Clifford Family of Boston

 

 

My late friend, Ben Toney descends from the Toney family who married a Clifford, and begat Rosamond Clifford, who is in my family tree, along with the Bentons. So is Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor.

John

Shakespeare to Reverend Wilson

Here is the line from  Abigail Shakespeare Webb to Reverend Wilson. Our literary fame surpasses our artistic fame. Royal Rosamond is amazed by this lineage from Writer’s Heaven. The muses have been good to us. We are Boston Bluebloods. This line is spliced to Rosamond Clifford and the Culpepers.

John Presco

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Wilson_(minister)

https://rosamondpress.com/2018/07/15/rosamond-of-bayhall/

 

George Clifford, of Boston & Hampton MP

Gender: Male
Birth: circa 1592
England (UK)
Death: circa May 08, 1645 (45-61)
Hampton, Rockingham, New Hampshire
Immediate Family: Son of Henry Clifford, of Sittingbourne, Esq. and Ann? Clifford
Husband of Elizabeth Clifford
Father of John Clifford, of Hampton and George Clifford
Added by: William Harden Waesche, Jr. on January 23, 2009
Managed by: Joel Ryan Kosciak and 9 others
Curated by:

 

<http://www.familytreecircles.com/u/yankeeroots/> [Lisa Hesterman 7/28/2017]


<https://archive.org/stream/historyoftownofh02dowj#page/638/mode/2up> “George Clifford, descended in direct line from the ancient and noble family of Clifford, in England, came, probably with his wife (Elizabeth?) and son John, from Arnold village and parish in Nottingham Co., England, to Boston in 1644; was a member the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company.; moved to Hampton.”


The above excerpt is found also here, albeit with more detail: <http://www.whatreallyhappened.com/WRHARTICLES/pearl/www.geocities.com/Pentagon/6315/family/clifford.html> “CLIFFORDS Drogo fitz Ponts’ son Walter fitz Richard fitz Ponts in 1138 married a descendent of Ralph de Todeni who brought with her the dowry of Clifford Castle. Walter then changed his name to Clifford. Walter de Clifford’s daughter Rosamund Clifford (born about 1139 died 1176) was the mistress of Henry II and had a child by him. A novel concerning this is: The Fall of Rosamund Clifford by Thomas Hull. The King kept her in a wooden maze and the legend is that Queen Eleanor found her by means of a clue – a silk thread. The legend further says that the Queen then offered her poison in a chalice, but in fact she stabbed her to death in her bath. Robert de Clifford, born 1274, became the first Lord of Skipton Castle and died in a battle with the Scots in 1314. His son was to be decapitated on orders of the King, but was too ill. After a month, when he was well enough, King Edward III changed his mind and let him live. Thomas, the 8th Lord Clifford, has several speeches in Shakespeare’s “Henry the VI” part III, and was written about by Wordsworth. Henry, the 10th Lord Clifford, was to be executed during the War of the Roses but his mother had him raised by a shepherd. When the Lancasters won 25 years later, he was re- instated with 4 castles. He is the subject of the ” Ballad of the Nut-Brown Maid ” (1505) which tells how the maid rejected him, not knowing that he was a lord. The best speculation of whom George Clifford, first in America, descended from is that Henry, The Shepherd Lord. Henry, born 1493, was not only the 11th Lord Clifford but also the 1st Earl of Cumberland. Henry, the 12th Lord Clifford, was sickly and at one point was mistaken for dead and about to be buried, when someone noticed he was breathing. George, the 13th Lord Clifford and 3rd Earl of Cumberland, was a pirate whose 3 expeditions were backed by Queen Elizabeth. Although he plundered many Spanish ships, he managed to deplete the Clifford estates (restored later by his brother Lord Francis). He was Elizabeth’s champion at jousts and wore her glove on his helmet. He died in 1605.The 1st Clifford in America was George Clifford of the parish of Arnold in Nottingham. It is a family tradition and claim from the earliest times that he is a direct descendant of the Lords of Skipton and therefore an indirect relative of the current Lord Cliffords. There are no records of George Clifford in Arnold. In 1643 he settled in Boston and became a church member, official drummer-workman, and in 1644 he was a member the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company.

John, born 1614, was baptized May 10, 1646 “a man grown”. There is a record of a J. Clifford in 1639 in Salisbury, MASS. He was a planter (farmer) and butcher (and glover?) whose family homestead was South of the Taylor River on the west side of Old Mill Road in Hampton Falls, Rockingham Co., N.H. There are no buildings left standing. He was a selectman in 1660 and died in 1694. His great-great- great grandson, Hon. John H. Clifford, was attorney-general and governor of Massachusetts as well as president of Harvard College and the Boston & Providence Railroad Co. The Clifford household was itself extremely complex, for John had been married twice previously, and his current wife, Bridget, at least once; moreover, there were children from all of their earlier unions. As of 1672 the Clifford menage comprised the following persons:

 	Years

John Clifford 57 Brodget [—] (Huggins) Clifford 56 Hannah Clifford (d. of John and first wife) 23 Bridget Huggins (d. of Bridget and first husband) 21 Israel Clifford (s. of John and first wife ) 19 Joseph Richardson (s. of John’s second wife and her previous husband) 17 Benjamin Richardson (s. of John’s second wife and her previous husband) 15 Elizabeth Clifford (d. of John and second wife) 13 Anna Huggins (d. of Bridget and first husband) 13 Nathaniel Huggins (s. of Bridget and first husband) 12 Esther Clifford (d. of John and second wife) 10 Ann Smith (d. of Nicholas Smith; adoptive d. of William Godfrey) 9 Isaac Clifford (s. of John and second wife) 8

Meanwhile, John Clifford, junior (son of John and his first wife), was living in the next house, with his bride of two years, Sarah [Godfrey] Clifford.

The family was composed of thirteen persons, including eleven children with four different surnames. To be sure, fosterage was not uncommon in early New England; more than a few families were rearranged by the death of one spouse, and the remarriage of the other. But the complexity of the Clifford household was extreme.

Israel Cliford was born in Hampton 15 April 1647, married Ann Smith March 5, 1680. Ann Smith was the alleged victim of Goody Cole’s witchcraft-see Whittier’s poem, ” The Wreck of the Rivermouth “. In October 1672 Goody Cole was arraigned for “appearing under various forms, as a woman, a dog, an eagle and a cat, to entice a young girl, named Ann Smith, to live with her.” Cole, who had previously been jailed 15 years for witchcraft, was acquitted. Isaac, born May 24, 1696, in Hampton was a tax collector and constable at Kingston, NH. Isaac, born May 5, 1721, in Kingston moved to Chester, NH, and bought land there in 1745. In 1766 he removed to the new town of Rumney and was the tax collector of the town. In 1769 he was selectman and in 1782 he was the constable. His monument is in the cemetery at the corner of Buffalo and Sandhill roads. His great-grandson, Nathan Clifford, was Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States 1858-1881. Two of Isaac’s sons, John and Samuel, moved in 1801 to Barnston twp, Stanstead Co., Quebec, which was opened for settlement in 1798. Samuel and his wife Sarah Riddell bought a farm No 9 on the 4th Range in 1806 and he was also a Deacon in the Free Will Baptist Church. The French spelled their name Clefford so they would pronounce the name closer to the English. In the 1825 Quebec census in the Parish of Richelieu the Samuel Clifford family had a total 5 “inmates”, four female. Actually, they had had 11 children total. Samuel Clifford, Jr. had a total 8 inmates-4 female and 4 male. Wright Philemon moved to Wisconsin in the spring of 1844. His farm was 169 acres in the south half of both sections 21 and 22 in Burnett twp, Dodge Co. His cream stone house still stands on the road between Burnett and Rolling Prairie. His father and mother and two youngest siblings came to live with him in 1856. (“N.E. Family History” Vol 3 1909-1910 by Henry Quinby, NY, pp 687-723 and THE HISTORY OF STANSTEAD COUNTY PROVINCE OF QUEBEC by B.F. Hubbard, Bowie:Heritage Books, ISBN 1-55613-123-2).

Bill Marquis at WMarq69070@aol.com has a book for sale on the family based 90 percent on vital records.

THE CLIFFORD ASSOCIATION, David Clifford, Keeywaydin, Selsfield Road, West Hoathly, W. Sussex RH194QN (01342811252) England. Clyfford@aol.com. The Association has a database of 30,000 Clifford related people. It is sponsored by the current Lord Clifford. ” [Added by Lisa Hesterman 7/28/2017] [Note: While it is said that our George is “of the parish of Arnold in Nottingham” that doesn’t mean it’s a fact that he or our John were born there, does it? They may simply have lived there and been born elsewhere. There is no record presented to show without a doubt where these men were born.]


Child of George Clifford is:

  1. John Clifford, born 1614 in Arnold Village, Nottingham, England; died October 17, 1694 in Hampton, Rockingham County, New Hampshire; married Elizabeth Richardson September 28, 1658 in Hampton , Rockingham County, New Hampshire.

10652. George Clifford, born Abt. 1588 in Arnold, Nottingham, Eng; died February 25, 1641/42 in Yorkshire, England. Notes

  1.  death location of Hampton NH – incongruent (?) with burial in Yorkshire, England. [1]
  2. George de Clifford, 3rd Baron and his wife Margery Russell had two sons who died young – neither named George. There is a Colonel George Clifford, illegitimate son, who died in York, England, Cromwell’s wars, 1642. The barony descended to the son of his daughter.[2]
  3. “The 1st Clifford in America was George Clifford of the parish of Arnold in Nottingham. It is a family tradition and claim from the earliest times that he is a direct descendant of the Lords of Skipton and therefore an indirect relative of the current Lord Cliffords. There are no records of George Clifford in Arnold. In 1643 he settled in Boston and became a church member, official drummer-workman, and in 1644 he was a member the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company.” [3]

Links

  1. http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~tneg/clifford.html
  2. http://familytreemaker.genealogy.com/users/c/o/n/Tom-Martin-TX/GENE4-0062.html
  3.  http://www.reocities.com/Pentagon/6315/family/clifford.html

show less

View All

Immediate Family

Showing 7 people Showing 7 people
  • Elizabeth Clifford 4/6/1601 2/16/1669

    wife
  • John Clifford, of Hampton c. 1614 10/17/1694

    son
  • George Clifford

    son
  • Ann? Clifford

    mother
  • Henry Clifford, of Sittingbourne, Esq. c. 1561 1599

    father
  • Jane Nethersole 1/10/1570

    stepmother
  • Catherine Nethersole

    stepsister

    CLIFFORDS

    Drogo fitz Ponts’ son Walter fitz Richard fitz Ponts in 1138 married a descendent of Ralph de Todeni who brought with her the dowry of Clifford Castle. Walter then changed his name to Clifford. Walter de Clifford’s daughter Rosamund Clifford (born about 1139 died 1176) was the mistress of Henry II and had a child by him. A novel concerning this is: The Fall of Rosamund Clifford by Thomas Hull. The King kept her in a wooden maze and the legend is that Queen Eleanor found her by means of a clue – a silk thread. The legend further says that the Queen then offered her poison in a chalice, but in fact she stabbed her to death in her bath. Robert de Clifford, born 1274, became the first Lord of Skipton Castle and died in a battle with the Scots in 1314. His son was to be decapitated on orders of the King, but was too ill. After a month, when he was well enough, King Edward III changed his mind and let him live. Thomas, the 8th Lord Clifford, has several speeches in Shakespeare’s “Henry the VI” part III, and was written about by Wordsworth. Henry, the 10th Lord Clifford, was to be executed during the War of the Roses but his mother had him raised by a shepherd. When the Lancasters won 25 years later, he was re- instated with 4 castles. He is the subject of the ” Ballad of the Nut-Brown Maid ” (1505) which tells how the maid rejected him, not knowing that he was a lord. The best speculation of whom George Clifford, first in America, descended from is that Henry, The Shepherd Lord. Henry, born 1493, was not only the 11th Lord Clifford but also the 1st Earl of Cumberland. Henry, the 12th Lord Clifford, was sickly and at one point was mistaken for dead and about to be buried, when someone noticed he was breathing. George, the 13th Lord Clifford and 3rd Earl of Cumberland, was a pirate whose 3 expeditions were backed by Queen Elizabeth. Although he plundered many Spanish ships, he managed to deplete the Clifford estates (restored later by his brother Lord Francis). He was Elizabeth’s champion at jousts and wore her glove on his helmet. He died in 1605.The 1st Clifford in America was George Clifford of the parish of Arnold in Nottingham. It is a family tradition and claim from the earliest times that he is a direct descendant of the Lords of Skipton and therefore an indirect relative of the current Lord Cliffords. There are no records of George Clifford in Arnold. In 1643 he settled in Boston and became a church member, official drummer-workman, and in 1644 he was a member the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company.

    John, born 1614, was baptized May 10, 1646 “a man grown”. There is a record of a J. Clifford in 1639 in Salisbury, MASS. He was a planter (farmer) and butcher (and glover?) whose family homestead was South of the Taylor River on the west side of Old Mill Road in Hampton Falls, Rockingham Co., N.H. There are no buildings left standing. He was a selectman in 1660 and died in 1694. His great-great- great grandson, Hon. John H. Clifford, was attorney-general and governor of Massachusetts as well as president of Harvard College and the Boston & Providence Railroad Co. The Clifford household was itself extremely complex, for John had been married twice previously, and his current wife, Bridget, at least once; moreover, there were children from all of their earlier unions. As of 1672 the Clifford menage comprised the following persons:

    Years
    John Clifford 57
    Brodget [—] (Huggins) Clifford 56
    Hannah Clifford (d. of John and first wife) 23
    Bridget Huggins (d. of Bridget and first husband) 21
    Israel Clifford (s. of John and first wife ) 19
    Joseph Richardson (s. of John’s second wife and her previous husband) 17
    Benjamin Richardson (s. of John’s second wife and her previous husband) 15
    Elizabeth Clifford (d. of John and second wife) 13
    Anna Huggins (d. of Bridget and first husband) 13
    Nathaniel Huggins (s. of Bridget and first husband) 12
    Esther Clifford (d. of John and second wife) 10
    Ann Smith (d. of Nicholas Smith; adoptive d. of William Godfrey) 9
    Isaac Clifford (s. of John and second wife) 8

    Meanwhile, John Clifford, junior (son of John and his first wife), was living in the next house, with his bride of two years, Sarah [Godfrey] Clifford.

    The family was composed of thirteen persons, including eleven children with four different surnames. To be sure, fosterage was not uncommon in early New England; more than a few families were rearranged by the death of one spouse, and the remarriage of the other. But the complexity of the Clifford household was extreme.

    Israel Cliford was born in Hampton 15 April 1647, married Ann Smith March 5, 1680. Ann Smith was the alleged victim of Goody Cole’s witchcraft-see Whittier’s poem, ” The Wreck of the Rivermouth “. In October 1672 Goody Cole was arraigned for “appearing under various forms, as a woman, a dog, an eagle and a cat, to entice a young girl, named Ann Smith, to live with her.” Cole, who had previously been jailed 15 years for witchcraft, was acquitted. Isaac, born May 24, 1696, in Hampton was a tax collector and constable at Kingston, NH. Isaac, born May 5, 1721, in Kingston moved to Chester, NH, and bought land there in 1745. In 1766 he removed to the new town of Rumney and was the tax collector of the town. In 1769 he was selectman and in 1782 he was the constable. His monument is in the cemetery at the corner of Buffalo and Sandhill roads. His great-grandson, Nathan Clifford, was Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States 1858-1881. Two of Isaac’s sons, John and Samuel, moved in 1801 to Barnston twp, Stanstead Co., Quebec, which was opened for settlement in 1798. Samuel and his wife Sarah Riddell bought a farm No 9 on the 4th Range in 1806 and he was also a Deacon in the Free Will Baptist Church. The French spelled their name Clefford so they would pronounce the name closer to the English. In the 1825 Quebec census in the Parish of Richelieu the Samuel Clifford family had a total 5 “inmates”, four female. Actually, they had had 11 children total. Samuel Clifford, Jr. had a total 8 inmates-4 female and 4 male. Wright Philemon moved to Wisconsin in the spring of 1844. His farm was 169 acres in the south half of both sections 21 and 22 in Burnett twp, Dodge Co. His cream stone house still stands on the road between Burnett and Rolling Prairie. His father and mother and two youngest siblings came to live with him in 1856. (“N.E. Family History” Vol 3 1909-1910 by Henry Quinby, NY, pp 687-723 and THE HISTORY OF STANSTEAD COUNTY PROVINCE OF QUEBEC by B.F. Hubbard, Bowie:Heritage Books, ISBN 1-55613-123-2).

    Bill Marquis at WMarq69070@aol.com has a book for sale on the family based 90 percent on vital records.

    THE CLIFFORD ASSOCIATION, David Clifford, Keeywaydin, Selsfield Road, West Hoathly, W. Sussex RH194QN (01342811252) England. Clyfford@aol.com. The Association has a database of 30,000 Clifford related people. It is sponsored by the current Lord Clifford.

    MY LINE

    0000-aft 1644 George Clifford\Arnold, Nottinghamshire, England/Hampton Falls, NH
    1614-1694 John Clifford/Hampton Falls, NH
    1647-0000 Israel Clifford/Hampton, NH
    1696-1745 Isaac Clifford\Hampton, NH/Kingston, NH
    1721-1818 Isaac Clifford\Kingston, NH/Rumney, NH
    1767-1845 Samuel Clifford\Rumney, NH/Barnston, Stanstead, QC
    1789-1872 Samuel Clifford\Rumney, NH/Burnett, Dodge Co, WI
    1820-1904 Wright Philemon Clifford\Barnston, Stanstead, QC/Burnett, Dodge Co, WI
    1858-1894 Charles Sumner Clifford\Burnett, Dodge Co, WI
    1887-1969 Pearl Metta Clifford\Burnett, Dodge Co, WI/Randolph, Dodge Co,

    Elizabeth Monck, Duchess of Albermarle (22 February 1654 – 11 September 1734), later Elizabeth Montagu, Duchess of Montagu, was the eldest daughter of Henry Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Newcastle, and his wife, Frances Pierrepont (1630–1695; daughter of the Hon. William Pierrepont). She was known for most of her life as “the Mad Duchess of Albemarle”.

    http://www.operaunlimited.org.uk/the-mad-duchess.html

    The Mad Duchess is a short opera composed by Peter Cowdrey with libretto by Hamish Robinson based on a story about the Duchess of Albemarle, wife of the Earl of Montagu who sought to model Boughton House in Northamptonshire on Versailles

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Low_Franconian

    the Mad Duchess of Albemarle”.

    Pierrepont was the second son of Robert Pierrepont, 1st Earl of Kingston-upon-Hull and his wife Gertrude Talbot, daughter of Hon. Henry Talbot of Burton Abbey, Yorkshire.[1]

    Gauthier (also spelled Gaultier) de Coste, Seigneur de La Calprenède (16010-1663), a playwright and a novelist, was born around the year1610 in France, in the Dordogne region. He later moved to Paris, was educated at Toulouse, and for a time served in the guards regiment, where he began crafting his first literary works. After attracting the Queen’s notice, he was granted a pension and became a gentleman (Pitou 12). His works show a knowledge of French and Latin, and also possibly Italian and English (Pitou 11). La Calprenède was married in 1648 to Magdaleine de Lyèe and the two had one daughter.

    La Calprenède entered the literary world with the “Death of Mithridates,” his first drama, in 1635 and in total wrote six tragedies and three tragicomedies during this first phase of his career (France 428), the most well-known of which is entitled The Count of Essex  (Taylor 44).  Hist literary career is typically separated into two “phases,” the first from 1635 to 1642 in which he produced the aforementioned dramas, and the second from 1642 until his death in 1663, during which he wrote his more successful historical romances.

    La Calprenède’s best known works are the heroic or historical romances Cassandra, which was published in 10 volumes from 1642-1645 or 1650, and Cleopatra, 12 volumes from 1647-1658.  Karen Taylor argues these romances were influential pieces in developing the genre of the historical romance (44) and Peter France describes them as “enormously popular for their heroic mythification of contemporary courtly ideals” (428).   La Calprenède other romances include Pharamond (Faramond); or The History of France begun in 1661 and left uncompleted at his death, and The Tales or Diversions of Princess Alcidiane, also 1661.

    Taylor describes La Calprenède’s as drawing inspiration for his novels from “earlier periods such as the fall of the Macedonian and Roman Empires and the foundation of the French monarchy” (44). However, Taylor continues, many of the characters of his works were drawn from the Paris salons and could be easily recognized by his readers (44). According to Benjamin Wells in 1892, La Calprenède was extremely popular during the mid and late seventeenth century, rivaled only by his contemporary Madeleine de Scudery, author of  Artamenes and Clelia.  Both Cassandra  and Cleopatra were quite popular at the time of publication, each receiving multiple reprints during the authors lifetime as well was English translations, most notably by Sir Charles Cotterell (Wells

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Monck,_1st_Duke_of_Albemarle

    Earl of Albemarle is a title created several times from Norman times onwards. The word Albemarle is the Latinised form of the French county of Aumale in Normandy (Latin: Alba Marla meaning “White Marl”, marl being a type of fertile soil), other forms being Aubemarle and Aumerle. It is described in the patent of nobility granted in 1697 by William III to Arnold Joost van Keppel as “a town and territory in the Dukedom of Normandy.”
    During the period in which England and France contended for the rule of Normandy (through the end of the Hundred Years’ War), the kings of England not infrequently created peers as Counts and Dukes of Aumale. The last, to Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick(d.1439), was in 1422; Aumale, anglicized as Albemarle, was not revived in the peerage until 1660.

    In that year, Charles II bestowed the title of Duke of Albemarle on General George Monck. The title became extinct in 1688, on the death of Christopher, 2nd Duke of Albemarle.

    Despite the fact that his name is now only recognised in scholarly circles, Gautier de Costes de la Calprenède was one of the most successful French writers of the seventeenth century. His novels, upon which his fame principally rests, remained extremely popular even beyond his lifetime, selling in their thousands, inspiring plays, and still being translated as late as the nineteenth century. He began his literary career, however, by writing for the stage, producing nine plays between 1635 and 1642, alternating between the two most popular genres of the time: tragedy and tragicomedy.

    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Templar-de-Rosemont/message/1466

    http://fabpedigree.com/s068/f083133.htm

    http://fabpedigree.com/s036/f166267.htm

    http://svu2000.org/genealogy/Bloodline.pdf

    Pharamond Lord of the West FRANKS (son of Marcomir Duke Of The East FRANKS and Hatilde (Princess) of FRANKS) was born 380 in Westphallia, Germany, and died 428. He married Argotta (Rosamunde) Queen of FRANKS.

    Notes for Pharamond Lord of the West FRANKS:
    AKA Faramund (Pharamond) of the GRAIL-KING
    PHARAMOND, KING OF ALL FRANKS & keeper of the Grail lineage.
    Under Pharamond reign the Franks were united under one crown. He succeeded his father as Duke of the East Franks in 404 A.D.; became King of the West Franks in 419 A.D. and King of Westphalia in 420 A.D. He married Argotta, daughter of Grimald, Duke of the West Franks, in 409 A.D. At his father-in- law’s death in 419 A.D., Pharamond became Duke of the West Franks

    Note: 1. Pharamond, Duke of the East Franks, 404 A.D., elected King ofthe West
    Franks, 419, died in 430, 16th in descent from Boadicea. He married
    Argotta, “the mother of all the kings of France.” They were the great
    great grandparents of Clovis. He was descended 13 generations from
    Athildis, who married in 129 A.D. Marcomir IV., King ofFranconia, who
    died in 149. Athildis was the daughter of “Old King Cole,” known also as
    Colius I., who died in 170 A.D. He was educated in Rome, King ofBritain
    in 125. Colius I. was the son of Marius

    http://familytreemaker.genealogy.com/users/j/o/h/Katie-Johnston-Alabama/WEBSITE-0001/UHP-0393.html

    http://familytreemaker.genealogy.com/users/j/o/h/Katie-Johnston-Alabama/WEBSITE-0001/UHP-0012.html

    An anonymous work of 727 called Liber Historiae Francorum states that following the fall of Troy, 12,000 Trojans led by chiefs Priam and Antenor moved to the Tanais (Don) river, settled in Pannonia near the Sea of Azov and founded a city called Sicambria. In just 2 generations from the fall of Troy (by modern scholars dated in the late Bronze Age) they arrive in the late 4th century AD at the Rhine. A variation of this story can also be read in Fredegar, and similar tales continue to crop up repeatedly throughout obscure, mediaeval-era European literature.
    These stories have obvious difficulties. Historians, including eyewitnesses like Caesar, have given us accounts that place the Sicambri firmly at the delta of the Rhine, and archaeologists have confirmed ongoing settlement of peoples. Furthermore the myth does not come from the Sicambri themselves, but from later Franks, and includes an incorrect geography. But most of all these stories are a “farrago nonsense” (Wood), for a man does not live that long. For these reasons, and since the Sicambri were known to have been Germanic, and not Scythian as the story claims, modern scholars reject it as an unhistorical legend. For example J.M. Wallace-Hadrill states that “this legend is quite without historical substance”. Ian Wood says that “these tales are obviously no more than legend” and “nonsensical”, “in fact there is no reason to believe that the Franks were involved in any long-distance migration”.

    In Roman and Merovingian times, it was a custom to declare panegyrics. These poetic declarations were held for fun or propaganda to entertain guests and please rulers. Those panegyrics played an important role in the transmission of culture. One of the ritual customs of these poetic declarations is the use of archaic names for contemporary things. Romans were often called Trojans, and Salian Franks were called Sicambri. An example of this custom is remembered by the 6th century historian Gregory of Tours (II, 31), who states that the Merovingian Frankish leader Clovis I, on the occasion of his baptism into the Catholic faith, was addressed as a Sicamber by Saint Remigius, the officiating bishop of Rheims. At the crucial moment of Clovis’ baptism, Remigius declared, “Now you must bend down your head, you proud Sicamber. Honour what you have burnt. Burn what you have honoured.” It is likely that this recalled a link between the Sicambri and the Salian Franks, who were Clovis’ people.
    More examples of Salians being called Sicamber can be found in the Panegyrici Latini, Life of King Sigismund, Life of King Dagobert and other sources.

    When Caesar defeated the Eburones, he invited all of the peoples that were interested to destroy the remainder. The Sicambri responded to Caesar’s call. They took large amounts of cattle, slaves and plunder. Caesar commented that “these men are born for war and raids”, “No swamp or marsh will stop them”. After the raid on Eburones they moved on against the Romans. They destroyed some of Caesars units, in revenge of his campaign against them and when the remains of the legion withdrew into the city Atuatuca the Sicambri went back across the Rhine.
    Claudius Ptolemy located the Sicambri, together with the Bructeri Minores, at the most northern part of the Rhine and south of the Frisii who inhabit the coast north of the river. Strabo located the Sicambri next to the Menapii, “who dwell on both sides of the river Rhine near its mouth, in marshes and woods. It is opposite to these Menapii that the Sicambri are situated”. This information places the Sicambri near the lower Rhine in or near what is now called the Netherlands.

    Act 1
    Based upon the story of Pharamond, a mythological King of the Franks, circa 420 AD and the early history of France, the opera opens with Gustavo (King of the Cimbrians) and Prince Adolfo lamenting the death of Sveno (Gustavo’s son) and swearing vengeance upon Faramondo (King of the Franks), by whose hands Sveno was slain. Into this tense situation comes the captured Princess Clotilde (sister to Faramondo), whom Adolfo loves – and it’s only by his pleading for her that Clotilde is not slain. Once the two young lovers are left alone, Clotilde extracts a promise from Adolfo to change his allegiance to her brother Faramondo, for love of her. Immediately after, Gustavo’s daughter Rosimonda finds her quarters invaded by Frankish soldiers, including Faramondo. As can only be expected in a Handelian opera, Faramondo is instantly struck with love for his fair captive. Even while she rails at him for killing her brother Sveno in battle, and for making an alliance with the Swabian king (Gernando) who is at enmity with the Cimbrians, Rosimonda too finds her heart captured by her erstwhile enemy, Faramondo.
    But their sudden love is hindered; King Gernando has plans to keep Rosimonda for himself, and he suspects that Faramondo is not immune to the princess. His plot to kill Faramondo and win Rosimonda is foiled, but Faramondo spares his life.
    King Gustavo is not idle in the meantime, for he has arranged his men to capture Faramondo when he learns that his enemy is actually in his very palace. Clotilde of course wants Adolfo to prevent this, and when Adolfo acts on her behalf to save her brother, it’s scarcely surprising that a truly dreadful confrontation between Adolfo and his father ensues, which ends with Adolfo being imprisoned for treason. Faramondo’s attempt to appease Gustavo and ask for Rosimonda’s hand in marriage meets with the lack of success one could have anticipated, for Gustavo desires nothing but his enemy’s death.
    [edit] Act 2
    A surprising meeting occurs – for Gernando, once the relentless enemy of the Cimbrians, suggests an alliance to King Gustavo, based on a mutual desire to bring down Faramondo. Gernando secures Gustavo’s agreement that if he can bring Gustavo the head of Faramondo, Gustavo will give him his daughter Rosimonda in marriage.
    Rosimonda, though still in love with Faramondo, hides her feelings and tries to make Faramondo leave without her, and this so depresses Faramondo that he does not even bother to resist when Gustavo’s soldiers take him. Rosimonda’s intervention prevents his death, but sees him imprisoned; at least Adolfo is freed upon Rosimonda’s and Clotilde’s repeated pleading.
    Rosimonda is now so beset with worry for Faramondo’s safety that she can no longer hide her love, and plans to free Faramondo herself and flee with him.
    [edit] Act 3
    Gustavo finds himself betrayed on all sides – Rosimonda has released Faramondo, and his son Adolfo is still stubbornly in love with Faramondo’s sister. But Rosimonda is not out of danger, for she is still the love-object of Gernando. Gernando has actually joined forces with a lieutenant of King Gustavo (by name, Teobaldo), persuading Teobaldo to abduct Rosimonda for him. Teobaldo’s plans do not stop at this, but he and his men attempt a coup to take Gustavo himself hostage. This sudden turn of events is stopped by Faramondo (who had overheard the entire plot, sent his men to rescue his beloved Rosimonda, and personally stopped the coup attempt). Gustavo embraces his unknown rescuer (whose armour hides his face), and when he realises who had saved him and his daughter, bitterly regrets that his oath MUST be carried out… He must still sacrifice Faramondo in blood-vengeance because of Faramondo’s slaying of his son Sveno.
    Teobaldo, forgiven by Gustavo, is sent off to fight for the king in Sarmazia.
    Rosimonda, whose fate might have been dire but for her successful rescue by Faramondo’s men, returns to her father’s court, with news that the treacherous Gernando has been captured. But she is in time only to see her father lead Faramondo to the altar in preparation for the blood-oath sacrifice. Disaster lies upon Faramondo – one stroke of the weapon, and he will lie dead… but for the sudden news brought by a messenger direct from Teobaldo. In the letter, Teobaldo (who lies dying of many wounds incurred in Sarmazia) admits that he had not turned suddenly against Gustavo, but rather that his desire to oust Gustavo of his position had been long in the planning. He had in fact switched infants when the king’s son was born; in other words, Sveno was NOT the king’s son… but Teobaldo’s. It slowly sinks in to all present that, since Sveno was not Gustavo’s son, Gustavo does not need to kill Faramondo. All ends happily with general rejoicing; Gustavo and Faramondo cry friends, Gernando is released and realises only too late what an ally he had lost in the noble Faramondo, Clotile and Adolfo are united, and so too are Rosimonda and Faramondo.

About Royal Rosamond Press

I am an artist, a writer, and a theologian.
This entry was posted in Uncategorized. Bookmark the permalink.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.