“Save us from the evil one!”

And do not bring us to the time of trial, [Or us into temptation] but rescue us from the evil one. [Or from evil]


See the source image
See the source image

There is Icy Rain falling in Springfield Oregon. An artic blast is going to strand a million travelers who want to be with their families for Christmas. Some will be practicing Christians who might say the Lord’s Prayer to themselves as they stand in line to book another flight.

I believe it was 2005 that I found a book at the University of Oregon library about the Sanhedrin, who did away with the Jubilee Laws a hundred years before Jesus was born. I make the case that Jesus was God’s Attorney who came to RESTORE the Jubilee. I am writing a book on this possibility – that is coming true.

The Temptation of Cassidy Hutchinson is a great American Tale, up there with the Scarlet Letter, and the Trial of Ann Hutchinson. Are Ann and Cassidy related? My alleged grandfather, Reverend John Wilson, brought the case against those who followed the Antinomian Heresy.

Yesterday a bipartisan committee of elected lawmakers PRESENTED THEIR PUBLIC CASE against Donald Trump – and his followers. Republican leaders held back their full co-operation, and now THREATEN to hold hearings of their own that will PROVE DEMOCRATS STOLE THE ELECTION IN A COVERT MANNER. The key words are OVERT and- COVERT

OVERT: done or shown openly; plainly or readily apparent, not secret or hidden:

COVERT: not openly acknowledged or displayed:

Voting is OVERT! We agreed to go by – THE RESULTS. To claim ther are HIDDEN RESULTS is to subvert our Democracy – AND THE TRUTH! The Republican Party will never PROVE the Democrats are thieves. NEVER!

I turn on Morning Joe while my coffee is brewing, and there is Joe presenting a list of the steps Trump took to convince others the evil Democrats acted in a COVERT manner to deprive him of four more years. There are about three hundred instances of – CONVINCING – many of then in a covert way. The question I put forth, is….Why didn’t those thirty Republicans who took the Fifth, present THEIR and TRUMP’S CASE – so they would have their testimony be a part of the Congressional Record – that can be added to – WHEN THEY HOLD MORE HEARINGS? I suspect their promise to hold more hearings, is A COVERUP of the truth -that behind the scenes – they were oppressing the testimony of those who were OUTSIDE THE CIRCLE, and were not considered FULL MEMBERS OF THE FAMILY.


“The Spirit of the Lord GOD is upon me, Because the LORD has anointed
me To preach good tidings to the poor; He has sent Me to heal the
broken hearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives, And the opening
of the prison to those who are bound; To proclaim the acceptable year
of the LORD, And the day of vengeance of our God; To comfort all who
mourn.” (Isaiah 61:1-2)

For years I have been trying to figure out why the citizens of Bethlehem tried to throw Jesus off a cliff. I just found the answer. Trump and the Christian Republicans have been handing out False Deeds of Ownership to the Kingdom of God, that they claimed the Puritan secured for them. I discovered at 7:10 A.M. on 12-23-22 that Ruth gave herself – THE NAME MARY – on her return to Bethlehem. Jesus descends – FROM MARY-RUTH – and after he puts down the scroll, he says;

“You are not the rightful heirs of this land. My ancestor Mary was given this land by God, and He made a pact with her that her sons and their sons will dwell on this land – forever!’

I bid all Christians who think they own the Deed to America – TO REPENT – and return to the truth. The Days of The Big Lie – are at an end!

John ‘The Nazarite’


Hutchinson’s gatherings were seen as unorthodox by some of the colony’s ministers, and differing religious opinions within the colony eventually became public debates. The resulting religious tension erupted into what has traditionally been called the Antinomian Controversy, but has more recently been labelled the Free Grace Controversy.

“Look,” said Naomi, “your sister-in-law is going back to her people and her gods. Go back with her.”

16 But Ruth replied, “Don’t urge me to leave you or to turn back from you. Where you go I will go, and where you stay I will stay. Your people will be my people and your God my God. 17 Where you die I will die, and there I will be buried. May the Lord deal with me, be it ever so severely, if even death separates you and me.” 18 When Naomi realized that Ruth was determined to go with her, she stopped urging her.

19 So the two women went on until they came to Bethlehem. When they arrived in Bethlehem, the whole town was stirred because of them, and the women exclaimed, “Can this be Naomi?”

20 “Don’t call me Naomi,[a]” she told them. “Call me Mara,[b] because the Almighty[c] has made my life very bitter. 21 I went away full, but the Lord has brought me back empty. Why call me Naomi? The Lord has afflicted[d] me; the Almighty has brought misfortune upon me.”

22 So Naomi returned from Moab accompanied by Ruth the Moabite, her daughter-in-law, arriving in Bethlehem as the barley harvest was beginning.


Burning the Debt Archives

Posted on January 2, 2012 by Royal Rosamond Press

Martha Coakley is leading the charge to restore the Jubilee where modern Americans will be foregiven of their debts because the Money Lenders did not keep good records in their Need for Greed.

I posted the following on Sept. 19, 2008

Jon the Nazarite

he Wind Returns


Barack Obama just appeared on television with his financial advisors.
He is calling for a complete restructuring of our nation and world’s
economic base, saying the trickle-down theory is a bust.

In my group ‘The Joyous Jubilee’ I posted a call to restore the
spirit of the Jubilee, claiming it was the main message and mission
of Jesus, the Savior Go’el.

The base and core of our Love of Money has been utterly corrupted and
upended. There is no Integrity left. The worship of Mammon, has
collapsed. The Federal Government is stepping in and will spend two
trillion dollars reestablishing debt-free home ownership.


Jon Presco

The Nazarite

The Wind of the Shofar

Jesus has been called `The Wind’ and it was a devastating wind
thatstruck New Orleans and exposed for the whole world to see how
poorlythe evangelico right-wing Christian Republican party have
beentreating the needy and the destitute in America. They have
beentaking from the poor, and giving unto the rich, using
Biblicalteaching, assuring us it is God’s plan to create a trickle-
downeconomy where the very rich are catered to and given unlimited
powerand wealth so they can produce capitol for our Capitalist
systemthey promise to change into an ecclesiastical state and Kingdom
of God. However, within the very Laws of God, given to Moses in the
Mosaic Laws, already established that Kingdom and bid it be sustained
by the Sabbatical and Jubilee Year to ensure that “the meek shall
inherit the earth” verses the pyramid system that held the Jews as
slaves for many generations, until God gave them LIBERTY.

It is this Liberty that is at the core of the Jubilee where the
Shofar, the horn of the Ram is blown on the Day of Atonement. And the
curtain of the Tabernacle was opened from the top to the bottom, and
come forth the priests carrying the Ark of the Covenant. And atop the
Ark sat The Lord as if upon His thrown. And the trumpets sounded, and
the priests called loudly to the multitude;”Prepare a way for thy
Lord. Make straight paths for him”

I invite all good souls from all nations, who wish to see theJubilee
Year restored, and thus the Kingdom of God here on Earth –and never
in heaven – to come forth and help prepare the way for theleast
amongst you, the poor, the disenfranchised, the disabled, theblind,
all those who have been bruised by the yoke of slavery. It istime all
the poor in America be forgivin of their debts. If the richcan be
forgiven of paying their taxes, by those who claim they are of God,
then anything is possbile. I have been bid to reveal the core of my
book I have been authoring for many years as there is no time to

I will show you how Paul of Tarsus was bid to created a false
teaching to counter thisJubilee that Jesus brought becacua it was a
great threat to Rome, the great slave-state in the history of
humankind. I will show you how Gentiles were playing a huge role in
God’s own revolution that was sweeping into Europe, and was poised to
turn the Roman world upside down.

Let the Christians in the Red States make atonement for the sin of
slavery, and rid themselves of the false priests who used God’s
words, and Jesus’s teaching to justify slavery. Surley they came upon
the Jubilee Year, and the sound of Jesus blowing the Shofar in their
ear, but, they chose to ignore that Judgement Day. How dare they
force their own upon us, and this Democracy!

I will show you that Jesus was the author of Revelations that are
composed of, and are a continuation of the visions of Ezekiel,
Haggai, and Zechariah, and are the only valid End Times. I declare
the End Time visions of Margaret McDonald, John Darby, and the
Plymouth Brethren, a false revelation, as it is clear “the vengeance”
of the Lord already came when Jesus was ceremoniously crucified on
the cross in Mathttew 27:53, where we read how he raised the dead
from the `Valley of Dry Bones’ as seen in the vision of Ezekiel.


Jon Presco




Tuesday, July 15, 2008


During the War of the Jews in 70 A.D., the archives that contained
the ledgers of thousands of loans, were burned. These archives were
all over the Mideast, the largest on the grounds of the temple
itself. In this light it is clear Jesus is comparing the temple
system, and the priesthood that rules over it, to Roman Slave
Masters. Wealthy Jews were involved in Loan Sharking, and after the
aliens could not pay their debt, they were forced to become slaves to
pay off their loan. The proof that Jesus came down from the Mount of
Olives on the last day of the Elul month, on the forty ninth day, is
found in the strange account in the Garden of Gethsemane.

“The Spirit of the Lord GOD is upon me, Because the LORD has anointed
me To preach good tidings to the poor; He has sent Me to heal the
broken hearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives, And the opening
of the prison to those who are bound; To proclaim the acceptable year
of the LORD, And the day of vengeance of our God; To comfort all who
mourn.” (Isaiah 61:1-2)

“Your sorrow will soon turn to Joy.”

In Luke 4.18-19 we read of the beginning of Jesus’ ministry in a
Synagogue in Nazareth. He stands up to be recognized, the attendant
hands him the Torah roll, specifically the roll of Isaiah, to read,
and he seeks a particular, Messianic passage, Isaiah 61.1-2, Luke
4.18-19).’The spirit of the Lord God is upon me, because God has
anointed me to preach good news to the meek, he has sent me to bind
up the broken of heart, to proclaim liberty to captives and to those
who are prisoners, freedom, to proclaim the Jubilee year of the Lord
and the day of God’s vengeance’.

The terms that Jesus was using in his discourse were those associated
with Sabbatical Years, and with the Jubilee Year that was observed
every fiftieth year. In this year all the debts of the poor were
absolved, and slaves set free. Jubilee Years were not being
celebrated by the Jews in the 1st century, yet the ordinary seven-
year sabbatical cycle was very much in evidence among the Jews and
Samaritans. The last time the Jubilee was celebrated was in 121 BCE.
I suspect Jesus was calling for the reinstatement of the Jubilee Year
and thus the severe questioning from the Jews as to his authority to
call for the freeing of slaves, the forgiveness of all debts by the
poor who became slaves to fellow Jews in order to pay a debt, and,
the non-payment of taxes during the Jubilee Year, which would get him
in trouble with the Romans and the wealthy Sanhedrin who approved of
Roman rule because it created a upper class, the very thing the
Jubilee Year was designed to prevent from being permently
established. The wealthy Jews who saw loss of revenue, and the return
of lands to the poor tenants, tried to murder Jesus, who I suspect
has produced Revelations, proclaiming himself the Alpha and Omega,
the first and last days when God will have his vengeance and
Judgement. The Jubilee Year began on the Day of Atonement.Here is the
proof that Jesus was preaching Orthodoxy


“At the beginning of the Jubilee Israel was to “proclaim liberty
throughout all the land to all its inhabitants” (Leviticus 25:10),
and all Israelites held in servitude receive liberty (verses 39-
41).In Isaiah 61 we find a similar statement to proclaim liberty: It
is written in the Torah, “You shall sanctify the 50th year and
proclaim freedom throughout the land for all its inhabitants; it
shall be the Jubilee year for you, you shall return each person to
his ancestral heritage and you shall return each to his family. It
shall be a Jubilee Year for you – the 50th year – you shall not sow,
you shall not harvest its after-growth and you shall not pick what
was set aside of it for yourself. For it is a Jubilee Year, it shall
be holy to you; from the field you eat its crop.” (Leviticus 25:10-13)

I predicted Mortgage Bank Collapse

Being a Seer and a Artist, it was painful for me to see how the
commercial success of my late sister’s art had vanquished any vestige
of spirituality in my family. In my novel ‘Capturing Beauty’ chapter
four is titled ‘Capturing the Bad Guys’. I understood my family was
like a crystal ball that could see into the future. In seeking
Justice and a legal intervention, I spoke of the angel that appeared
at the foot of Christine’s bed when she was ten. I was ignored. Now
the Nation is standing in line to retrieve their money – and jobs!
Giant banks are in line to get a welfare for the stupid and the rich –
and Satan’s own lenders!Jon



at Nov 3, 2007 11:47Am I am Go’el ‘The Kinsman


“There are wrongs against people that are not viewed as crimes or
civil wrongs by human law. Perhaps the Torah is saying that even
whens ociety provides no redeemer – no redress – God still acts as
redeemer. There is, nevertheless, a higher justice.”


July 15 (Bloomberg) — U.S. stocks fell and the dollar dropped to a
record low against the euro as investors lost confidence in the
government’s rescue of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and Federal Reserve
Chairman Ben S. Bernanke said the risks of an economic slowdown and
faster inflation are increasing.Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, the
largest U.S. mortgage- finance companies, declined more than 20
percent each. Citigroup Inc. plunged to the lowest level since the
company was created through a merger in October 1998. The market
pared its decline as oil retreated by more than $6 a barrel.

Ingeniously, Jesus has succeeded in confronting the guardians of
society with their own injustice. The retribution which the tenants
suffer at the hands of th landlord and which they readily affirm will
be inflicted on them. As they have dispossessed, so they will be
dispossessed: “And he will give the vineyard to others.” Without this
ironic conclusion the story is incomplete and therefore cannot
function parabolically.

Jesus does not identify those who will receive the vineyard. Within
the context of Mark’s gospel they are suually considered to be the
Gentiles. But while this is true for Matthew’s gospel, the “others”
may, in fact, imply the disenfranchised lower classes to whom the
evangelist Mark addressed his gospel. Moreover, originally in the
context of Jesus’ own ministry, the “others” were probably intended
to be the very people who were exploited by the ruling elite, the
peasants whose agriculture produced the wealth with they were able to
appropriate by their office and power. The promise of the jubilee
year will be realized. The land will be restored to the dispossessed
peasants who as tenants produced the agricultural wealth which the
ruling class redistributed for their own aggrandizement.

Our Father (Lord’s Prayer): “Debts” or “Trespasses”?




The Lord’s Prayer, by James Tissot (1836-1902) [public domain / Wikimedia Commons]





A self-described Hebrew Catholic asked on the Coming Home Network board:

The Catechism and the RSV translate Gk opheilemata as trespasses in the Lord’s Prayer (Mt 6:12), when it manifestly means debts — both in the NT usage (Rm 4:4) and in the Septuagint (Dt 24:10). Why?

The concept of sins as debts is a midrash that ties in the Year of Jubilee (Lv. 25) in which all financial debts are forgiven, the coming of Messiah (Is 61:1-2) which Yeshua applies to himself (Lk 4:21), and the Lord’s Prayer (Mt 6:12). Dead Sea Scroll 11QMelchizedek portrays Melchizedek as a Messianic figure come to forgive sins as “debts” with this same idea. So it is an important 2nd Temple Jewish idea with real roots in the Tanakh.

So, why does the RSV and the Catechism mistranslate it? Losing the entire OT connections of the midrash?

It is very confusing to pray the Lord’s prayer with others, some of whom use “trespasses”, some “debts”, some “sins” (Lk 11:4, although later on in the verse hamartia (sins) is paralleled withopheilonti (debts).

Why did the Catechism choose trespasses?

First of all, in my RSV (which is the non-Catholic standard version), Matthew 6:12 has “debts” and “debtors.” “Trespasses” occurs at Matthew 6:14-15, but it is a different Greek word than what you note (see below). I thought perhaps the RSV-CE (Catholic edition) might be different. The Wikipedia article on RSV-CE doesn’t list Matthew 6:12 at all. The EWTN Bible Search for RSV-CE has “And forgive us our debts, [opheilema] As we also have forgiven our debtors”.

[later note: I’ve been informed that the RSV-CE2 (second Catholic edition) has “trespass” for Matthew 6:12]

I don’t know Greek and am no expert on translation, but I can go to various lexical references in my library and online (designed for regular old folks like me) to get an idea of what the Greek means (and to speculate why RSV-CE2 chose this rendering for Matthew 6:12). We can also speculate upon the rationale behind the liturgical usage of “trespass” in the (English-speaking) Catholic Church.

Kittel’s Theological Dictionary of the New Testament (one-volume, p. 747) states:

In later Judaism it [opheilema] is a common term for “sin.” In the NT it occurs in Mt. 6:12 for “debt” in the sense of “sin” (cf. hamartia in Lk. 11:4).

I think this is possibly the key to understanding the rendering of “trespass” which might be regarded as a synonym (in English) for “sin.” You yourself noted Luke 11:4 as the parallel passage:

Matthew 6:9-13 (RSV / RSV-CE) Pray then like this: Our Father who art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done, On earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread; And forgive us our debts, [opheilema] As we also have forgiven our debtors [opheiletes]; And lead us not into temptation, But deliver us from evil.

Luke 11:2-4 And he said to them, “When you pray, say: “Father, hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Give us each day our daily bread; and forgive us our sins [hamartia], for we ourselves forgive every one who is indebted [opheilo] to us; and lead us not into temptation.”

So we have a scenario in the synoptics with two Greek words being used for what was obviously the same address (the Lord’s Prayer or Our Father). We compare Scripture with Scripture, for a more accurate understanding. Hamartia is translated as “sin” 172 times in the KJV, as “sinful” once and as “offence” once. Its cognate hamartano is rendered “sin” 39 times, “offend” once, and as “trespass” three times in the KJV. Here are those three instances:

Matthew 18:15 Moreover if thy brother shall trespass against thee, go and tell him his fault between thee and him alone: if he shall hear thee, thou hast gained thy brother.

Luke 17:3-4 Take heed to yourselves: If thy brother trespass against thee, rebuke him; and if he repent, forgive him. And if he trespass against thee seven times in a day, and seven times in a day turn again to thee, saying, I repent; thou shalt forgive him.

Compare to the RSV:

Matthew 18:15 “If your brother sins against you, go and tell him his fault, between you and him alone. If he listens to you, you have gained your brother.

Luke 17:3-4 Take heed to yourselves; if your brother sins, rebuke him, and if he repents, forgive him; and if he sins against you seven times in the day, and turns to you seven times, and says, `I repent,’ you must forgive him.”

RSV habitually translates hamartia or hamartano as “sin”. “Trespass” occurs 22 times in the NT in the RSV, but not as a rendering of or its opheilema cognates. It is the translation of the Greek paraptoma, where it is clearly synonymous with “sin”:

Matthew 6:14-15 For if you forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father also will forgive you; but if you do not forgive men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses.

Mark 11:25 And whenever you stand praying, forgive, if you have anything against any one; so that your Father also who is in heaven may forgive you your trespasses.”

Romans 4:25 who was put to death for our trespasses and raised for our justification.

Romans 5:15-18, 20 But the free gift is not like the trespass. For if many died through one man’s trespass, much more have the grace of God and the free gift in the grace of that one man Jesus Christ abounded for many. And the free gift is not like the effect of that one man’s sin [hamartano]. For the judgment following one trespass brought condemnation, but the free gift following many trespasses brings justification. If, because of one man’s trespass, death reigned through that one man, much more will those who receive the abundance of grace and the free gift of righteousness reign in life through the one man Jesus Christ. Then as one man’s trespass led to condemnation for all men, so one man’s act of righteousness leads to acquittal and life for all men. . . . Law came in, to increase the trespass; but where sin [hamartia] increased, grace abounded all the more,

[Note how “trespass” (though here it is paraptoma) and sin (hamartia) are used interchangeably and synonymously in this passage:

5:15 one man’s trespass

5:16 one man’s sin

5:16 one trespass

5:17 one man’s trespass

5:18 one man’s trespass

5:16 the free gift following many trespasses brings justification

5:20 but where sin increased, grace abounded all the more ]

Romans 11:11-12 So I ask, have they stumbled so as to fall? By no means! But through their trespass salvation has come to the Gentiles, so as to make Israel jealous. Now if their trespass means riches for the world, and if their failure means riches for the Gentiles, how much more will their full inclusion mean!

2 Corinthians 5:19 that is, in Christ God was reconciling the world to himself, not counting their trespasses against them, and entrusting to us the message of reconciliation.

Galatians 6:1 Brethren, if a man is overtaken in any trespass, you who are spiritual should restore him in a spirit of gentleness. Look to yourself, lest you too be tempted.

Ephesians 1:7 In him we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of ourtrespasses, according to the riches of his grace

Ephesians 2:1, 5 And you he made alive, when you were dead through the trespasses and sins [hamartia]. . . even when we were dead through our trespasses, made us alive together with Christ (by grace you have been saved),

Colossians 2:13 And you, who were dead in trespasses and the uncircumcision of your flesh, God made alive together with him, having forgiven us all our trespasses,

Paraptoma is translated as sin in one place:

James 5:16 Therefore confess your sins to one another, and pray for one another, that you may be healed. The prayer of a righteous man has great power in its effects.

It appears, then, that the Catholic liturgical tradition and the Catechism and RSV-CE2 are taking the overall thought of all these related passages into consideration, in choosing “trespass” — even though a solid linguistic argument can be made (and you made it) for preferring “debtor.”

The Catechism has “trespasses” at #2759 but “debts” at #2841 and #2845.

But why is “trespass” the Catholic version for the Lord’s Prayer? The Latin Vulgate rendering and the language in the Latin Mass are, literally, “debts” and “debtors”:

et dimitte nobis debita nostra, sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris

Wikipedia, “Lord’s Prayer” states:

Though Matthew 6:12 uses the term debts, the older English versions of the Lord’s Prayer uses the term trespasses, while ecumenical versions often use the term sins. The latter choice may be due to Luke 11:4, which uses the word sins, while the former may be due to Matthew 6:12 (immediately after the text of the prayer), where Jesus speaks oftrespasses. As early as the third century, Origen of Alexandria used the word trespasses (παραπτώματα) in the prayer. Though the Latin form that was traditionally used in Western Europe has debita (debts), most English-speaking Christians (except Presbyterians and others of the Reformed tradition), use trespasses. . . .

Matthew continues with a request for debts to be forgiven in the same manner as people forgive those who have debts against them. Luke, on the other hand, makes a similar request about sins being forgiven in the manner of debts being forgiven between people. The word “debts” (ὀφειλήματα) does not necessarily mean financial obligations as shown by the use of the verbal form of the same word (ὀφείλετε) in passages such as Romans 13:8. In Aramaic the word for debt is also used to mean sin. This difference between Luke’s and Matthew’s wording could be explained by the original form of the prayer having been in Aramaic. The generally accepted interpretation is thus that the request is for forgiveness of sin, not of supposed loans granted by God. . .

The article gives the form as it appeared in the 1662 Book of Common Prayer (Anglican):

Our Father, which [who] art in heaven,
hallowed be thy name;
thy kingdom come;
thy will be done,
in [on] earth as it is in heaven.
Give us this day our daily bread.
And forgive us our trespasses,
as we forgive them that [those who] trespass against us.
And lead us not into temptation;
but deliver us from evil.
[For thine is the kingdom,
the power, and the glory,
For ever and ever.

This is almost word-for-word identical to the words used in the Catholic Mass and in the Catechism (#2759). I have inserted the Catholic differences in blue. Therefore, it appears that “trespass” is the accepted English liturgical usage of the prayer as passed down; influenced by the lofty Elizabethan language of the Book of Common Prayer, just as the RSV is the continuation of the (Protestant) KJV tradition of Bible translation.

Dr. Orville Boyd Jenkins noted:

Do you know the reason for the different forms of the Lord’s Prayer? These two common variations of the “Lord’s Prayer” are from two different English translations of Matthew’s version of the prayer (Matt. 6:12).

The “debts” form is from the first English translation of the Bible, by John Wycliffe in 1395 (Wycliffe spelling “dettis”)! The “trespasses” version is from the 1526 translation by William Tyndale (Tyndale spelling “treaspases”).

In 1549 the first Book of Common Prayer in English used a version of the prayer with “trespasses.” This became the “official” version used in the Anglican congregations.

Nicholas Ayo, in his book, The Lord’s Prayer (Roman & Littlefield, 2003) gives us further insight:

Matthew’s debts shows a more Semitic usage. The Aramaic word for sins was debts, with the primary analogue financial debts. To the Greek Gentile Christians of Luke’s community, however, sins would be more understandable. The Greeks knew sin, or hamartia, as literally a missing of the mark, an arrow gone astray, an error or mistake, a falsity of some kind. (p. 72)

Ayo, on the same page, traces the use of “trespass” in English to Wycliffe’s translation of the passage following the Our Father (Matthew 6:14): a practice retained by the KJV and the RSV. Wycliffe used “debts” in the prayer itself, as noted above. Tyndale used “trespasses” in both Matthaean passages and even in Luke’s version, where the Greek is different. Ayo continues:

Jerome translated the Greek word paraptoma (transgressions) . . . by an alternate use of two Latin words, peccata (sins) and delicta (offenses). Wycliffe rendered those two Latin words with the English words “sins” and “trespasses.”

Catholic Bible translator Ronald Knox uses trespass at Matthew 6:12 and also Luke 11:4. Since his version was a revised Vulgate, he either had some linguistic reason to do so, or else he was bowing to the liturgical tradition in English at that point.

Bible translator and commentator William Barclay, in his book, The Lord’s Prayer (Westminster John Knox Press, 1998) provides yet further fascinating speculation:

It may well be that Tyndale did not wish to use the word debts, because there were those who desired to take this petition . . . as a statement in the money sense of the term are obliterated and need no longer be paid. Augustine (The Sermon on the Mount 2.8) in point of fact spends the greater part of his exposition of this petition dealing with the obviously not inconvenient interpretation which found in this petition a new way to abolish old debts. (p. 87)


Finally, here is St. Augustine’s commentary on the Sermon on the Mount, Book II, chapter 8, section 28 (complete):

The fifth petition follows: “And forgive us our debts, as we also forgive our debtors.” It is manifest that by debts are meant sins, either from that statement which the Lord Himself makes, “You shall by no means come out thence, till you have paid the uttermost farthing;” or from the fact that He called those men debtors who were reported to Him as having been killed, either those on whom the tower fell, or those whose blood Herod had mingled with the sacrifice. For He said that men supposed it was because they were debtors above measure, i.e. sinners, and added “I tell you, Nay: but, unless you repent, you shall all likewise die.” Here, therefore, it is not a money claim that one is pressed to remit, but whatever sins another may have committed against him. For we are enjoined to remit a money claim by that precept rather which has been given above, “If any man will sue you at the law, and take away your coat, let him have your cloak also;” nor is it necessary to remit a debt to every money debtor; but only to him who is unwilling to pay, to such an extent that he wishes even to go to law. “Now the servant of the Lord,” as says the apostle, “must not go to law.” And therefore to him who shall be unwilling, either spontaneously or when requested, to pay the money which he owes, it is to be remitted. For his unwillingness to pay will arise from one of two causes, either that he has it not, or that he is avaricious and covetous of the property of another; and both of these belong to a state of poverty: for the former is poverty of substance, the latter poverty of disposition. Whoever, therefore, remits a debt to such an one, remits it to one who is poor, and performs a Christian work; while that rule remains in force, that he should be prepared in mind to lose what is owing to him. For if he has used exertion in every way, quietly and gently, to have it restored to him, not so much aiming at a money profit, as that he may bring the man round to what is right, to whom without doubt it is hurtful to have the means of paying, and yet not to pay; not only will he not sin, but he will even do a very great service, in trying to prevent that other, who is wishing to make gain of another’s money, from making shipwreck of the faith; which is so much more serious a thing, that there is no comparison. And hence it is understood that in this fifth petition also, where we say, “Forgive us our debts,” the words are spoken not indeed in reference to money, but in reference to all ways in which any one sins against us, and by consequence in reference to money also. For the man who refuses to pay you the money which he owes, when he has the means of doing so, sins against you. And if you do not forgive this sin, you will not be able to say, “Forgive us, as we also forgive;” but if you pardon it, you see how he who is enjoined to offer such a prayer is admonished also with respect to forgiving a money debt.

About Royal Rosamond Press

I am an artist, a writer, and a theologian.
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