King Condrad and The Crusaders

It is a fact the Christian-right wants POTUS to become King of America so as a king he can go on a Holy Crusade and enter Jerusalem as leader of Western Civilization. Former VP Biden says he would gather all the leaders of Europe together when he is elected POTUS, and restore the damage the Evangelical Lunatic has done.

There is talk about restoring the German Monarchy that is kin to the Russian and British Monarchy. Georg Friedrich of Prussia is a candidate. He holds the title ‘Prince of Orange’ which is also claimed by the House of Hanover which are kin to the House of Welf and Este, that King Conrad helped secure. Conrad went on Crusade. I believe he was looking for Solomon’s treasure and the treasure Authari ‘King of Lombards’ gathered when he conquered Rome. Some of it may have ended up in the Teutonic Cemetary.

As a genealogist I have been looking at and following these linages for twenty years. I have dropped clues like bread crumbs, along the way. J.R. Tolkien based much of his writing on the Lombards. He employed the name Rosamund who became Queen of the Lombards – against her will. Albion had shown much cruelty. When I saw these two photographs of Lara Roozemond, while looking for a model to replace Rena Easton as Rosamond Clifford, I saw Rosamund, a Gepid Princess.  When I read Lara’s poems, I was reading a Captive who has reincarnated.  She has deep troubles in regards to finding a suitable mate. I depict her as a Princess of Orange, even though she may not be – of the blood.

I am not long for this world. I announced I am a Republican candidate. I may be – of the blood. Will I enter Jerusalem on a great Friesian horse – as the Horse Master of the Teutonic Knights! Will this horse be called ‘Frederick the Great’.

John Presco

Copyright 2019

Those hopes were dashed when the tombs turned out to be completely empty.

The Vatican noted at the time that structural work had been carried out on both the college and cemetery near St. Peter’s Basilica in the 1800s and more recently, and that further investigation would be done.

On Saturday, Vatican spokesman Alessandro Gisotti said those investigations had centered on the areas adjoining the tombs and had “identified two ossuaries, located under the pavement of an area inside the Pontifical Teutonic College, covered by a manhole.”

He said the area was immediately sealed off and would be opened in the presence of forensic experts July 20.

Rosamund was born into a kingdom in crisis, as the Gepid people had been fighting a losing battle against the Lombards since 546, firstly within the context of a Lombardic-East Roman alliance, and later against the Lombards and the Avar nomads. These wars had taken the lives of not only her grandfather king Thurisind, but also her uncle, Thurismund, both of which served to establish a long-standing hatred of the Lombards in her father, Cunimund, which he passed down to her.

This hatred was what spawned the final war of the Gepids, as Cunimund attempted to win back lost lands against the Lombards. The war, however, quickly turned, and in 567, the Gepid Kingdom would be completely subdued by a mixture of Lombard and Avar forces, her father was decapitated and she, along with many other Gepids, was taken as a prisoner of the Lombards (see Lombard–Gepid War (567)). However, in an attempt to secure a male heir and following the death of his first wife Clotsuinda of Frankia, Alboin took her as his wife. Alboin was noted for his cruelty towards her; his most famous act of cruelty was reported by Paulus Diaconus, who states that at a royal banquet in Verona, Alboin forced her to drink from the skull of her dead father (which he carried around his belt), inviting her “to drink merrily with her father”.[1]

Rosamund forced to drink from the skull of her father by Pietro della Vecchia

After this, she began plotting to have her husband assassinated. Thus, Rosamund met with the king’s arms bearer and her lover, Helmichis, who suggested using Peredeo, “a very strong man”,[1] to accomplish the assassination. Peredeo refused to help, and that night mistakenly had intercourse with Rosamund, who was disguised as a servant. After learning that he had committed adultery with his king’s wife, Peredeo agreed to take part in an assassination attempt in fear of the king’s retribution. After the great feast, Alboin went to bed inebriated, at which point Rosamund ordered the king’s sword bound to his bedpost, so that should he wake in the middle of the assassination attempt, he would be defenseless. Alboin did wake, only to find himself unarmed. He fended off his attackers temporarily with a footstool, but was killed. Due in part to the work of Paulus Diaconus, there seems to be some confusion about who actually killed Alboin, with both Helmichis and Peredeo assigned as sole murderer.[2]

The House of Hohenzollern (/ˈhənzɒlərn/, also US: /-əntsɔː-, ˌhənˈzɒlərn, –ˈzɔː-/,[1][2][3][4] German: [ˌhoːənˈtsɔlɐn]) is a German dynasty whose members were variously princes, electors, kings and emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, and Romania. The family arose in the area around the town of Hechingen in Swabia during the 11th century and took their name from Hohenzollern Castle.[5] The first ancestors of the Hohenzollerns were mentioned in 1061.

The Hohenzollern family split into two branches, the Catholic Swabian branch and the Protestant Franconian branch,[6] which later became the Brandenburg-Prussian branch. The Swabian branch ruled the principalities of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen until 1849, and also ruled Romania from 1866 to 1947. Members of the Franconian branch became Margrave of Brandenburg in 1415 and Duke of Prussia in 1525.

The Margraviate of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia were ruled in personal union after 1618 and were called Brandenburg-Prussia. The Kingdom of Prussia was created in 1701, eventually leading to the unification of Germany and the creation of the German Empire in 1871, with the Hohenzollerns as hereditary German Emperors and Kings of Prussia.

Germany’s defeat in World War I in 1918 led to the German Revolution. The Hohenzollerns were overthrown and the Weimar Republic was established, thus bringing an end to the German monarchy. Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia is the current head of the royal Prussian line, while Karl Friedrich, Prince of Hohenzollern is the head of the princely Swabian line.[6]

The House of Welf (also Guelf or Guelph[1]) is a European dynasty that has included many German and British monarchs from the 11th to 20th century and Emperor Ivan VI of Russia in the 18th century.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Welf

he House of Este (UK: /ˈɛsti/,[6] US: /ˈɛst/,[7][8] Italian: [ˈɛste]) was an Italian princely family, linked with several contemporary royal dynasties, including the House of Habsburg and the British royal family.[9]

The elder, German branch of the House of Este, known as the Younger House of Welf, included dukes of Bavaria and Brunswick-Lüneburg and produced Britain’s Hanoverian monarchs, as well as one Emperor of Russia (Ivan VI) and one Holy Roman Emperor (Otto IV).

The younger, Italian branch of the House of Este included rulers of Ferrara (1240–1597), and of Modena and Reggio (1288–1796).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Welf

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Este

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attia_(gens)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_the_Lombards

https://books.google.com/books?id=n3A4Sg3Q7PMC&pg=PA137&lpg=PA137&dq=welf+lombards&source=bl&ots=4M_VFOfkXR&sig=ACfU3U0LSwPqXgDyv74vJGy2YWAIEvtDEw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj1wqWNo7LjAhUmxVQKHXmXDywQ6AEwDnoECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=welf%20lombards&f=false

http://tuscany-toscana.blogspot.com/2013/04/the-treasure-of-lombards-il-tesoro-dei.html#.XSoCmHdFzIU

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bergamo_Treasure

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_the_Deacon

https://www.thelocal.de/20130425/49371

https://www.thelocal.de/20130425/49371

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2115436/Great-great-grandson-Kaiser-Bill-calls-restoration-monarchy-Germany-help-spread-feel-good-factor.html

A German prince says his country should copy the UK and reinstate its royal family, which vanished in the chaos after World War One.

Prince Philip Kiril of Prussia, the great-great grandson of the last Kaiser of Germany, believes a return to the monarchy would instil a new pride in Germany.

Kaiser Wilhelm II, who was the last emperor of Germany and nephew of Queen Victoria, was forced to abdicate in 1918.

His bellicose policies helped to bring about World War One and Germany has not had a monarchy since. 

However, Prince Phillip believes a return to the monarchy might even boost the birthrate of the country, which is greying fast as couples avoid having children in the financial downturn, with a ‘feel-good factor’ over royal offspring translating to more commoner births.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_throne_dispute

https://www.cnn.com/2019/05/17/opinions/four-ways-trump-trying-to-be-king-opinion-zelizer/index.html

https://www.wsj.com/articles/a-modest-proposal-lets-make-trump-a-king-11557509267

https://www.newstatesman.com/politics/uk/2019/06/uk-state-visit-shows-trump-doesn-t-want-be-president-america-he-wants-be-king

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/12/31/opinion/trump-evangelicals-cyrus-king.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prince_of_Orange

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catharina-Amalia,_Princess_of_Orange

https://www.geni.com/people/Prince-Georg-Frederick-of-Prussia/6000000000632013737

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georg_Friedrich,_Prince_of_Prussia

The House of Schwarzenberg and I

Robert E. Lee and I are in the family tree of this amazing family that is debating about getting its castles back that Hitler took from them, and then, the Soviet Union. This is an incredible story of a real Lost Kingdom that the Rosamond and Wilson family are a part of. So are the Bentons!

My first history book will be titled ‘Gone To Hartwell’ which could be a euphuism for ‘Gone Nuts’. The reason I love doing genealogies, is because 86% percent of the royals are nuts! Flawed and Crazy People have made 99% percent our history.

https://rosamondpress.com/2019/06/07/gone-to-hartwell/

John Presco

Conrad III
Konrad III Miniatur 13 Jahrhundert.jpg

King Conrad III (Cunradus rex) in a miniature from the Chronica sancti Pantaleonis, c. 1240
King of Germany
(formally King of the Romans)
Reign 1138–1152
Coronation 13 March 1138, Aachen
Predecessor Lothair III
Successor Frederick I
King of Italy
Reign 1128–1135
Coronation 1128, Milan
Predecessor Henry V
Successor Frederick I
Born 1093
Died 15 February 1152
Bamberg, Bavaria
Spouse
Issue
House Hohenstaufen
Father Frederick I, Duke of Swabia
Mother Agnes
Religion Roman Catholicism

Conrad III (German: Konrad; Italian: Corrado; 1093 – 15 February 1152) was the first King of Germany of the Hohenstaufen dynasty. He was the son of Duke Frederick I of Swabia and Agnes,[1] a daughter of the Salian Emperor Henry IV.

Descent[edit]

The origin of the House of Hohenstaufen in the Duchy of Swabia has not been conclusively established. Conrad’s great-grandfather Frederick of Staufen was count in the Riesgau and in 1053 became Swabian Count palatine, his son Frederick of Buren probably resided near present-day Wäschenbeuren and about 1050 married Countess Hildegard of EgisheimDagsburg from Alsace.

Conrad’s father took advantage of the conflict between King Henry IV of Germany and the Swabian duke Rudolf of Rheinfelden during the Investiture Controversy. When Rudolf had himself elected German anti-king at Forchheim in 1077, Frederick of Hohenstaufen remained loyal to the royal crown and in 1079 was vested with the Duchy of Swabia by Henry IV, including an engagement with the king’s minor daughter Agnes. He died in 1105, leaving two sons, Conrad and his elder brother Frederick II, who inherited the Swabian ducal title. Their mother entered into a second marriage with Babenberg margrave Leopold III of Austria.

Biography[edit]

In 1105 Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor since 1084, was overthrown by his son Henry V, Conrad’s uncle. Emperor since 1111, Henry V preparing for his second campaign to Italy upon the death of Margravine Matilda of Tuscany, in 1116 appointed Conrad a Duke of Franconia.[2] Conrad was marked out to act as regent for Germany, together with his elder brother, Duke Frederick II of Swabia. At the death of Henry V in 1125, Conrad unsuccessfully supported Frederick II for the kingship of Germany. Frederick was placed under a ban and Conrad was deprived of Franconia and the Kingdom of Burgundy, of which he was rector. With the support of the imperial cities, Swabia, and the Duchy of Austria, Conrad was elected anti-king at Nuremberg in December 1127.

Conrad quickly crossed the Alps to be crowned King of Italy by Anselmo della Pusterla, Archbishop of Milan, in the village of Monza.[3] Over the next two years, he failed to achieve anything in Italy, however, and returned to Germany in 1130, after Nuremberg and Speyer, two strong cities in his support, fell to Lothair in 1129. Conrad continued in Lothair’s opposition, but he and Frederick were forced to acknowledge Lothair as emperor in 1135, during which time Conrad relinquished his title as King of Italy. After this they were pardoned and could take again possession of their lands.

Conrad III and his armies in Hungary. Image from the Chronicon Pictum

After Lothair’s death (December 1137), Conrad was elected king at Coblenz on 7 March 1138, in the presence of the papal legate Theodwin. Conrad was crowned at Aachen six days later (13 March) and was acknowledged in Bamberg by several princes of southern Germany. As Henry the Proud, son-in-law and heir of Lothair and the most powerful prince in Germany, who had been passed over in the election, refused to do the same, Conrad deprived him of all his territories, giving the Duchy of Saxony to Albert the Bear and that of Bavaria to Leopold IV, Margrave of Austria. Henry, however, retained the loyalty of his subjects. The civil war that broke out is considered the first act of the struggle between Guelphs and Ghibellines, which later extended southwards to Italy. After Henry’s death (October 1139), the war was continued by his son Henry the Lion, supported by the Saxons, and by his brother Welf VI. Conrad, after a long siege, defeated the latter at Weinsberg in December 1140, and in May 1142 a peace agreement was reached in Frankfurt.

In the same year, Conrad entered Bohemia to reinstate his brother-in-law Vladislav II as prince. The attempt to do the same with another brother-in-law, the Polish prince Ladislaus the Exile, failed. Bavaria, Saxony, and the other regions of Germany were in revolt.

In 1146, Conrad heard Bernard of Clairvaux preach the Second Crusade at Speyer, and he agreed to join Louis VII in a great expedition to the Holy Land. Before leaving, he had the nobles elect and crown his son Henry Berengar king. The succession secured in the event of his death, Conrad set out. His army of 20,000 men went overland, via Hungary, causing disruptions in the Byzantine territories through which they passed. They arrived at Constantinople by September 1147, ahead of the French army.

Rather than taking the coastal road around Anatolia through Christian-held territory, by which he sent most of his noncombatants, Conrad took his army across Anatolia. On 25 October 1147, they were defeated by the Seljuk Turks at the Battle of Dorylaeum. Conrad and most of the knights escaped, but most of the foot soldiers were killed or captured. The remaining 2,000 men of the German army limped on to Nicaea, where many of the survivors deserted and tried to return home. Conrad and his adherents had to be escorted to Lopadium by the French, where they joined the main French army under Louis. Conrad fell seriously ill at Ephesus and was sent to recuperate in Constantinople, where his host the Emperor Manuel I acted as his personal physician. After recovering, Conrad sailed to Acre, and from there reached Jerusalem. He participated in the ill-fated Siege of Damascus and after that failure, grew disaffected with his allies. Another attempt to attack Ascalon failed when Conrad’s allies did not appear as promised, and Conrad returned to Germany.

In 1150, Conrad and Henry Berengar defeated Welf VI and his son Welf VII at the Battle of Flochberg. Henry Berengar died later that year and the succession was thrown open. The Welfs and Hohenstaufen made peace in 1152 and the peaceful succession of one of Conrad’s family was secured.

Conrad was never crowned emperor and continued to style himself “King of the Romans” until his death. On his deathbed, in the presence of only two witnesses, his nephew Frederick Barbarossa and the Bishop of Bamberg, he allegedly designated Frederick his successor, rather than his own surviving six-year-old son Frederick. Frederick Barbarossa, who had accompanied his uncle on the unfortunate crusade, forcefully pursued his advantage and was duly elected king in Cologne a few weeks later. The young son of the late king was given the Duchy of Swabia.

Conrad left no male heirs by his first wife, Gertrude von Komburg. In 1136, he married Gertrude of Sulzbach, who was a daughter of Berengar II of Sulzbach, and whose sister Bertha was married to Emperor Manuel. Gertrude was the mother of Conrad’s children and the link which cemented his alliance with Byzantium.

The Hohenstaufen (/ˈhənʃtfən/, also US: /ˌhənˈʃtfən, –st-/,[2][3][4][5] German: [ˌhoːənˈʃtaʊfn̩]), also known as Staufer, were a dynasty of German kings (1138–1254) during the Middle Ages. Before ascending to the kingship, they were Dukes of Swabia from 1079. As kings of Germany, they had a claim to Italy, Burgundy and the Holy Roman Empire. Three members of the dynasty—Frederick I (1155), Henry VI (1191) and Frederick II (1220)—were crowned emperor. Besides Germany, they also ruled the Kingdom of Sicily (1194–1268) and the Kingdom of Jerusalem (1225–1268)

Name[edit]

The dynasty is named after a castle, which in turn is named after a mountain. The names used by scholars today, however, are conventional and somewhat anachronistic.

The name Hohenstaufen was first used in the 14th century to distinguish the “high” (hohen) conical hill named Staufen in the Swabian Jura, in the district of Göppingen, from the village of the same name in the valley below. The new name was only applied to the hill castle of Staufen by historians in the 19th century, to distinguish it from other castles of the same name. The name of the dynasty followed, but in recent decades the trend in German historiography has been to prefer the name Staufer, which is closer to contemporary usage.[6]

The name “Staufen” itself derives from Stauf (OHG stouf, akin to Early Modern English stoup), meaning “chalice“. This term was commonly applied to conical hills in Swabia in the Middle Ages.[6] It is a contemporary term for both the hill and the castle, although its spelling in the Latin documents of the time varies considerably: Sthouf, Stophe, Stophen, Stoyphe, Estufin etc. The castle was built or at least acquired by Duke Frederick I of Swabia in the latter half of the 11th century.[7]

Members of the family occasionally used the toponymic surname de Stauf or variants thereof. Only in the 13th century does the name come to be applied to the family as a whole. Around 1215 a chronicler referred to the “emperors of Stauf”. In 1247, the Emperor Frederick II himself referred to his family as the domus Stoffensis (Staufer house), but this was an isolated instance. Otto of Freising (d. 1158) associated the Staufer with the town of Waiblingen and around 1230 Burchard of Ursberg referred to the Staufer as of the “royal lineage of the Waiblingens” (regia stirps Waiblingensium). The exact connection between the family and Waiblingen is not clear, but as a name for the family it became very popular. The pro-imperial Ghibelline faction of the Italian civic rivalries of the 13th and 14th centuries took its name from Waiblingen.[7]

In Italian historiography, the Staufer are known as the Svevi (Swabians).[6]

Origins[edit]

The noble family first appeared in the late 10th century in the Swabian Riesgau region around the former Carolingian court of Nördlingen. A local count Frederick (d. about 1075) is mentioned as progenitor in a pedigree drawn up by Abbot Wibald of Stavelot at the behest of Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in 1153. He held the office of a Swabian count palatine; his son Frederick of Buren (c.1020–1053) married Hildegard of EgisheimDagsburg (d. 1094/95), a niece of Pope Leo IX. Their son Frederick I was appointed Duke of Swabia at Hohenstaufen Castle by the Salian king Henry IV of Germany in 1079.

At the same time, Duke Frederick I was engaged to the king’s approximately seventeen-year-old daughter, Agnes. Nothing is known about Frederick’s life before this event, but he proved to be an imperial ally throughout Henry’s struggles against other Swabian lords, namely Rudolf of Rheinfelden, Frederick’s predecessor, and the Zähringen and Welf lords. Frederick’s brother Otto was elevated to the Strasbourg bishopric in 1082.

Upon Frederick’s death, he was succeeded by his son, Duke Frederick II, in 1105. Frederick II remained a close ally of the Salians, he and his younger brother Conrad were named the king’s representatives in Germany when the king was in Italy. Around 1120, Frederick II married Judith of Bavaria from the rival House of Welf.

Ruling in Germany[edit]

The Holy Roman Empire at its greatest extent in the early to middle 13th century under the Hohenstaufen dynasty (1155–1268).

German royal dynasties
House of Hohenstaufen
Chronology
Conrad III 1138–1152
Frederick I Barbarossa 1152–1190
Henry VI 1190–1197
Philip of Swabia 1198–1208
Frederick II 1212–1250
Conrad IV 1250–1254
Family
Family tree of the German monarchs
Succession
Preceded by
Süpplingenburg dynasty
Followed by
House of Habsburg

When the last male member of the Salian dynasty, Emperor Henry V, died without heirs in 1125, a controversy arose about the succession. Duke Frederick II and Conrad, the two current male Staufers, by their mother Agnes, were grandsons of late Emperor Henry IV and nephews of Henry V. Frederick attempted to succeed to the throne of the Holy Roman Emperor (formally known as the King of the Romans) through a customary election, but lost to the Saxon duke Lothair of Supplinburg. A civil war between Frederick’s dynasty and Lothair’s ended with Frederick’s submission in 1134. After Lothair’s death in 1137, Frederick’s brother Conrad was elected King as Conrad III.

Because the Welf duke Henry the Proud, son-in-law and heir of Lothair and the most powerful prince in Germany, who had been passed over in the election, refused to acknowledge the new king, Conrad III deprived him of all his territories, giving the Duchy of Saxony to Albert the Bear and that of Bavaria to Leopold IV, Margrave of Austria. In 1147, Conrad heard Bernard of Clairvaux preach the Second Crusade at Speyer, and he agreed to join King Louis VII of France in a great expedition to the Holy Land which failed.

Conrad’s brother Duke Frederick II died in 1147, and was succeeded in Swabia by his son, Duke Frederick III. When King Conrad III died without adult heir in 1152, Frederick also succeeded him, taking both German royal and Imperial titles.

Frederick Barbarossa[edit]

Frederick I, known as Frederick Barbarossa because of his red beard, struggled throughout his reign to restore the power and prestige of the German monarchy against the dukes, whose power had grown both before and after the Investiture Controversy under his Salian predecessors. As royal access to the resources of the church in Germany was much reduced, Frederick was forced to go to Italy to find the finances needed to restore the king’s power in Germany. He was soon crowned emperor in Italy, but decades of warfare on the peninsula yielded scant results. The Papacy and the prosperous city-states of the Lombard League in northern Italy were traditional enemies, but the fear of Imperial domination caused them to join ranks to fight Frederick. Under the skilled leadership of Pope Alexander III, the alliance suffered many defeats but ultimately was able to deny the emperor a complete victory in Italy. Frederick returned to Germany. He had vanquished one notable opponent, his Welf cousin, Duke Henry the Lion of Saxony and Bavaria in 1180, but his hopes of restoring the power and prestige of the monarchy seemed unlikely to be met by the end of his life.

During Frederick’s long stays in Italy, the German princes became stronger and began a successful colonization of Slavic lands. Offers of reduced taxes and manorial duties enticed many Germans to settle in the east in the course of the Ostsiedlung. In 1163 Frederick waged a successful campaign against the Kingdom of Poland in order to re-install the Silesian dukes of the Piast dynasty. With the German colonization, the Empire increased in size and came to include the Duchy of Pomerania. A quickening economic life in Germany increased the number of towns and Imperial cities, and gave them greater importance. It was also during this period that castles and courts replaced monasteries as centers of culture. Growing out of this courtly culture, Middle High German literature reached its peak in lyrical love poetry, the Minnesang, and in narrative epic poems such as Tristan, Parzival, and the Nibelungenlied.

Henry VI[edit]

Emperor Frederick Barbarossa and his sons King Henry VI and Duke Frederick V of Swabia, Welfenchronik, 1167/79, Weingarten Abbey

Frederick died in 1190 while on the Third Crusade and was succeeded by his son, Henry VI. Elected king even before his father’s death, Henry went to Rome to be crowned emperor. He married Princess Constance of Sicily, and deaths in his wife’s family gave him claim of succession and possession of the Kingdom of Sicily in 1189 and 1194 respectively, a source of vast wealth. Henry failed to make royal and Imperial succession hereditary, but in 1196 he succeeded in gaining a pledge that his infant son Frederick would receive the German crown. Faced with difficulties in Italy and confident that he would realize his wishes in Germany at a later date, Henry returned to the south, where it appeared he might unify the peninsula under the Hohenstaufen name. After a series of military victories, however, he fell ill and died of natural causes in Sicily in 1197. His underage son Frederick could only succeed him in Sicily and Malta, while in the Empire the struggle between the House of Staufen and the House of Welf erupted once again.

Philip of Swabia[edit]

Because the election of a three-year-old boy to be German king appeared likely to make orderly rule difficult, the boy’s uncle, Duke Philip of Swabia, brother of late Henry VI, was designated to serve in his place. Other factions however favoured a Welf candidate. In 1198, two rival kings were chosen: the Hohenstaufen Philip of Swabia and the son of the deprived Duke Henry the Lion, the Welf Otto IV. A long civil war began; Philip was about to win when he was murdered by the Bavarian count palatine Otto VIII of Wittelsbach in 1208. Pope Innocent III initially had supported the Welfs, but when Otto, now sole elected monarch, moved to appropriate Sicily, Innocent changed sides and accepted young Frederick II[how?] and his ally, King Philip II of France, who defeated Otto at the 1214 Battle of Bouvines. Frederick had returned to Germany in 1212 from Sicily, where he had grown up, and was elected king in 1215. When Otto died in 1218, Fredrick became the undisputed ruler, and in 1220 was crowned Holy Roman Emperor.

Philip changed the coat of arms from a black lion on a gold shield to three leopards,[8] probably derived from the arms of his Welf rival Otto IV.

Ruling in Italy[edit]

The conflict between the Staufer dynasty and the Welf had irrevocably weakened the Imperial authority and the Norman kingdom of Sicily became the base for Staufer rule.

Frederick II[edit]

Emperor Frederick II spent little time in Germany as his main concerns lay in Southern Italy. He founded the University of Naples in 1224 to train future state officials and reigned over Germany primarily through the allocation of royal prerogatives, leaving the sovereign authority and imperial estates to the ecclesiastical and secular princes. He made significant concessions to the German nobles, such as those put forth in an imperial statute of 1232, which made princes virtually independent rulers within their territories. These measures favoured the further fragmentation of the Empire.

Frederick’s Castel del Monte, in Andria, Apulia, Italy.

By the 1226 Golden Bull of Rimini, Frederick had assigned the military order of the Teutonic Knights to complete the conquest and conversion of the Prussian lands. A reconciliation with the Welfs took place in 1235, whereby Otto the Child, grandson of the late Saxon duke Henry the Lion, was named Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg. The power struggle with the popes continued and resulted in Fredrick’s excommunication in 1227. In 1239, Pope Gregory IX excommunicated Fredrick again, and in 1245 he was condemned as a heretic by a church council. Although Frederick was one of the most energetic, imaginative, and capable rulers of the time, he was not concerned with drawing the disparate forces in Germany together. His legacy was thus that local rulers had more authority after his reign than before it. The clergy also had become more powerful.

Frederick II with his falcon, from De arte venandi cum avibus, c. 1240, Vatican Library

By the time of Frederick’s death in 1250, little centralized power remained in Germany. The Great Interregnum, a period in which there were several elected rival kings, none of whom was able to achieve any position of authority, followed the death of Frederick’s son King Conrad IV of Germany in 1254. The German princes vied for individual advantage and managed to strip many powers away from the diminished monarchy. Rather than establish sovereign states however, many nobles tended to look after their families. Their many male heirs created more and smaller estates, and from a largely free class of officials previously formed, many of these assumed or acquired hereditary rights to administrative and legal offices. These trends compounded political fragmentation within Germany. The period was ended in 1273 with the election of Rudolph of Habsburg, a godson of Frederick.

End of the Staufer dynasty[edit]

Conrad IV was succeeded as duke of Swabia by his only son, two-year-old Conradin. By this time, the office of duke of Swabia had been fully subsumed into the office of the king, and without royal authority had become meaningless. In 1261, attempts to elect young Conradin king were unsuccessful. He also had to defend Sicily against an invasion, sponsored by Pope Urban IV (Jacques Pantaléon) and Pope Clement IV (Guy Folques), by Charles of Anjou, a brother of the French king. Charles had been promised by the popes the Kingdom of Sicily, where he would replace the relatives of Frederick II. Charles had defeated Conradin’s uncle Manfred, King of Sicily, in the Battle of Benevento on 26 February 1266. The king himself, refusing to flee, rushed into the midst of his enemies and was killed. Conradin’s campaign to retake control ended with his defeat in 1268 at the Battle of Tagliacozzo, after which he was handed over to Charles, who had him publicly executed at Naples. With Conradin, the direct line of the Dukes of Swabia finally ceased to exist, though most of the later emperors were descended from the Staufer dynasty indirectly.

During the political decentralization of the late Staufer period, the population had grown from an estimated 8 million in 1200 to about 14 million in 1300, and the number of towns increased tenfold. The most heavily urbanized areas of Germany were located in the south and the west. Towns often developed a degree of independence, but many were subordinate to local rulers if not immediate to the emperor. Colonization of the east also continued in the thirteenth century, most notably through the efforts of the Teutonic Knights. German merchants also began trading extensively on the Baltic.

Members of the Hohenstaufen family[edit]

Family tree of the Hohenstaufen emperors including their relation to succeeding dynasties

Seal of Henry II of Swabia (dated 1216) shows him as a mounted knight with a shield and banner displaying three leopards (three lions passant guardant)as the Hohenstaufen coat of arms; the three lions (later shown just passant) would later become known as the Swabian coat of arms.

Holy Roman Emperors and Kings of the Romans[edit]

The first ruling Hohenstaufen, Conrad III, like the last one, Conrad IV, was never crowned emperor. After a 20-year period (Great interregnum 1254–1273), the first Habsburg was elected king.

Kings of Italy[edit]

Note: The following kings are already listed above as German Kings

Kings of Sicily[edit]

Arms of the Hohenstaufen Sicily

Note: Some of the following kings are already listed above as German Kings

Dukes of Swabia[edit]

Note: Some of the following dukes are already listed above as German Kings

About Royal Rosamond Press

I am an artist, a writer, and a theologian.
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