“In this version, Landau said the most startling, and controversial, difference is what happened next in the story, when the “star child” spoke to the Magi.
“Christ tells them, ‘This is one of many occasions on which I have appeared to the peoples of the world,’” Landau said. “So this text may even be saying that there are no non-Christian religions because Christ is the revelation behind everything.”
I was saving this for my book and my proposal to Amazon, but because of the cruelty shown children refugees, God bids me to set many things strait.
The House of Baux is a French noble family from the south of France. It was one of the richest and most powerful families of Medieval Provence, known as the ‘Race d’Aiglon’. They were independent Lords as castellan of Les Baux and Arles and wielded very considerable authority at local level. They held important fiefs and vast lands, including the principality of Orange.
There is a race of beings called ‘Race d’Aiglons’. It descends from Baltazar, on of the Magi who is described, and depicted, as a Black King, who ruled the province of Baux that the House of Orange descends. This line became extant several time, and was somehow, resurrected. Consider THIS resurrection – Ordained by God, and The Holy Spirit. William of Orange married Mary Stuart. Their child, died. Princess Diana was kin to the Stuarts.
There is talk about why Duchess of Sussex will not be the Godmother of Charlotte. I have not posted any images of Markle since her marriage, because, on this day God bids me to Meghan’s Godfather. She and Harry are ordained by God to carry on the Race d’Aigon.
I came by this great Spiritual Permission, when I alone discovered that John the Baptist spoke and wrote as an infant, and it was he who was visited by the Three Magi, after being born in a Sukkot Booth which is built to celebrate Moses and the Jews being in the Wilderness for forty years after being released from Servitude. The plight of the Jews is being replicated in the flight of Indigenous Americas to the United States.
A ancient manuscript has surfaced, called ‘The Revelation of the Magi’. It speaks of a Star Child. The flag of Baux depicts a Star. In the Koran, Jesus speaks just after he is born.
Above are two photos. One is of a crescent moon, the other of a lone seagull. The crescent moon crowns my daughter, Heather Hanson, and the seagull fly over me, Jon Presco. Patrice Hanson must atone for her sins. I want a taped confession. When she read the call for people who knew my late sister to come forth, she wondered if I was married, and had children. If I did, the odds that I would reject the child I sired, was high – in her mind! She put these dark thoughts in Heather’s being. I became the Dark Daddy. Not once, did Heather and Patrice consider the real miracle, is – I born a child in the world! I was told by Seers I died – and came back to life! For what purpose? I was sure I was going to die childless. Heather was a great gift and joy given unto me.
Within twenty hours of meeting Patrice, she begged me to take her two sons into my home and protect them because they were being abused by her husband. I took in three strangers. When Patrice said she was thinking of going back to her husband, four strangers left my house. One of them was about eight days old? One of these strangers was a nine year old black boy, named David. My good friends were non-whites. They respected me for taking a black man’s child into my house. Patrice tells my daughter, I kicked them out because I was afraid of Randy and his Sicilian family. My friends wanted to kill Randy when he kept showing up with a baseball bat. I did not know I had conceived a child.
Patrice Hanson CHOSE to bond with a very bad man! It was HER CHOICE. No one was happy with this choice – but her! It was a BAD CHOICE! I will not pay the penalty! My daughter will not pay the penalty! This negligent mother separated my daughter from me twice. She claims I am abusive. Why then did my daughter walk out on that pier with me? Patrice wanted to have HER story told in MY sister’s biography. Would Randy Delpiano also be excluded? Patrice would not have had a daughter if I had not taken her and her sons into my house. They were nine and seven. They say they were traumatized for life.
Randy died childless. He could not conceive a child. Patrice put MY child in the arms of a freud, felon who was convicted of impersonating Bob Weir, seducing women, then stealing their money. This is rape. Patrice hoped my infant daughter would get him to change his evil ways. He did it again and went back to San Quinton.
When I saw MY daughter for the first time she said she never called Randy “Daddy” but, when she showed me her scrap book, there he was, not wearing a shirt, holding MY infant child. Underneath was written “My Daddy”. I asked MY daughter when she put this book together.
“Last year!” she proudly lied.
Patrice told me she told MY daughter I was her Daddy, when she was three. Heather was only told just before they went to the Rosamond gallery in Carmel. I would have never known I had a child, if MY famous sister had not died. Patrice had put that photo album together. She typed every letter my daughter signed and sent to me. She want my daughter to have a bond with the man who abused her and her sons for the rest of her life.
The title of my autobiography is ‘Capturing Beauty’. The Sleeping Beauty Princess is named Rosamond. The Rosamond estate was destroyed by outsiders with the help of Patrice who may not be ‘Worst Mother in the World’ but she may be ‘The Most Diabolical Mother In America’. My daughter was her toy Barbie Doll, that she shared with her Witch Sister, who has no children. This liken to The Game of Thrones. We have not spoken in six years after I confronted Heather about the drinking around my grandson, Tyler Hunt. She told me I was insane, and there was no problem. That’s aunt Linda’s lover toasting my grandson in a bar. He looks like he belongs on Skid Row. He died of acute alcoholism a year after this photo was taken. Heather thought it was cute. She is………..ASLEEP!
I was born during an amazing star-shower. Crowns are stars! Comets mean “long hair”. The Merovingians were titled the ‘Long Hair Kings’. Their long hair represented the long trailing hair of comets.
On this day, Father’s Day, I declare the Race of d’Aigon – resurrected from the dead! This race will be carried forth in the marriage of Harry and Meghan, the Duke and Duchess of Sussex. Harry will hold the title ‘Prince of Orange’. The House of Hohenzollern will be a cadet branch to the House of Baux, and the House of Orange.
So be it!
I will give sermons on the Revelations of the Magi.
“Suffer unto me the little children.”
John ‘The Nazarite’
An ancient text called the “Revelation of the Magi,” has been rediscovered and tells a very different version of the Three Wise Men’s journey to Bethlehem.
“It ends up being the most complex, richest, most strange, the strangest story of the Wise Men to come out of Christian antiquity,” said Brent Landau, an expert in ancient Biblical languages and literature. “Until now, it had never been translated into English.”
Landau, who teaches in the Religious Studies program at the University of Oklahoma, translated the text from Syriac and published it in his book, “The Revelations of the Magi: The Lost Tale of the Wise Men’s Journey to Bethlehem.”
The ancient text’s original author is still unknown, although it is written from the point of view of the Magi themselves. Landau tracked it down in the Vatican archives and believes it is about 1,700 years old.
“It’s an incredibly grand story,” Landau said. “So who the Magi are in this text is, they are descendants of Adam and Eve’s third son, Seth. They live in this far eastern land. The text calls the land ‘Shir’ and from other ancient texts, it seems like the place it had in mind is the land of China.”
Landau said the rediscovered text described the Magi as practicing religious rituals, waiting for the Star of Bethlehem to appear. When the star finally did, they embarked on their journey to the City of David.
But the version of the Wise Men’s story in this text is strikingly different than the traditional one in the Bible, told in 12 verses in the Gospel of Matthew.
In the “Revelation of the Magi,” Landau said, the Star of Bethlehem not only led the Wise Men, but actually became the Christ child.
“The cave is filled with light,” Landau said, describing the transcribed text. “They’re kind of hesitant about this, but eventually the star…its light concentrates and reveals the small luminous human being…a star child, if you will…it’s Christ.”
Landau Says the Ancient Text Is a Lost Message From Early Christians
In this version, Landau said the most startling, and controversial, difference is what happened next in the story, when the “star child” spoke to the Magi.
“Christ tells them, ‘This is one of many occasions on which I have appeared to the peoples of the world,'” Landau said. “So this text may even be saying that there are no non-Christian religions because Christ is the revelation behind everything.”
Landau hypothesized that the text a sort of lost message about them from an early Christian community.
“I think the thing that stunned me the most was what it seemed to be suggesting about…the scope of Christ’s revelation, if you will,” he said.
We traveled to Bethlehem to track the mysterious journey of the Magi.
Shimon Gibson, a Biblical archeologist and author of several books, including “The Final Days of Jesus: The Archeological Evidence,” showed us the roads coming from the east that lead up to Bethlehem.
“There is one road, which goes all the way to China, and it’s called the Spice Route,” he said. “[It] sort of came up through the desert and would have been a common sight, I think, at the time of Jesus, to see tradesmen coming along with their caravans.”
Gibson acknowledged that the landscape described in the Gospel of Matthew is similar to what one sees in modern Israel, but it would be “impossible” to prove that the famed Wise Men actually traveled to Bethlehem.
“But there is a tradition there that’s linked into a certain reality,” he said.
Gibson added that the elements of the familiar Nativity scene made sense based on the historical and archeological data of the time.
“If you were arriving in Bethlehem 2,000 years ago and someone said, ‘We’re going to give you the stable to sleep in,’ this is not being rude, they’re actually being nice,” Gibson said. “It’s the warmest room in the house…very different than the story of Sunday school approach.”
Biblical Scholar: ‘The Wise Men Represent Blessing’
The rediscovered text won’t change the treasured Biblical story of the Journey of the Magi. But their destination to the Holy Land continues to inspire awe and wonderment for the Christian pilgrims who travel to Bethlehem every year to trace their path.
According to Israeli government tourism figures, 1.4 million people have visited the sacred ground of Bethlehem so far this year. Millions more have been coming for centuries. In ancient times, travelers from the East would cross miles of desert for months to reach Bethlehem, as the Wise Men did in the Gospel of Matthew.
“[The Wise Men] represent blessing, maybe unexpected blessing,” said Paul Wright, Biblical scholar and president of Jerusalem University College.
“There is something here,” he added. “Coming from the east, into this land of Canaan, of Israel, that brings people home, to the place they’re supposed to be. Somehow they were coming to a place where they belonged.”
I delcare the Catholic, Mormon, and Evangelical heresies – DEAD RELIGIONS – for the reason they backed false prophets and politicans bent on overthrowing my Democracy. I posted the following on 2-17-2007.
Jon the Nazarite
The New Protestant Magi go Forth to Battle Anti-Christ
Baux flag. Lord of Baux. John Darby ‘False Prophet’. Burmese Monks)
I declare the Evangelical political cult heretical, and banish them
from the Protestant Church as originally envisioned by it founders
who appear to be my ancestors connected with the House of Orange.
Frederick Douglass questioned the hypocracy of evangelical ministers
giving pro-slavery sermons. This goes against the very core of Jesus’
Mission which was to free the slaves and those shut up in prison for
protesting about Roman slavery.
“The doctrine of a secret rapture was first conceived by John Nelson
Darby of the Plymouth Brethren in 1827. Darby, known as the father of
dispensationalism, invented the doctrine claiming there were not one,
but two “second comings.” This teaching was immediately challenged as
unbiblical by other members of the Brethren. Samuel P. Tregelles, a
noted biblical scholar, rejected Darby’s new interpretation as
the “height of speculative nonsense.” So tenuous was Darby’s rapture
theory that he had lingering doubts about it as late as 1843, and
possibly 1845. Another member of the Plymouth Brethren, B.W. Newton,
disputed Darby’s new doctrine claiming such a conclusion was only
possible if one declared certain passages to be “renounced as not
On September I posted ‘My Mara and the Coming of Mettaya.’ I describe
my brother as a military dictator who tried to beat me up when I
would not conform to his ideals. I talked bout my face being bathed
in a white light. I believe this is because I am destined to drive
the false evangelical cultist from the Protestant church, and launch
the New Magi in search of the World Teacher.
The Star of Bethlehem is on the flag of the Baux family who were
progenitors of the House of Orange. The Lords of Baux claimed they
descend from Balthazar one of the Magi. In spirit I send forth my
Rouge Knight to strip the military dictators of all his military
trappings, his medals, his ribbons, his sword.
I hereby declare President Bush a Traitor of the United States for
conspiring with a foreign power to diminish the power of our Federal
Government as put forth by Margeret Thatcher and he right-hand man,
Lord Wakeham, ex CEO of Enron and Ceo of Rothchild Banking who
supported the Confederary and built Confederate ships in their
shipyard in Scotlin in order to TERRORIZE American shipping.
I here by excommunicate President Bush from the true Protestant
church that is being undermined by his evangelical backers. Bush
failed to condemn his neo-Confederate and neo-Nazi backers, and is
using deciet to give secret religious-military backing to Israel in
order to bring about the second coming of John Darby’s False Jesus.
“I have not come for the righteous, but the sinner.”
Jesus announced the core of his mission when he said he would open
the prisons and free those who are bound. This is not an allegory for
an afterlife, or, being free of sin.
“The Spirit of the Lord GOD is upon me, Because the LORD has anointed
me To preach good tidings to the poor; He has sent Me to heal the
broken hearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives, And the opening
of the prison to those who are bound; To proclaim the acceptable year
of the LORD, And the day of vengeance of our God; To comfort all who
mourn.” (Isaiah 61:1-2)
There’s no murder or mayhem of The DaVinci Code sort here, but this does have the benefit of being a real manuscript. It has been unread for literal centuries, never translated into English, but was—as the translator tells us in a thrilling introduction— cited on several occasions in several places throughout the ancient Near East. Although it was originally penned in Syriac (one of the reasons it has been ignored, since few Christian scholars who do this kind of research know Syriac—if only it was written in something more commonplace, like Copitc) it must have made its way into a few other cultures in the early centuries as it is cited and named. Landau studiously translated it with the help of J.F. Coakley, Professor of Syriac at Harvard.) Here is a bit of the geneology:
After the existing manuscript was copied down at the Zuqnin monastery in southeastern Turkey by an anonymous monk at the end of the eighth century, it changed hands at some point and was kept in a monastery in the Egyptian desert. There it stayed until the eighteenth century, when G.S. Assemani, collecting manuscripts on behalf of the Vatican Library, brought it to Rome, where it resides today.
So we know it was copied in the 8th century, in Turkey. It appears it was cited, by the way, by a monk writing a commentary on Matthew in the fifth century, so it seems to have been written at least that early. The Syriac custom of referring to the Holy Spirit in feminine grammar was popular in the second through fourth centuries, and Revelation of the Magi does this, so it is almost certain it has an early dating, perhaps as early as the third century.
So that folks will want to read this book, I’ll refrain from further plot summary, but as the story develops, and as the Magi travel from Shir to Jerusalem and then to Bethlehem, the Syriac writer(s) weave throughout the story phrases and motifs from the New Testament, demonstrating an exquisite artistry with the sacred text that is a delight to read even for those who “know how the story ends.” And to prove that old texts have their own warped sense of humor, there’s even a baby-switch gag in which Mary panics because she sees one of the Magi’s mystical vision of Christ and thinks that he’s kidnapped baby Jesus. Of course, when she finds the real Jesus back where he should be, the infant gives her a long speech providing her anxious soul comfort. (Yes, you did just read that. You really want to check it out now, don’t you?)
Second, the text surprisingly places the Magi in the legendary far- eastern land of Shir, ignoring the most popular homelands imagined for the Magi by other early Christian commentators: Persia, Babylon, and Arabia. In a number of ancient sources, the land of Shir seems to be roughly equivalent to China, and its inhabitants are said to possess extraordinary virtues and abilities.33 No other ancient Christian writing locates the Magi in this land,34 and the author of Rev. Magi presumably intended to appropriate for the figures of the Magi the sorts of qualities elsewhere ascribed to the inhabitants of China. Third, the text is strongly invested in the notion of a polymorphic Christ, which, as mentioned above, demonstrates an affinity with writings of the second and third centuries.35 Rev. Magi contains several instances of Christ appearing simultaneously to people in a multiplicity of forms (see chaps. 14 and 28), but the most distinctive instance of Christ’s shape- shifting is his transformation from a star into human form and back again during the narrative.36 Although there was a great deal of debate in ancient Christian circles about what the mysterious “Star of Bethlehem” was,37 Rev. Magi is the only known writing to claim that this star was Jesus in a celestial, pre- incarnational form. The precise background for the idea of Jesus being a star still remains unclear, though it is certainly possible that the well- known statement of Christ that he is “the light of the world” in John 8:12 and 9:5 has played a role. In any case, Rev. Magi suggests in 13:1–2 that it is actually Christ’s luminous appearance as a star that is closest to his true form, with his human form merely being an accommodation for the purposes of fragile human beings. Beyond these instances of polymorphy or metamorphosis, it is also notable that Rev. Magi depicts Christ as being able to appear in two places simultaneously—both with the Magi in Shir and in Bethlehem (13:9, see also 23:2). These extraordinary bodily propert
citing the prophecy that they received from their own fathers, the fathers of the present generation of Magi instruct them to wait for a star that will appear over the Mountain of Victories, then descend to the mountain, and sit upon a pillar of light in the Cave of Treasures. The Magi are instructed also to tell their own sons about this coming star, whose great light will obscure the sun, moon, and stars. The star is a “mystery” of the Son, a being who is the visible counterpart of the Father of Heavenly Majesty. When the Magi see this star, they are to take the gifts deposited in the Cave of Treasures and follow where the star leads. They will see God appearing in the lowly human form of an infant, and they shall offer their gifts to the child and worship him. The Magi, in turn, will receive salvation from the child. Finally, their fathers exhort the present Magi that if the star does not come during their lifetime, they are to instruct their sons to pass along the prophecy to future generations until the prophecy is fulfilled.
The Magi’s monthly ritual (chap. 5) The Magi come together at the Mountain of Victories from their own dwelling places every month. On the twenty- fifth day of each month, they purify themselves in a spring on the foothills of the mountain. The “Spring of Purification” has seven diverse trees around it, and the smell of sweet spices effuses from the beautiful mountain. On the first day of the month, the Magi climb to the top of the mountain and stand before the Cave of Treasures, bowing their knees and stretching forth their hands in silent prayer. On the third day of the month, they enter the cave, see the gifts that have been prepared for the star’s coming, and recite from Seth’s books of revelation. Then they descend from the mountain and instruct their families and anyone else who wishes to learn. When any of the Magi die, one of his sons or other relatives is raised up in his place. The Magi present their teachings to the people of Shir, though some do not wish to learn from the Magi because of their practice of silent prayer.
The star’s appearance to the Magi (chap. 11) After this “flashback” to the instruction of Seth by Adam, Rev. Magi then resumes its narrative, with the present generation of Magi revealing that it was in their time that the star and its wondrous visions finally appeared. As is their custom, the Magi come together to wash in the Spring of Purification, but a pillar of light suddenly appears and hovers over the spring, terrifying the Magi. The starb that the Magi see is unspeakably bright, far brighter than the sun, which becomes as faint as the daytime moon in the star’s presence. Yet, it is only the Magi themselves who are able to see this star, since they alone are deemed worthy by the Father to hand down the prophecy through the generations.
The star descends to the Mountain of Victories (chap. 12) The Magi finish bathing in their spring, climb the Mountain of Victories, and find the pillar of light standing in front of the Cave of Treasures. In their usual way, they kneel before the cave and pray in silence, praising God for the wonders they are seeing. Then, the heavens are opened, and two glorious men carry the star down from heaven and place it upon the pillar, filling the mountain with ineffable light. A small hand emerges from the pillar and star to comfort the terrified Magi. The star enters the cave, and a friendly voice bids the Magi to enter as well.
Epiphany in the Cave of Treasures (chap. 13) The star gradually transforms itself into a small, humble human being, and says to the astonished Magi, “Peace to you.” The being then begins a lengthy discourse about the form he has taken, what the Magi are to do, and what his mission upon the earth is. The being has taken the form of a humble human because it is impossible for humanity to see the true glory of the Son of the Father. He has humbled himself in this form and will even die upon a cross in order to bring salvation to humanity. The being instructs the Magi to
The Magi in Jerusalem (chap. 17) After a journey of unspecified duration, the Magi arrive in Jerusalem in the month of April. The star leads them into the city, but its inhabitants apparently cannot see the star and mistakenly regard these Magi as practicing “Magianism.”b The Magi inform the Jerusalemites about their prophecy and what they have seen, and Herod calls the “elders of the city” and asks where the Messiah and savior of the world will be born. As soon as the elders reveal that it will be in Bethlehem, the Magi see their star (again?), rejoice greatly, and set forth to Bethlehem. The Magi remark that the foolish scribes fail to believe what is written in their own sacred writings. They also state that Herod had asked them to return to tell him where the Messiah is found, but that the star told them not to obey him.c
Arrival in Bethlehem (chap. 18) When the Magi enter Bethlehem, they see a cave just like the Cave of Treasures of Hidden Mysteries in their own country. As with the star’s initial epiphany, the pillar of light descends and stands in front of the cave, and the star with its accompanying angels descends upon the pillar. The star, angels, and pillar enter the cave, and a voice bids the Magi to enter. The Magi enter, place their crowns under the child’s feet, kneel and worship before him, and offer their treasures to him.
Epiphany in the Bethlehem cave (chap. 19) As with the epiphany in the Cave of Treasures, here again the luminous infantd gives a lengthy discourse to the Magi. He declares that their ancient mysteries have now been completely fulfilled with his bringing of them from Shir to Bethlehem. He tells them tha
they will be his witnesses in the East, along with his disciples. The being will return to his Father when he has completed everything commanded by the Father, yet he is never actually separated from him. The being tells the Magi that when they see the sun darkened during the daytime, a great earthquake, and the dead rising from their graves, they will know that the end of the ages has come and they will see him ascending into the heavens.a
Angels praise Christ (chap. 20) As the star- child speaks with the Magi, the cave shines so much that it becomes like some other world. Suddenly, the voices of many (apparently invisible angelic) beings offer
praises to him. They praise his creation of the worlds, his complete unity with the Father, and the salvation that he provides.
The commissioning of the Magi (chap. 21) At the sound of these angelic praises, the Magi fall to the ground terrified. The star- child puts his hand upon them forcefully and comforts them. He tells them that as powerful as these angelic beings might seem to the Magi due to their human frailty, they are insignificant to him. There are, in fact, other things that even the angels are incapable of hearing or speaking about. Because the Magi’s ancient mysteries have been completed, the star- child now dismisses them to return to their own land. They will be witnesses to him along with his disciples, and once he has ascended to heaven, he will send disciples to them. The Father and the Son are completely inseparable.b The Son has been sent to redeem the world from Adam’s sin, and will give eternal life to the Magi through water and the giving of the Holy Spirit. Unseen voices praise the Son once more.
The Magi meet Mary and Joseph (chap. 22) The Magi go forth from the cave to begin the return journey to their homeland. Joseph and Mary, who were appointed to be the parents of the star- child, go out with the Magi.c They see the light traveling along with the Magi, the same light that had been born in their house, and so Mary and Joseph are upset by the prospect that the Magi are taking their child away from them.
The Magi’s revelation to Mary (chap. 23) The Magi praise Mary for being chosen to give birth to the Son in human form. They tell her that her child is still inside of herd and is in her house, even though he is also present with the Magi. This great gift does not belong to Mary alone, but is for the salvation of all the heavenly and earthly realms. The Magi urge her to look up and see that he is present
throughout the entire creation, and he appears in every land, since he has been sent for the redemption of all human beings.
Mary speaks to Christ (chap. 24) After the Magi explain to Mary and Joseph the true nature of their child, the couple returns to their house.a They find their luminous child laughing and speaking about his great mysteries. Mary and Joseph worship him, and Mary praises the child who has been given to her because of her obedience. She explains to the child that she had supposed that he was going with the Magi because of the gifts that they had offered him.
Christ blesses Mary (chap. 25) The child praises Mary for being worthy to conceive the one who would bring salvation into the world; her deed will bestow blessing and remembrance upon her in this world, and reward in the world to come. She has redeemed Eve and her offspring, and all the worlds have peace because of her. He is now turning to his believers throughout the world, for whom he will fulfill everything promised by the Father.
The return journey home (chap. 26) During the journey back to Shir, the star again appears to the Magi, and they worship it. The star tells the Magi that he is everywhere, and that he is even greater than the sun. When the time comes to eat, the Magi see that their provisions are now even more full than when they departed from their homeland, a miracle that causes them fear and awe. As they eat their provisions, the visions and wonders that they see in the presence of their guide do not resemble one another.b
The Magi address the people of Shir (chap. 27) The Magi complete their journey back to Shir under the guidance of the star, and when they arrive at the border of their land, their families and many other inhabitants of the land come to greet them and marvel at their health despite the length of their journey. The Magi narrate for the people the journey that they undertook. They mention the visions of the star that accompanied them, their visit to Jerusalem, and the epiphany of the star- child at Bethlehem in the cave that resembled the Cave of Treasures. When they began the journey back to their homeland, the Magi say, they found their provisions to be more full than what they initially had brought, and now these overflowing bags of provisions are sitting before the people of Shir. The Magi invite the people to partake of these provisions, because when they eat them, they too will be able to experience the visions and revelations that the Magi have seen.
When [the Magi] had gone, an angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream. Get up, he said, take the child and his mother and escape to Egypt. Stay there until I tell you, for Herod is going to search for the child to kill him. So he got up, took the child and his mother during the night, and left for Egypt, where he stayed until the death of Herod. And so was fulfilled what the Lord had said through the prophet: “Out of Egypt I called my son.”
When Herod realised that he had been outwitted by the Magi, he was furious, and he gave orders to kill all the boys in Bethlehem and its vicinity who were two years old or under, in accordance with the time he had learned from the Magi. Then what was said through the prophet Jeremiah was fulfilled: “A voice is heard in Ramah, weeping and great mourning, Rachel weeping for her children and refusing to be comforted, because they are no more.”
The massacre is reported only in the Gospel of Matthew (2:16) and other later Christian writings likely based on that gospel. The Roman Jewish historian Josephus does not mention it in his history, Antiquities of the Jews (c. 94 AD), which reports many of Herod’s misdeeds, including murdering three of his own sons, his mother-in-law (Antiquities 15:247–251; LCL 8:117–119), and his second wife (Antiquities 15:222–236; LCL 8:107–113).
Among those historians who doubt the massacre’s historicity, Geza Vermes and E. P. Sanders regard the story as part of a creative hagiography. Some scholars argue that the story is an apologetic device or a contrived fulfillment of prophecy, while others point to the silence of Josephus, who records several examples of Herod’s use of violence to protect his power, including the murder of his own sons. Robert Eisenman argues that the story may have its origins in Herod’s murder of his sons, an act which made a deep impression at the time. David Hill acknowledges that the episode “contains nothing that is historically impossible,” but adds that Matthew’s “real concern is … with theological reflection on the theme of [Old Testament] fulfillment”. Stephen Harris and Raymond Brown similarly contend that Matthew’s purpose is to present Jesus as the Messiah, and the Massacre of the Innocents as the fulfillment of passages in Hosea (referring to the exodus), and in Jeremiah (referring to the Babylonian exile). Brown also sees the story as patterned on the Exodus account of the birth of Moses and the killing of the Hebrew firstborn by Pharaoh.
Brown and others argue that, based on Bethlehem’s estimated population of 1,000 at the time, the largest number of infants that could have been killed would have been about twenty, and R. T. France, addressing the story’s absence in Antiquities of the Jews, argues that “the murder of a few infants in a small village [is] not on a scale to match the more spectacular assassinations recorded by Josephus”. Everett Ferguson also considers the story historically plausible in the larger context of Herod’s reign of terror, writing that
The slaughter of the infants of Bethlehem (Matt. 2) finds no independent confirmation in sources outside the New Testament, but the incident fits well the reign of terror of Herod’s last years. A man who killed a large part of his own family and arrested large numbers of the most prominent citizens with orders for their execution when he died so there would be mourning at his death (Josephus, Ant. 17.6.5 [173-75], but not carried out – 8.2 ) would not have caused much of a stir by liquidating a score of children in an obscure village.[18
The title originally referred to Orange in the Vaucluse department in the Rhone valley of southern France, which was a property of the House of Orange, then of the House of Baux and the House of Châlon-Arlay before passing in 1544 to the House of Orange-Nassau.
The Principality originated as the County of Orange, a fief in the Holy Roman Empire, in the Empire’s constituent Kingdom of Burgundy. It was awarded to William of Gellone (born 755), a grandson of Charles Martel and therefore a cousin of Charlemagne, around the year 800 for his services in the wars against the Moors and in the reconquest of southern France and the Spanish March. His Occitan name is Guilhem; however, as a Frankish lord, he probably knew himself by the old Germanic version of Wilhelm. William also ruled as count of Toulouse, duke of Aquitaine, and marquis of Septimania.
The horn that came to symbolize Orange when heraldry came in vogue much later in the 12th century represented a pun on William of Gellone’s name in French, from the character his deeds inspired in the chanson de geste, the Chanson de Guillaume: “Guillaume au Court-nez” (William the Short-Nosed) or its homophone “Guillaume au Cornet” (William the Horn). The chanson appears to incorporate material relating to William of Gellone’s battle at the Orbieu or Orbiel river near Carcassonne in 793 as well as to his seizure of the town of Orange
Prince of Orange is a title originally associated with the sovereign Principality of Orange, in what is now southern France. Under the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713, Frederick William I of Prussia ceded the Principality of Orange to King Louis XIV of France (while retaining the title as part of his dynastic titulature). After William III of England died without children, a dispute arose between Johan Willem Friso and Frederick I of Prussia, which was settled in the Treaty of Partition (1732); consequently, Friso’s son, William IV had to share use of the title “Prince of Orange” (which had accumulated prestige in the Netherlands and throughout the Protestant world) with Frederick William I of Prussia. The title is traditionally borne by the heir apparent of the Dutch monarch. The title descends via absolute primogeniture since 1983, meaning that its holder can be either Prince or Princess of Orange.
The Dutch royal dynasty, the House of Orange-Nassau, is not the only family to claim the dynastical title. Rival claims to the title have been made by German emperors and kings of the House of Hohenzollern and by the head of the French noble family of Mailly. The current users of the title are Princess Catharina-Amalia of the Netherlands (Orange-Nassau), Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia (Hohenzollern), and Guy, Marquis de Mailly-Nesle (Mailly).
Princess Catharina-Amalia Beatrix Carmen Victoria was born at 17:01 CET on 7 December 2003 in the HMC Bronovo in The Hague, the first child of the then Prince Willem-Alexander and Princess Máxima. Upon the public announcement of her birth, 101 salute shots were fired at four places in the Kingdom of the Netherlands: Den Helder and The Hague in the Netherlands, Willemstad in the Netherlands Antilles, and Oranjestad in Aruba.
On 12 June 2004, Catharina-Amalia was baptised by Reverend Carel ter Linden in the Great Church in The Hague. Her godparents are her uncle Prince Constantijn, Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden, the (then) vice-president of the Council of State of the Netherlands Herman Tjeenk Willink, friend of her mother Samantha Deane, her uncle Martín Zorreguieta, and friend of her father Marc ter Haar.
Peter and Margaret had:
Louis of Luxembourg, Count of Saint-Pol, de Brienne, de Ligny, and Conversano, Constable of France (1418 – 19 December 1475), married firstly, in 1435, Jeanne de Bar, Countess of Marle and Soissons (1415 – 14 May 1462), by whom he had issue, and from whom descended King Henry IV of France and Mary, Queen of Scots. He married secondly, Marie of Savoy (20 March 1448 – 1475), by whom he had further issue. He was beheaded in Paris in 1475 for treason against King Louis XI.
Jacquetta of Luxembourg (1415/1416 – 30 May 1472), married firstly in 1433, John, Duke of Bedford, and secondly, in secret, c.1436, Richard Woodville, 1st Earl Rivers, by whom she had 16 children, including Elizabeth Woodville, queen consort of King Edward IV of England. Every English monarch after King Henry VII of England descends from Jacquetta’s granddaughter, Elizabeth of York, queen consort of England.
Elizabeth of York (11 February 1466 – 11 February 1503) was the wife of Henry VII and the first Tudor queen. She was the daughter of Edward IV and niece of Richard III, and she married the king following Henry’s victory at the Battle of Bosworth which started the last phase of the Wars of the Roses. She was the mother of King Henry VIII. Therefore, she was the daughter, sister, niece, wife, mother, and grandmother of successive kings and queens of England.
The period of Henry VI’s readaption from October 1470 until April 1471 and the period between her father’s death in 1483, when she was 17, and the making of peace between her mother and her uncle Richard were violent and anxious interludes in what was mostly a peaceful life. Her two brothers disappeared, the “Princes in the Tower“, their fate uncertain. Although declared illegitimate she was welcomed back to court by her uncle Richard III, along with all of her sisters. As a Yorkist princess, the final victory of the Lancastrian faction in the War of the Roses may have seemed a further disaster, but Henry Tudor knew the importance of Yorkist support for his invasion and promised to marry her before he arrived in England; this was an important move; one which may well have contributed to hemorrhaging of Yorkist adherence to Richard III.
The Houses of Orange (Baix, Chalon and Nassau)
According to the legens the first Count of Orange was William (Guillaume´ with the horn, a courtier of Charlemagne, who had conquered the city of Orange on the Saracens in 793. As part of the old Kingdom of Bourgondy the county belonged to the Holy Roman Empire since 1032. The countly house splt in two lines in 1150. One of those was elevated in the Empires Pirncedoms by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. The territory of the second line was inherited after the death of Raimbaud III, through his sister Tiburge III to her husband Bertrand I of Baux. The territory of the countly line first was donated to the order of St. John but Bertrand III reunited Orange in 1308.
After the death of Raimond V of Baux his daughter Maria ingherited the Principality. Through her husband, John III of Chalon it went to the House of Chalon. When the last male memeber of this family, Phillibert of Chalon died, the Principality was inherited by his nephew Count Rene of Nassau, son of Philliberts sister Claudia of Chalon and Henri of Nassau-Breda. Under Rene the territory of Orange became a source of disagreement between Emperor Charles V and the French King Francois I and it was occupied by France several times. Because Rene was without children he named his nephew Willem of Nassau as his heir.
This Willem ´The Taciturn´
, later Stadholder of various Dutch provinces, became Prince of Orange in 1544 and started the dynasty of Orange-Nassau. But in reality he had to wait untill 1559 untill he could actually rule the principality. Under his rule Orange became occupied several times too. After his death Orange was inherited by his sons Philips-Willem, Maurits and Frederik-Hendrik. The heir of the latter was his son Willem II, who was in his turn succeeded by his own son Willem III in 1650. After the Dutch war started in 1673 King Louis XIV of France occupied the territory. Willem III got it back at the peace of Nijmegen in 1678 but in 1685, when 3645se re-ea3ed the edict 6f Nantes the territory was occupied once again. The piece of Rijswijk in 1697 saw another change, the territory was handed over to Willem III again.
After Willem III´s death in 1702 a succession conflict started between Stadholder Johan-Willem-Friso and King Friedrich I of Prussia. The first was, as grandson of Frederik-Hendriks daughter Albertina-Agnes appointed as heir in Willem´s will. But Friedrich, as grandson of Frederik-Hendriks eldest daughter Louise-Henriette also had a claim on the territory according to the will of Frederik-Hendrik. In the mean time Louis XIV declared Orange was part of the French crown. The parlament in Paris gave the principality to Louis pretender, Francois-Louis de Conti, who acknowledged French soubvereinity over Orange. The treaty of Utrecht underlined this decission and gave the Prussians the right to use the weapon and title of Prince of Orange.
Johan-Willem-Friso also hold on to his title Prince of Orange. His son was entitled to this in reality due to a treaty with Prussia in 1732. Since his grandson Willem VI became King WIllem I of The Netherlands the title is bestowed on the eldest son of the King. Today that is the Crownprince Willem-Alexander and the head of the Prussian RF, Prince Georg-Friedrich.
The Royal House of Orange ended it’s reign after Mary died in 1694 and William’s rule ended with his death in 1702. As William and Mary were childless, Mary’s younger sister Anne, a Stuart, succeeded William bringing the House of Stuart briefly back to the throne before the House of Hanover was installed in 1714.
Queen Mary II and King William III had a short reign, however. Queen Mary died of smallpox in 1694, and William III died in 1700. That left Mary’s sister Anne as Queen.
But Queen Anne’s succession to the throne presented a potential political crisis. Although Anne had given birth to 17 children, all but one of them died in childhood–and the survivor, the Duke of Gloucester, soon died at age 11. That left Queen Anne as the last of the Stuart line, without a direct heir. Further, an underground political movement had appeared, known as the “Jacobites”, who were agitating for the return of the Catholic eldest son of James II, James Francis Stuart, as King James III. It was a potentially explosive situation.
To solve it, Parliament in 1701 passed the Act of Settlement, laying out new rules as to who could or could not be the English Monarch. The most important provision was that the Monarch could not be a Catholic or married to one, and had to swear a holy oath to uphold the Church of England under the title “Defender of the Faith”.
Therefore, when Queen Anne died in 1714 without a direct heir, the Act of Settlement ruled out nearly all of the remaining Stuarts (who were Catholic), finally settling on George, a relatively minor nobleman of Brunswick-Luneberg, in the Hanover area of Germany. He was the son of Princess Sophia, who was herself the grand-daughter of England’s King James I. George Hanover, who was 52nd in line to the English throne, became King George I of England. Not only had he never visited the British Isles, but he did not even speak a word of English.
With George I, the Stuart Dynasty came to an end, and the Hanover Dynasty began. It turned out to be a golden age for Britain. Over the next 100 years, under the Hanover Kings, England became the dominant world superpower, with an empire that stretched literally around the world (despite the loss of the American colonies under King George III). The era also saw the institutionalization of the current Constitutional Monarchy, with the Sovereign as symbolic head of state but real power in an elected Parliament. By the time Queen Victoria assumed the throne in 1837, the British Empire was the largest and richest society that had ever existed.
Queen Victoria, who was the grand-daughter of King George III, arranged marriages of her children and grand-children to most of the royal houses of Europe. As a result, when World War One broke out in August 1914, it pitted Kaiser Wilhelm II, Queen Victoria’s grandson, against Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and King George V of England, also Victoria’s grandsons. The three were cousins. Victoria’s husband had been Prince Albert, of the German House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, and therefore King George V was also a member of that House. But in the anti-German hysteria that consumed England during the war, the name became something of an embarrassment. And so in 1917, at the height of the war, King George V first declared that his family was renouncing all of the hereditary titles that they held in Germany, and then shortly later announced that the family would be immediately changing its name and would no longer be the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha: “Now, therefore, We, out of Our Royal Will and Authority, do hereby declare and announce that as from the date of this Our Royal Proclamation Our House and Family shall be styled and known as the House and Family of Windsor, and that all the descendants in the male line of Our said Grandmother Queen Victoria who are subjects of these Realms, other than female descendants who may marry or may have married, shall bear the said Name of Windsor.” When Kaiser Wilhelm heard the news, he is said to have joked that he was going to see the Shakespeare play “The Merry Wives of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha”.
In the Middle Ages the area became the stronghold of a feudal domain covering 79 towns and villages. The fortress was built from the 11th to the 13th century over seven hectares. The princes of Baux controlled Provence for many years and they gained a formidable reputation. They were said to be descended from the Biblical Magi Balthazar and their coat of arms was a silver star with sixteen branches as a reminder that, according to the Gospel, it guided the three wise men to Bethlehem. Their motto was: “Au hasard, Balthazar” (At random, Balthazar).
Richard Fitzwlliams told Express.co.uk that bride-to-be Meghan Markle is unlikely to fill the important role because she is “new” to the Royal Family.
He said the role of a godmother is usually reserved for those who have been “close” to Kate and Prince William for “years”.
Mr Fitzwilliams said: “I doubt they would choose Meghan because they won’t have known her that well.
Main article: Lords of Baux
The House of Baux is a French noble family from the south of France. It was one of the richest and most powerful families of Medieval Provence, known as the ‘Race d’Aiglon’. They were independent Lords as castellan of Les Baux and Arles and wielded very considerable authority at local level. They held important fiefs and vast lands, including the principality of Orange.