred miles,
and then to be turned into the drifting storms of mid-winter, for a more
than equally fatiguing and weary march, brought a shudder. . . .

About the time the above had passed into forgetfulness — and there be-
ing but little excitement excepting on mail days, and I would say, I have
often thought if the friends at home knew the good it does a poor soldier to
receive a letter, and the downcast looks of the disappointed, they would
employ their pens more faithfully than they appear to do for the “Boys of
Fort Randall.” The news came that a Major from Dacotah had been ap-
pointed to take command of the Fort. This was, like the former, a number
of times contradicted and affirmed. But on Monday (3d ult. 25 ) Major
Lyman came to the garrison, presenting his papers and demanding the as-
signment of the commandership of the post. But Capt. Pattee, believing his
papers not sufficient, refused to give up the command. Thus for a day or
two, nothing of interest excepting a few articles of correspondence between
the two claimants, passed. On Tuesday following, the Major issued an
order of arrest of Capt. Pattee in his quarters, which added greatly to the
excitement and speculation. On Wednesday morning (5th ult.) showing
additional papers, and convincing the officers of the garrison that he was
entitled to the commandership, he entered upon his duties as Major com-
manding at Fort Randall. I believe the whole battalion is much dissatisfied.

If an officer from the regular army had been sent to take command, there
would not have been heard a murmur of dissatisfaction. The Iowa boys
believe it an imposition upon them, as volunteers from the State of Iowa,
and are now praying that arrangements be made on the opening of the
Missouri, for their removal, to join their regiment. . . .

Yours, W. W. Co. A.

25 The misuse of “ult.” instead of “inst.” when the writer means “in the same
month,” is constant throughout these letters.



[Letter signed fr W. W.” in Iowa City Republican , Mar. 19, 1862.]

Fort Randall, Dacotah Ty., Feb 28th, 1862.


As everything connected with the history of our country is read with
great interest, I will attempt to give your readers a sketch and history of
Fort Randall.

Properly speaking this is a garrison rather than a fort. It is situated
South, on the second table-land, about 100 rods from the Missouri River,
about 140 miles west of Sioux City, Iowa.

This table land comprises about one square mile of gentle sloping prairie,
bounded on the South by high bluffs, from the peaks of which are seen on
every hand vast regions of wild country — yonder the wide Missouri, bor-
dered with lofty but varied bluffs, fringed with heavy timber and thick
under brush, of but three or four summers growth, and the windings of
many small streams, making at once a picture highly grand and captivating.

On the North [of] the first table land, covered [with] large timber, [is]
the muddy “Massioux” (Mo.) , North of which is to be seen, rising towards
the clouds, the vapor from a large hot spring . . . and upon the summit of
a distant bluff the Indians* burying ground; which shows that if Fort Ran-
dall is surrounded but by the wild sublimities of nature and the untutored
savages, it possesses a romantic picture.

The garrison comprises about 100 buildings, built in an oblong square,
having in the centre a delightful parade ground of 20 by 80 rods, in the
center of which waves the bright emblem of our nation’s pride.

At the South end of the parade ground is built what is known here as the
Colonel’s house. This is a fine building, and cost the Government about
$30,000! The other officers’ quarters or buildings are upon the West side,
band quarters on the North end, and the soldiers’ on the east side, all facing
the parade ground.

The officers’ quarters are fine and comfortable, all lined with beautiful
red Cedar; the soldiers’ quarters are not so stylish, but yet comfortable and

On the East, about 30 rods from the soldiers’ quarters, on a delightful
spot, is the hospital — a fine building containing eight commodious and
well furnished rooms. The main building is about 1 00 feet in length and 20
wide, having an L at each end of a room 20 feet square — a porch the



length of the building on each side, and in addition (but not connected)
are the kitchen departments — all of which have been built with an eye to
comfort and convenience of the sick and wounded soldier. The hospital is
well supplied with medicine, surgical instruments, medical books and a
barometer and thermometer attached.

North of the band quarters are the magazine, guard house, and three
pieces of brass cannon; on the west of which are the commissary and store-
house departments, all of which are constantly guarded.

West, or rear about 40 rods from the officers* quarters, are the garrison
stables, which are large enough to accommodate about 1 00 horses or mules,
and from 75 to 100 oxen.

Add to the above the sutler’s store, postoffice, Gen. Todd’s 26 private
dwelling, and on the first table land the garrison’s steam sawmill and two
or three private dwellings, and you will conceive that Fort Randall has much
the appearance of a thriving New England river town.

The selection of the grounds for Fort Randall was made in the early part
of the spring of 1856 by Gen. Harney. Two companies under command of
Capt. Davis (2nd Infantry, Col. Lee, U. S. A.) left Fort Pierre (which was
on the Missouri River, about 250 miles from this garrison) bringing its ef-
fects, and arrived here in July (’56) where they found 250 new recruits
from New York, for the regiment, under the command of Capt. Page. Early
the coming autumn the building of the garrison was commenced. The fol-
lowing spring Capt. (now the hero of Wilson’s Creek) the lamented Gen.
Lyon, 27 left with his company, breaking up Fort Look-out, and arrived here
in the month of July. After remaining nearly two years he left in June, ’59,
in command of two companies (2d Infantry) for Fort Riley, by way of
Fort Kearney and Prairie Dog Creek, without even a guide, across a wild,
untraveled country of 350 miles. And his silent quarters, now unoccupied,
bring in their presence many a thrill of patriotic reverence, and their death-

26 Gen. James B. S. Todd, a native of Kentucky, and a graduate of West Point,
who had served in the Mexican War and under Gen. Harney in Dakota, resigned
his commission in 1856 and became the sutler at Fort Randall. In 1861 he had been
elected Dakota’s first territorial delegate to Congress. In Sept., 1861, Lincoln ap-
pointed him a brigadier general of volunteers and placed him in command of the
North Missouri Military District. South Dakota Historical Collections , 1:115.

27 Nathaniel Lyon, in 1856 Captain of Co. B, 2nd U. S. Infantry, was a brigadier
general in command of the troops in Missouri in 1861. He was killed at the Battle of
Wilson’s Creek, August, 1861, a battle in which the 1st Iowa Infantry fought. Some
of the Iowa men at Fort Randall in 1862 had served in the 1st Iowa.



like stillness awakes unbidden the memories of the sad knells of Wilson’s
Creek. In July the remaining part of the regiment were relieved by the 4th
Artillery, Col. Monroe. On the breaking out of the rebellion there were
five companies occupying the garrison. In April, 1861, three companies,
with the regimental band, Capt. Getty, left for the seat of war, leaving two
companies, H. and M, Capt. Brown, to garrison the fort, which were re-
lieved on the 7th of December, 1861, by companies A, B and C, Capt.
Pattee, 14th regiment Iowa Volunteers. . . .

I am indebted to Luke Larvey, Esq., the Hospital Steward, for much of
my information.

Yours, W. W.


[Wieneke Diary]

March 1 st 1 862 Reed a letter from my Dear Wife it has been snowing
all day long the old signs say March comes in cold goes out warm I hope
it is so. . . .

Tuesday March 4 this morning is altogether the most Disagreeable
morning we have had this winter, the snow is blowing so hard that you can
hardly see 20 feet off 4 oclock P. M. Still cold and windy as ever our
room is all dust every thing is covered fully an Vs of an Inch with Dust
this is aweful it Blows so hard that there is no use looking for the mail be-
fore next Sat. . . .

March 5th 1862 Wednesday Morning Wind Still Blowing hard as ever
and fresh snow falling with it went over to the Cook room and could
hardly get back for the wind this beats all I ever saw in the wind line —
blow Blow Blow all day no stop, and no mail either. . . .

Friday Morn March 7 . . . got an ox team and 4 of us started down
and got 2 loads of wood Started at 1 Ocl and returned at 3 Vi Oclock
Mail came in at last. . . .

Sunday March 9th 1862 . . . there were 3 Indians put in the guard
house here today for Killing a calf for the Jew. . . .

Sat March 22 Still windy — sold violin to Shep Poland 28 Still got jaw-
ache took physick for it. . . .

Monday March 24th this morn is cooler again wind sharp the Ice

28 Shephard Poland of Iowa City, Fourth Corporal of Co. B. “Roster and Record ,
5 : 1181 .



broke this mom 5 PM it has risen about 6 feet the old steam ferry Boat
lying [below] the mill all winter has broken loose from the bank and gone
down the river this Even 2 men on board. . . .

April 1st 1862 morning wet & thawing wind from the east P. M. very
pleasant clear, launched the ferry boat and tried to cross the river but too
much Ice running Indians on this side afraid of being attacked by the
Crow tribe and want to get across. . . .

Friday 4th . . . this evening at 8V2 Oclock some one threw a snowball
through the window of the Majors house and struck him on the back & then
run through the alley back of our qrts. . . .

Monday Apr. 7th 1 862 more snow, it seems as if summer never comes
in this accursed country. Snow all day and blows too the deepest snow we
have had this winter. . . .

[Letter signed “W. W.” in Iowa City Republican, May 14, 1862.]

Ft. Randall, D. T.,
April 26, 1862.

dear EDS: — We are all excitement in Fort Randall. We have just re-
ceived the news of the taking of Island No. 10, and the great battle at Pitts-
burg Landing, and while there is much to cause us to be proud, we yet feel
sad at the loss of so many brave men. And as they bravely fell at the altar
of their country, may we and our country never forget the sacredness of
their memories.

In my communication of the 11th February ult., I stated that the com-
mand of this post had been surrendered to a man named Lyman, with a
Majors commission. Much dissatisfaction was felt toward the imposition
and nothing could have reconciled our feelings to the fate. On the 19th
ult. the Major, after arranging his business, signed the commandership of
the post to Capt. B. Mahanna, who is now Capt. commanding at Ft. Randall.
We are in daily expectation of another change, in favor of Capt. Pattee,
who we believe has, as well as the battalion (as Iowa volunteers ) , been un-
justly treated.

The mails to Ft. Randall for the last two months have been very irregular
— and they being the only source of pleasure to the pent up spirits —
caused gloom to rest on every face. A number of the boys have received
letters stating that companies are being raised in Iowa [This is news to the



people of Iowa. — Ed.] for Ft. Randall, to relieve us, that we may join our
Regiment; which is received with exultant joy, as we are more than tired of
the monotonies of Fort life, and wish to have a hand in reaping some of
the glory gained by our brave fellow soldiers, meet the enemy face to face,
and have the privilege of striking with our own hands, a blow against the
hydra-headed monster rebellion.

We are in daily expectation of a government steamer, with which we
expect the paymaster. We have yet received no pay from Uncle Sam. Al-
though much in need of some of the “needful,” we are waiting with pa-
tience, believing the old gentleman has not forgotten us.

The “boys at Ft. Randall” are doing well, but praying soon to leave for a
field of more active service. Health among us is good; but few upon the
sick list, none serious. . . .

Yours, W. W.


[Letter from fr W. W.” in Iowa City Republican, May 28, 1 862.]

Ft. Randall, D. T., May 11, 1862.

eds. republican: Yesterday was a “big day” at Fort Randall. In my
last I stated that Major Lyman, of Dacotah, had left, leaving the command
of the post to Capt. Mahanna, and that we expected another change soon
in favor of Capt. Pattee. The expectation has been fulfilled. On last
Thursday (8th) the mail brought orders giving command of the garrison to
Capt. Pattee, which he assumed on yesterday. New life filled the garrison,
and the policy of the new administration was the theme on every lip, and
you may rest assured many hearts were made glad that the honor of our
beloved State was again brought to its proper dignity. It was soon seen
that the change could not be passed in silence. Companies C and A (com-
pany B not participating), about 9 o’clock P. M. came in full uniform to
give their reinstated commander a serenade, which was conducted by Capt.
Wolf of Co. C. After due arrangements the companies were marched,
headed by martial music, to the residence of the commander. After a num-
ber of stirring tunes were played in front of his (Capt. Pattee’s) residence,

J. W. Davis, Esq., 29 was called upon and sang “Hurrah for the Union,” in
an appropriate manner, the audience joining in the chorus. Nearly 200
salute guns were fired, which made a grand spectacle; and at the close of

29 Josiah W. Davis of Iowa City, Fifer in Co. A. Ibid., 5:1168.

•v et –






which three hearty cheers were given to Capt. Pattee. The Capt. then ap-
peared, making a speech which was cheered throughout. The string band
played a number of tunes with touching melody, at the close of which three
“rousen” cheers rent the air, and the soldiers were marched to their quar-
ters to enjoy a night of sweet repose. So you see Capt. Pattee is captain
commanding at Fort Randall.

Yours, W. W.

[Wieneke Diary]

Thursday May 17th 1862 Capt. Mahana Lieuts Luse & Schell placed
under arrest this A M Cause not known. . . . 30

June 2nd 1862 Letters this A. M. for the Capt to detail thirty men &
non Commissioned officers to join on a scout up North of the fort about 35
miles I did not know as I was to start until the [illegible] was crossing the
river when the Capt sent me up to [several words illegible] we had hardly
crossed the river when a rainstorm came up and for about 15 minits it
rained purety hard we marched about 4 miles and camped for the night on
the edge of an Indian village of about 200 lodges Evening warm & sultry
Mosquitoes plenty

Tuesday June 3d 62 started at 10 minits before 6 oclock morning very
pleasant and sun shining arrived at Camp Sunfish Creek at 10% Oclock
1 1 miles from last Camp this camp was so called from the number of sun-
fish the Boys caught here the land today has been mostly very nice rolling
prairie some high Bluffs but very little timber, our cooking this day had to
be done with dry plum bushes the land all along looks like one continuous
flower garden and the flowers all new and far prettier than in Iowa [several
words illegible] took the Capt spyglass and went up on the bluffs looking
off to the west we could see Buffalo grazing on a knoll about 3 miles away
but it was so near retreat that we could not go after them

Wednesday June 4 day pleasant & Clear started at 6.30 and traveled
about 6 miles when we were overtaken by Wallace Pattee 31 who acted as
Guide we traveled on until 2:15 P. M. when we arrived on Pratt [sic.

30 These are the officers of Co. B. Evidently the animosity between Pattee and
Mahana still existed. Mahana had taken over command of the Fort, after Lyman had
left, and had not released Pattee from his imprisonment until ordered to do so by
the War Department. See note 22.

31 Wallis Pattee, brother of Capt. Pattee, was at this time Second Sergeant of
Co. A. Roster and Record , 5:1180.



Platte] Cr 16 miles from our last Camp the land we traveled over today
was mostly undulating prairie & without a brush or stream the whole rout,
the creek has a few stunted Cedars on [it] but they would not do us for fire
wood more than 3 weeks [they are] all that we can see for 4 miles up and
down the Creek this day we could get a glimpse of Buffalo & also 4 ante-
lope & large numbers of ducks.

Thursday June 5th 1862 Morning pleasant & Cool the night was Cooler
than comfortable but the day is warm enough again started at 6.30 down
the Creek which we found was only a branch of the Pratt Creek and
Camped about 4 miles farther Southwest on a beautiful Platteau of about 5
acres extent on a bed of the Creek the water here is cool and as clear as
Chrystal caught a mess of sun fish and Cleaned them and Cooked some
dinner this is the extent of my forenoon work this is called Pratt Creek
Camp this P. M. Sargt Lewis 32 & 2 privates were sent down the Creek to
find out how far the Missouri was off this is the most deceiving ground
that I ever looked at [illegible] I will set down what happened About 2
Oclock I took the Capt Spy glass & went up on the bluff west of the Creek
and looking off on the farthest Bluff to the west we could see distinctly
Indians on the top of them strung along for a mile or more and they seemed
to be watching our actions they seemed to Come up on top of the hill and
then dodge back after looking at us then some of them would get down on
their hands & knees and crawl along and then suddenly disappear I re-
turned to camp and Called the Capt and he and 4 other men came up and
all said that they were Indians we then came back and obeyed the Instruc-
tions by displaying our forces on the Bluff and Sargt Cherry & several oth-
ers went up on the Bluff with the glass again and looked and kept advancing
on them at last some of them said they could see ponies and after traveling
about 1 mile they found that they were in a Prarie Dog Town and all our
Indians were Prarie Dogs and these could be seen for IV 2 miles & looked
through the spyglass as tall as Indians and with the naked eye not much

Friday June 6th 62 this A M a party of 5 men under Sarg Lewis went
out northwest onto the Bijou Hills to hunt will return tomorrow Even
Capt & I went out to see the Dog town this Morn it is situated on a bluff
with the centre on the top of the hill it is about 2 miles long by 1 V 2 miles

32 James L. Lewis of Cedar County, Third Sergeant of Co. B. Ibid., 5:1177.



wide — we could see them poking their heads out every 8 or 10 feet apart
I think that we could see as many as 1000 of them at once this is a hot
day too hot for Exercise so we lay in the tent from 9 Oclock on except
when I Cooked dinner this consisted of fried meat slapjacks & Coffee until
6 Oclock when there was a short drill Boys had been down the Creek to
the river and all say that there is such a pretty Country around there that
we are anxious to go there, and Capt. says we may move the Camp down
there monday

Sat June 7th 1862 morning hot again nothing new the Boys have been
trying to shoot some of those dogs but could not get any after they had
shot them as the other dogs would drag them into the holes, out of about
50 shot they only succeeded in getting two of the dogs and they were shot
right in two there are some of the prettiest Cactus plants here that I ever
laid my eyes on. if we only got our mail regular then I would be satisfied
to stay here all summer, not a day without some excitement this A. M.
was near being too much for me I went down to wash my self in the
Creek and not knowing that the water was so deep I jumped into water
about 10 ft deep and could not swim a bit if it had not been for some of
the boys helping me out it would have been the last of the old Bugler The
Hunting Det[ail] returned at 1 Oclock but no game they report the Coun-
try about the same as we traveled over on the 4th after traveling about 24
miles they got to the Bijou hills and found oak timber and a very cool
spring — shot at wolves which they said were very plenty up there. . . .

Sunday A. M. June 8th Robt Quinn & Th Stewart 33 Started for the fort
to get some small Notions for the Boys. . . . P. M. 3 Oclock just returned
from a tour over the hills and hollows of about 4 miles length nothing new
seen except closing up a wolf Den with rock it will be a good joke on the
wolf if he was in it he will not get out very easy I find a great many
herbs & flowers growing wild here that we must cultivate in Iowa — the
wild roses are almost as large again as the wild roses in Iowa and some as
white as the Snow, other red as roses, as the saying is, flowering peas,
Sage, the Herb called Old Man. another thing I think I have discovered
without doubt is that there is gold in these Bluffs and if I had the imple-
ments I would soon find out for certain. I can see it glisten in the dust. I
have been picking up pieces of quartz with gold in it. . . .

33 Robert Quinn of Iowa City and Thomas Stewart (also Steward) of Iowa City,
privates in Co. B. J bid., 5:1182, 1185.



Monday June 9th 1 862 … a lot of the Boys going to the mouth of the
Creek to catch some fish Capt. & myself took a stroll up on the bluff to
look for Cactus & Other Curiosities and walked so far as our old Camp . . .
& I accidentally started up an antelope but before I could get a cap in the
rifle he was so far away that I did not think it worth while to shoot they
are a verry pretty animal this one was about 18 inches high and jumped
about 5 ft each leap returned to Camp about 10 oclock after walking
about 7 miles P. M. Boys Drilled from 5 to 7 Oc. and shot at Target 225
yds at a Bbl Head only 2 shot struck it but the rest came close around it
showing that although they might not do for sharp shooters they would do
good execution in a battle

Tuesday June 10th 1862 . . . Mail arrived & also Lieut Schell & Or-
derly Dennis 34 & several visitors . . . orders to move Camp down to
Mouth of Creek — broke up camp at 1 Oclock and arrived at Camp Ham-
ilton at 5 Oclock pretty place . . .

Thursday June 12 . . . Musketoes pretty thick last night one Curious
sight here is to see birds perch themselves on top of Cattle & hogs & sit
there no matter how fast they run I discovered the Indian turnip today
the tops have a verry pretty flower on the Potatoe has a kind of Hull on it
like a Cream nut they taste very sweet

Friday June 13th 1862 … I wish Capt M were here instead of Lieut
Schell there is no order in the Camp. Nothing but playing Cards & swear-
ing it is a perfect hell since Capt. M is gone the Settlers here all have
Indian wives — they are all down at the agency at present getting their pay
from Govt . . .

[Letter from “W. W.” in Iowa City Republican, July 9, 1862.]

Ft. Randall, June 16th, 1862

editors republican: Having “Leave of Absence,” I started in company
with my good friends Kelly, Clark, Edwards 35 and others, on Saturday
morning, 14th for Yankton Agency, where … 100 men, under Lieut.
Cooper, 36 had been sent to meet, in case of attack, the dissatisfied Indians.

34 George W. Dennis of Solon, Sergeant of Co. B. Ibid., 5:1169.

35 William Kelly of Iowa City; Wilson M. Clark of Cedar Falls or Henry B. Clark
of Whitewater, Wisconsin, privates of Co. A, and James D. Edwards of Fairfield,
private of Co. B. Ibid., 5:1166, 1170, 1175.

36 Francis H. Cooper of Cedar Falls, First Lieut, of Co. A. Ibid., 5:1166.



After crossing the Missouri, we followed for some mile or two, a small
creek whose bottoms were entirely dotted with Indian cornfields, measuring
from Ys to 3 acres in size. After leaving which, we traveled some 1 2 or 1 5
miles on high rolling prairie.

At about 1 o’clock, P. M., we halted before the camp of our own com-
rades. After the ceremonies of our glad meeting were over, our attention
was drawn to the vast number of Indian lodges (called by the Sioux Te-
pees) , which dotted in heavy clusters the surrounding bluffs, collected from
the different parts of the Territory, now numbering more than 2,200 and
more coming — to receive their annual annuities from “Uncle Sam.” 37

It seems to be the chief enjoyment of the Indians, to be engaged in his
wild and ceremonial dances, among which the most noted are the Annual
Sun Dance, Scalp and Pony Dance. An account of the former, I will give
in the language of my friend Guernsey, 38 of Co. “C,” which he permits me
to quote from his journal: “Early in the morning of the 7th, the Indians
commenced building a kind of arbor about 40 feet in diameter, with a large
pole in the center, and the sides of brush. — This was covered with poles
and skins. About noon, everything being in readiness, eight Indians ap-
peared as dancers, naked to the waist, a cotton garment reaching just below
the knees, completed their costume.

Their black unbound hair, floating over their shoulders, gave them a
wild appearance. Around each wrist and ankle was tied a band of white
fur. The upper part of their bodies and their faces were covered with
heavy paint. Each had a wooden whistle, upon which they blew with the
beat of their Indian drum. The dance commenced amid the beating of the
drum, and the singing and whooping of the singer, the dancers uttering not
a sound.

They kept their faces to the Sun; and as they danced, held their hands
toward it, making heavy gestures. About Sunset, four stakes, about seven
feet high, were set firmly in the ground, and a strong lariat attached to the
top of each. Then they took a “gent/e Savage ” and laid him on his back
between the four stakes, punctured the skin with a knife just below each
breast, like a rowel, run a stick through the wound, and fastened a lariat to

37 The Yankton Agency, near the town of Yankton, at the confluence of the James
and Missouri Rivers, handled the affairs of the Yankton band of Sioux Indians.

38 Byron H. Guernsey of Wheatland, Fourth Corp. of Co. C. “Roster and Record,
5 : 1172 .



each stick, by a strong thong, after which he was turned on his face, and
two more were inserted in the same manner, immediately below the shoul-
der blades, fastened to the two remaining lariats. He was then assisted to
his feet, the music and singing striking up, and all commencing to dance.
In a few minutes he was free, having pulled in his dancing on the lariats
until the pins through the flesh were torn out. On the next morning, the
remaining seven went through the same wild and barbarous ceremony.

During the entire proceedings, not a lip quivered, not a muscle moved, to
denote that they experienced anything but the most exquisite pleasure.
Everything was done with the stoical indifference peculiar to the savage.
These were now distinguished with the peculiar honor of becoming mem-
bers of the “Strong Heart Band/’ which is a peculiarly lofty rank for the
aspiring Indian.

I must not fail stating that on the 5th ult., Capt. Pattee and Dr.
Burleigh, 39 Indian Agent at Yankton, found secreted about 600 gallons of
liquor, calculated for Indians and soldiers, which they destroyed, saving,
no doubt, much trouble and perhaps blood shed, as the Indians, when
intoxicated, are ungovernable.

In my last I forgot to state that we have been reinforced by a cavalry
company of this Territory, under command of Capt. Minor. — The Indians
are all quiet. 40

Yours in haste, W. W.

[Wieneke Diary]

Camp Mules Head June 25 packed up and marched at 5 Oclock ar-
rived at Camp at 10 Oclock 10 miles morning cool met a Frienchman
and his Squaw he on a Pony & his Squaw in a cart, they were going up

39 Dr. Walter A. Burleigh, a native of Maine, had been rewarded by Lincoln for
his support in the 1860 campaign by appointment as Indian agent at the Yankton
Agency in 1861. He was largely instrumental in getting the troops under General
Alfred Sully assigned to protect the Dakota frontier in 1863. South Dakota ‘Historical
Collections, 1:130-31.

40 A treaty had been signed with the Yankton Sioux in 1858 by which the Indians
surrendered some 14 million acres of land at a price of 12 cents an acre and annual
annuities and other considerations. Howard Robert Lamar, Dakota Territory, i 861-
i889, A Study of frontier Politics (New Haven, Conn., 1956), 38. There had been
no serious Indian troubles in Dakota since that time, but the troops were ever on the
lookout for an Indian uprising, especially after the outbreak of the Civil War had
taken the experienced army regiments to the south.



to his claim about 5 miles above our last camp dog town on the flat above
our camp our Camp is situated on a verry pritty Platteau of about 2 miles
long by 7 [?] wide surrounded on 2 sides by high Bluffs and on the upper
end by a deep ravine and on the south by the Missouri as muddy as ever
and on the rise all covered by trees &c below us is a verry pretty grove
principally Burr Oak. . . .

Thursday June 26th … I have just finished climbing one of the highest
and hardest sett of hills that I ever walked on and am now enjoying the
pleasure of one of the most grand sights that ever my gaze rested on on
the south west is the Missouri in all its prettiest shape for over 10 miles its
banks are covered with trees for about 4 miles with 5 Islands in sight while
right below me are piled Bluff upon bluff interspersed with clumps of Cedar
trees and about */2 mile below me are the detachment pulling the wagon and
cattle up the side of a steep bluff while behind me is a long stretch of roll-
ing prarie surrounded on all sides by high Buttes or Bluffs, started along
and got to comp at 1 0 Ocl this was traveling 4 miles per hour and the sun
as hot as I ever saw it on the road I took my Blouse off & put in on the
scouts horse which Lieut was riding and afterwards we stopped at Friench-
men house that was arrested last winter for the murder of another man and
kept in the Guard house long time here Lieut left my Blouse & not telling
me anything of it it was left behind — so I am without one this Eve

[Wieneke letter to wife]

Fort Randall D. T.

July 3rd 1862

Dear Wife … I have been buisy this P. M. Mr. Gui of Iowa City
came out here with a stock of paper, invelops, segars, pipes &c and I bought
some and am retailing it out I hope to make a little money in this way at
least enough to pay for my tobacco & pipes for a few months I also bought
me a gold pen however much I need the money I thought maybe I could
write so much better to my sweet wife as to make it pay to buy another
one but I must close for today and tomorrow Eve I will give you an ac-
count of my doings the Fourth of July. . . .

Friday July 4th 1862

… I have been working with Julius and have just done and attended
Guard mount we have been baking Sprig, Sugar & Ginger cakes Boiling



hams Baking pies & Biscuits and numerous other things too numerous to
mention for our dinner, and I have been selling some more paper &c and
altogether have been very buisy.

Well I must quit now until after the great parade, and then I will tell you
about it One thing I must tell you now is that the Honerable Commission-
ers are having a big party all to themselves since they could not get the
Privates to furnish them with a dinner.

P. M. 2 Oclock July 4th 1862

well thus far the day is passed very pleasantly and not much mishap ex-
cept that our sarg’ts are all drunk as fools, it is a Shame that men should
act so and men on whom duty involves such as on them, the Parade and
Firing of Salute all passed of[f] very pleasantly. 34 volleys with Cannon
and the same with 200 muskets. . . .

6 Oclock P. M.

I have been down and heard the Speaking some of it was very good and
some of it not so good

W. W. Jones was principal Speaker and a good speech he made too.
Several other Speeches were good but some of them commenced getting
personal on our Officers and this did not suit me very well they Com-
menced running on our Officers who were up at the Picknick and only got
down after the Performances were almost through with, the Capt came
down and heard some of the fuss and stepped in and Spoke on it and soon
hushed it up. . . .

Ft Randall D T July 5th /62

Dear Wife … I have sent a Buffalo Robe to you by Mr. Gewey Mr.
Luse the auctioneer’s Partner 41 you can get it by sending down there
the charges are paid on it it is a pretty one my name is on it it will do
first rate for the Dear children to roam about on this next winter I traded
a Blanket on it. I like them better to sleep under and on than on blankets.
Dear wife if I had known about the team’s coming I would have sent you a
couple of Beaver skins too but I could not get them now. . . .

I have been doing a big buissness this P. M. Sold 33 dollars worth of
goods principally pocket combs Pocket Knives & Gold Pens. I made 6 dol-
lars clear money this I think will do well enough for 1 days work in Fort
Randall. . . .

Henry J. Wieneke

41 Lieut. Luse of Co. B. See note 8.



[Letter from “W. W.” in Iowa City Republican , Aug. 6, 1862.]

Ft. Randall, D. T.,
July 27, 1862

EDS. republican: In my letter of June last, I stated that many of our
men had been sent on scouting parties to different parts of the country,
difficulties being apprehended from the Indians. After some weeks travel
and watch they have returned without meeting any of the fighting foe, al-
though alarmed at various times and points.

The Indian mode of warfare is that of surprise and murder. Some six
weeks ago a warparty of the Sioux returned after a warring expedition with
some 30 scalps, over which they had the warriors scalp dance, for about
two weeks, continuing night and day almost without intervals. After making
some inquiry, I learned the Braves (the warriors) had fallen upon a de-
fenceless body of Pawnee women and children, engaged in planting their
com fields. This is the manner the Braves of the North West fight, and if it
was not for the presence of the soldiers, the citizens of Dakota and Ne-
braska would be without mercy, murdered, their fields laid waste, and their
houses pillaged and given to the flames. Treachery and barbarity is the
composition of the Indian.

The Steamer Shreveport (once a rebel steamer on Red River) has just
arrived from Ft. Benton, making the trip (2000 miles) in about 15 days,
bringing very flattering reports from the Gold Regions. One of the miners
from the Dear [sic] Lodge diggings stated that there were between 7000
and 8000 men now in the Salmon River Country, mostly from California
and Oregon, and that mining was as “good as it was in the brightest days
of California,” but was unable to speak as to their extent. He reported
provisions very high, flour, $25.00 per hundred, Sugar $3.00 per lb. He
believed the country well adapted for farming, soil good, timber plenty and
alive with game for the hunter. . . .

Yours, W. W.

[Letter from “W. W.” Iowa City Republican, Oct. 1 , 1862.]

Fort Randall, D. T.,
Sept. 4, 1862

MESSRS, editors : The trumpet of alarm has been sounded, but whether
danger is near Fort Randall or not, is more than we are able to tell; yet the



citizens, half breeds and the friendly Indians are scared with the apprehen-
sion of an immediate attack . 42

The citizens are crowding into the garrison, leaving their farms, crops
and dwellings to the mercy of the ruthless Savage, offering their every as-
sistance, and to stand side by side with the soldier, for the hour of defence.
The Indians are wild and frantic, and their women and children are leaving
for places of concealment and safety from the expected storm. They are
also vigorously engaged in burying their com, to keep it secure from the
confiscation of the warriers. On the opposite side of the river, during the
day, the Indians have been traveling in immense numbers, some of their
trains extending from one to two miles in length, on their way for other
parts, and whether on a friendly or rebellious move (they claim to be
friendly) we are yet to learn. It seems that the tribes of the Northwest are
kindled for some great demonstration, and exultant with the thought of tri-
umphant success. I feel as hundreds of others, that there is a perception
surpassing and superior to that of the untutored Indian, planning their
movements . 43 Tribes heretofore always at enmity are now united — and
the great tribes of Sioux, Cutheads and the Yanktons 44 are moving in con-
cert, and with such a precision that it is without a parallel in Indian history.
The prevailing idea among the Indians is that the great Father’s (the Presi-
dent’s) people are about all being killed in a great war, and that they are

42 In August of 1862 the Sioux in Minnesota, under Chief Little Crow, had risen
and massacred several hundred settlers on the frontier of that state. Minnesota troops
under Brig. Gen. Henry H. Sibley, former governor of Minnesota, were not strong
enough to punish the culprits, and Little Crow and his tribe had escaped westward
into Dakota, taking a number of white women and children captives with them.
Maj. Gen. John Pope, after his failures in the East, was appointed to command a
new Department of the Northwest on Sept. 6, 1862, and had been sent to Minnesota
to organize an army to pursue and punish the Sioux. See Louis H. Roddis, 7he
Indian Wars of Minnesota (Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 1956), 61-125 passim. News of
this outbreak in Minnesota frightened the settlers and the peaceable Indians in

43 Many believed that Confederate agents were instigating the Indians to revolt;
others that the British in Canada were guiding them.

44 The Sioux or Dakota Indians included both the Yankton and the Cuthead tribes.
Following are the divisions of the Dakota-Assiniboin group of the Siouan family:
“1, Mdewakanton; 2, Wahpekute (forming, with the Mdewakanton, the Santee); 3,
Sisseton; 4, Wahpeton; 5, Yankton; 6, Yanktonai; 7, Teton (a) Sichangu or Brules,
(b) Itazipcho or Sans Arcs, (c) Sihasapa or Blackfeet, (d) Miniconjou, (e) Oohen-
onpa or Two Kettles, (f) Oglala, (g) Hunkpapa; 8, Assiniboin/’ Frederick Webb
Hodge (ed.), “Handbook of American Jndians North of Mexico (2 vols., Washington,
1910), 2:579.



going to get another Father who will do better, and provide for them more
pork, beans and sugar, and that they will be granted back the land of the
big Masioux (Mo.) and live eternally rich. These speculative ideas have no
doubt been planted and stimulated in the bosom of the ignorant red man, by
designing men, to embarrass the Government and inaugurate a border war.

Citizens who have lived among the Indians for twenty years, say they
have never seen them so much excited and war like. Our Garrison is yet
safe, but alive with the music of the ax, spade and saw, preparing for a
better defence. We look, indeed, war like in Fort Randall, and begin to
feel that we shall soon try our skill as soldiers with our muskets; and you
may rest assured if the opportunity is presented, that Iowa will not lose any
of her laurels by the ff boys at Fort Randall.” Our Captain (Pattee, Com-
mander of Post), is busily engaged in building some block houses, &c, to
give the warriors as warm reception as their honor may require.

Yours in hope of a victory.

W. W.

P.S. The report has just arrived this morning (5th) that the Indians have
taken Bonhomme and Yankton, burning them to the ground, killing a num-
ber of the inhabitants, and are on their way to this post. 45


[Wieneke Diary]

Friday Nov 14th 46 62 Cavalry came up from Yankton this day Cold
as blazes and stormy. . . .

45 This, of course, was not true, but typical of the rumors circulating on a
frightened frontier.

46 There is a break in the Wieneke diaries, from July to November. After the
battle of Wood Lake in Minnesota on Sept. 23, 1862, when the Indians were defeated,
some of them had escaped westward into Dakota and had worked their way to the
Missouri River above Fort Pierre, about 160 miles north of Fort Randall. Reports
brought to Capt Pattee told of white women prisoners with the Indians. He imme-
diately set about organizing an expedition to march to Fort Pierre to see if the
women could be rescued, and on Nov. 24, 1862, received orders from Gen. Pope to
march to Pierre. A cavalry company at Sioux City (later to be part of the 7th Iowa
Cavalry) was also ordered to assist him. He left Fort Pierre on Nov. 26 with Co. B,
17 men from Co. A, with a battery of one 12-pound Mountain howitzer gun and one
3-pound rifled gun, plus 70 men of the Dakota Cavalry. Pattee, ff Dakota Cam-
paigns,” 283-4; Roddis, Indian Wars of Minnesota, 13-27. On Sept 18, 1862, the
three companies. A, B, and C, of the 14th Iowa had been reorganized into the 41st
Iowa Infantry Battalion, and Capt. Pattee had been promoted to Major of the
Battalion. Roster and Record , 5: 1162.



Monday Nov 17 Nothing new great Excitement about the Expedition
up the river to Ft Piere 47

Camp No 3 Sat Nov 29th 1862 Started at day Break this A M and
traveled Twenty miles to the main branch of Ponka Creek a very nice
Camp but the wind rose very hard this day and this Eve at dark it is storm-
ing as hard as ever it did six or sevon of our men went on ahead of the
train and at 8 oclock we have not heard of them I pity them very much

Sunday Nov 30th well we started this am through an aweful snow
storm built a bridge across a branch of the creek and traveled about Ten
miles over very rough hills and through Hollows & camped in a very nice
bottom on a branch of Ponca Creek we are having alternate storms and
sunshine the Lost Boys have not been heard from yet Sargt Lewis has
been sent up the Creek to hunt for the Boys 3 Oclock P. M. one of the
guides who was out all night hunting for the boys he says that there were
Three of the lost Boys come back to the Cavalry Camp almost dead, saying
that old Canon 48 was found almost dead on the road and perfectly Crazy
they tried to get him along with them to the Cavalry camp but could not
do so and they being very near tired out had to hurry on to the Camp the
Guide or scout went back to get him but he was not to be found what has
become of him is not known

Monday Dec 1st No 4 The Cavalry came in yester Eve late bringing
in all but Cannon who is reported as being seen day before yesterday lay-
ing frozen and stiff but the other boys being so near given out they could
not take him with them. . . .

[Letter from John Pattee, in Iowa City Press, Dec. 20, 1 862.]

Camp No 5

On the March from Ft. Randall to Ft. Pierre,
Dec. 1, 1862

Editor Sioux City Register: I wish to make known through your paper

47 “Old” Fort Pierre was originally a post of the American Fur Co., established by
Pierre Chouteau in 1832. The post was sold to the United States in 1855/ in 1857
the government abandoned it, and moved the troops there to Fort Randall. In 1859
traders of the American Fur Co. built a new Fort Pierre about two miles above the
original fort. South Dakota Historical Collections, 1:105-106, 369-70. See also Wil-
son, “Fort Pierre and Its Neighbors,” ibid., 263-96.

48 See note 15.



that while on the march to the Sauntee 49 camp to recover prisoners taken
in Minnesota, in accordance with instructions from Gen. Pope, I met the
following women and children who had been ransomed through the assist-
ance of some friendly Indians: Mrs. Julia Wright, wife of John W. Wright,
and daughter Eldosa; Mrs. Laura Duley, wife of Wm. J. Duley; Emma,
daughter of Mrs Duley; a son of J. M. Duley; Rosanna and Ellen, daugh-
ters of Thomas Ireland, and Lilia, daughter of Wm. Everett. 50

They will go to Fort Randall immediately and there wait eight or ten
days, to procure clothing, &c., to make them comfortable, and then proceed
to Cedar Falls, and there wait until they hear from their friends. They
learned to-day that their husbands, whom they supposed dead, are still liv-
ing; but they do not know where they are at present.

They have friends at or near Belvidere, Illinois, and I trust that the Press
of Iowa will give a notice of their recovery so that they may soon be able
to find their husbands and friends.

I have with me 1 80 rank and file, and they have made glad the hearts of
these poor captives by presenting them over $250.

They have been captives since August 22d, and have suffered terribly.
The Sauntee camp where they have been for some time is 250 miles above
Fort Randall, and we hope to find it, and teach them such a lesson as Gen-
eral Harney did the Indians at Ash Hollow. 51 Be assured of one thing, we
will take no prisoners.

My command here consists of 70 cavalry, Dacotah, 92 infantry Co B,

49 The Indians from Minnesota were known as the Santee Sioux. See note 44.

50 Major Charles E. Galpin, a member of the La Barge, Harkness & Co. fur com-
pany, had seen these women while coming down the river from posts farther north.
He had reported the presence of the captives to Pattee at Fort Randall. Pattee, “Da-
kota Campaigns,” 283, 285-6, 350; Charles P. Barbier, “Recollections of Ft. La Fram-
boise in 1862 and the Rescue of Lake Chetak Captives,” South Dakota Historical
Collections, ll:232ff (1922). The two women rescued were Mrs. John W. Wright
and Mrs. William J. Duly. They had been captured, along with their children, at
Lake Shetak in Minnesota on Aug. 20, 1862. A few young braves from the Two
Kettle Band, known as “Fool Soldiers” or the “Fool Band” among the Indians because
of their decision to rescue the white captives, at last succeeded in buying the white
women and children, bartering supplies of food and their horses for them. The
Indians delivered the captives to two French-Canadian fur traders, Frederick Dupree
and Louis LaPlant, who in turn brought them to Major Pattee. See Doane Robinson,
“A History of the Dakota or Sioux Indians . . .,” South Dakota Historical Collec-
tions, 2:306-313 (1904).

51 Gen. Wm. S. Harney had defeated a band of Brule Sioux at Ash Hollow in
1855. South Dakota Historical Collections, 1:107-108.



41st Iowa, and a section of a battery, 2 guns, manned by 17 men of Co. A,
41st Iowa.

Yours, &c.,

J. Pattee,

Major, 41st Iowa.

[Letter from Wm. A. McCaddon, 52 in Iowa City Press, Dec. 20, 1862.]

Camp on Ponca Creek,
December 2, 1862.

Dear Brother: We are now sixty miles from Fort Randall and on our
way to Fort Pierre. We met a Frenchman this morning direct from Fort
Pierre. He had two white women and six children, which he had got from
the Indians, and was on his way to Fort Randall with them. They are now
in camp with us and we are raising a subscription for them.

There is already about $250 raised for them. They have been with the
Indians ever since the 1st [sic] of August, and have been horribly treated
by the infernal red skins. If I had time and space I would give you their
whole history since they were taken prisoners. It is indeed awful, the way
they were treated.

The weather has been very cold since we left the Fort, but we are getting
along very well. We have lost one man since we left and it is supposed that
he is frozen to death and eaten by the wolves. His name was Edward
Cannon. I expect you recollect him, he was an Irishman. He and six others
started out of camp in the morning before the train, and walked about
thirty miles, to where they supposed we would camp. But we did not get
that far, but left the trail and went about six miles to the left, and camped
in the timber. — And the Boys, finding that we were not coming on, started
back about dark to find our camp. But by the time they got back to where
we turned off, it was snowing and so dark that they could not see our
track, so they walked all night, managing to keep the trail. About twelve
o’clock at night Cannon gave out, and was so near frozen that they were
obliged to leave him. The rest of them kept on toward the Fort and about
eight o’clock in the morning they met a squadron of cavalry, that were one
day’s march in our rear. They then returned to where they left Cannon,
but there was nothing there but his gun, knapsack and cartridge box. So

62 William A. McCaddon of Iowa City, Second Corp., Co. B, 41st Iowa Infantry.
Rosier and Record, 5:1177. See note 18.


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