Here is an incredible linage from Whales! This morning I discovered Nest Rhys is the ancestor of John Kennedy, and Princess Diana who I believe were killed by members of the John Birch Society, co-founded by Fred Koch, who moved his oil-fracking company to Russia after a spat with Federal Government. His sons have been funding neo-Confederate Evangelical groups in the Red States, who put Trump in power. William and Harry are kin to Nest. Fred Trump was a Catholic Hater and got arrested with the KKK who hate Catholics and the North. They are giving rise to the Confederate South who hated the Civil Rights laws passed by Kennedy and his VP, LBJ. Trump and the Conservative Traitors are undoing everything LBJ did, and his Great Society. It is very telling that Donald accused Cruz’s father of assassinating JFK. “He who accuses, excuses!” This reporter would ask that Anti-Kennedy President if he knows who killed Jack.
For these reasons, I found the Knight Templars of America in order to protect and promote the remnants of Camelot. For the reason the Templars were Catholic, I found no valid reason to bring them to America. With the connection of Putin’s evangelical kingdom, that is supported by American evangelicals, let us surround the Holy Grail, and recreate a Liberal Culture based upon the vision of John Kennedy. Kennedy should be the fallen leader of the Democratic Party, and Diana, the anti-Brexit………..Rose!
Putin has to hate Kennedy and all he stood for. Jack’s stand during the Cuba Missle Crisis did spell doom for the Evil Empire, that is now The American Trumpire. Southern Protestant Evangelicals have sold their soul to Satan. A poll says they believe Democrats and Secular Liberals prefer Islam over Christianity. This comes from Confederate Liars.
Trumps victory tour played to The Haters who voted for him. Haters pass down hate from one generation to the next, and thus it remains fresh for generations. Look at Northern Ireland. Being out of power, and never in power, can cause the Haters to form an alliance with those the hated the most. If Putin promises the Children of the JBS, they will reign in America and destroy the Camelot of the Liberal Catholic Left, then form a Evangelical Crusader Union to got to war with Islam, then this a great temptation. Flynn was with Putin and on the payroll of Erdogan, the President of Turkey. These three nations are fighting ISIS. Obama and Hillary gave sanctuary to Muslim refugees. Princess Di may have given birth to a Muslim baby, if she had lived. How does Steve Bannon feel about that?
Scripture advises us not to visit the sins of the father upon the son.
So nobody should hold it against Donald Trump that his father was arrested on Memorial Day in 1927 for participating in a Klu Klux Klan riot in his home borough of Queens. The riot was fueled in part by the prospect that Al Smith might become not just the Catholic governor of New York but the first Catholic president of the United States.
“Americans Assaulted by Roman Catholic Police of New York City” read KKK leaflets that went up in Queens the day after the arrest of Fred Trump and others.
But the son has embraced his father’s sins as his own in seeking to become president by stoking that very same kind of bigotry against Muslims and Mexicans and others.
Pope Francis said himself while visiting Mexico back in February that a man who is fixated on building a wall such as Trump has promised “is not Christian.” Trump responded by calling the pope “disgraceful.”
So why in the name of what is holy did the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York invite Donald Trump to the 71st Annual Alfred E. Smith Memorial Dinner?
Nest bore Gerald at least five children, three sons and two daughters. Through her children by Gerald, Nest is an ancestress of the de Bohun Family, the Tudor monarchs of England, and, through the Tudors, of the Stuarts, as well as of President John F. Kennedy, and Diana, Princess of Wales.
Nest ferch Rhys (c. 1085 – before 1136) (popularly called Nesta or “Princess Nesta”) was the only legitimate daughter of Rhys ap Tewdwr, last king of Deheubarth in Wales, by his wife, Gwladys ferch Rhiwallon ap Cynfyn of Powys. Her family is of the House of Dinefwr. Nest was the wife of Gerald de Windsor (c. 1075 – 1135), constable of Windsor Castle in Berkshire, by whom she was the ancestress of the FitzGerald dynasty and of the prominent Carew family, of Moulsford in Berkshire, Carew Castle in Pembrokeshire (in the Kingdom of Deheubarth) and of Mohuns Ottery in Devon (see Baron Carew, Earl of Totnes and Carew baronets).
The image of Dallas as a bulwark of right-wing extremism lodged in the American mind during the early 1960s.
The reality was more complicated. Most people, here as elsewhere, were more interested in orbiting astronauts, James Bond movies and Elvis than they were in attending meetings of the ultra-conservative John Birch Society.
But complexity surrendered to the image when President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dealey Plaza on Nov. 22, 1963. Dallas became known to the world as the city of hate, the city that killed Kennedy.
The negative narrative had taken root three years earlier, when U.S. Sen. Lyndon B. Johnson and his wife, Lady Bird, visited Dallas shortly before the 1960 presidential election. Johnson was a moderate Democrat and by far the state’s most powerful politician. More important, he was JFK’s running mate.
A gaggle of disagreeable Kennedy detractors, mostly well-dressed women, confronted the Johnsons upon their arrival at the Adolphus Hotel. They surrounded the startled couple on the street, screaming and spitting at them.
The greeting party had been organized by U.S. Rep. Bruce Alger, an archconservative Dallas Republican and a supporter of Kennedy’s election opponent, Richard Nixon. As the Johnsons were accosted, Alger stood nearby holding a sign that said, “LBJ Sold Out to Yankee Socialists.”
The confrontation drew national attention.
Conservatives in other cities voiced concerns about JFK. But in Dallas they screamed them with a venom that frightened many.
“You could feel it in the air,” recalled historian Darwin Payne, who was a Dallas newspaper reporter in the early 1960s. “When I hear some people express hatred for [President Barack] Obama, it feels the same. But I never have felt we are on the verge of anything like the events I witnessed back then.”
John Birch Society HQ
In the 1950s and early ’60s, fear of communism and of nuclear war with the Soviet Union spread across America like a political flu.
The John Birch Society designated Dallas a regional headquarters and opened a bookstore here. The society preached that Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry Truman and Dwight Eisenhower — among many others — were willing dupes of the Communist Party.
Robert Welch, the retired candy manufacturer who founded the John Birch Society, was convinced that communists controlled American labor unions, the leaders of the civil rights movement — and John F. Kennedy.
Bill Minutaglio and Steven L. Davis, authors of a new book, Dallas 1963, said extremists in Dallas didn’t just criticize Kennedy; they painted him as a traitor.
“There was something in Dallas that seemed to be summoning people to a raw, hard-edged resistance to JFK,” said Minutaglio, a journalism professor at the University of Texas at Austin and a former staff writer at The Dallas Morning News. “We believe it was a distinct minority, but pretty powerful at the top.”
And none wielded more power than H.L. Hunt. The oil titan was reputed to be the richest man in America. He wasn’t shy about spending his money to advance his political beliefs.
On Feb. 15, 1960, eight months before the assault on LBJ and Lady Bird outside the Adolphus, Hunt appeared at a downtown bookstore to autograph copies of his utopian novel, Alpaca. Despite the frosty weather, hundreds of Dallas residents lined up outside the bookstore.
The book, a thinly veiled political manifesto, told the story of Juan Achala, a citizen of “Alpaca” who traveled the world in search of the perfect constitution for his small nation.
Hunt the novelist revealed that Hunt the oil baron had little use for the ideal of political equality.
In his perfect world, the wealthiest citizens — those paying the most taxes — would be given extra votes.
Political discussion would be prohibited on television and radio, and at any meeting of more than 200 people. This was to prevent demagogues from influencing the masses.
The speech restrictions were odd, given that Hunt spent the previous decade using TV and radio to push his political views through Facts Forum, a propaganda outlet masquerading as a “public service” program. Hunt was baldly pro-business and anti-regulation. He despised communism, the United Nations and John F. Kennedy.
As Kennedy, a Roman Catholic, was pursing the Democratic presidential nomination in 1960, Hunt secretly financed the printing of 200,000 copies of an anti-Catholic sermon by the Rev. W.A. Criswell, the influential pastor of First Baptist Church in Dallas. Criswell argued that if a Catholic became president, the pope would dictate American policy.
Clint Murchison, another prominent Dallas oil man, opposed Kennedy’s plans for expanded federal aid to the poor. More important, Kennedy seemed sympathetic to rolling back the oil depletion allowance, a tax break that helped men like Hunt and Murchison grow even wealthier.
Jane Wolfe, author of The Murchisons: The Rise and Fall of a Texas Dynasty, said Murchison and other Texas oil magnates were shocked when LBJ agreed to become JFK’s running mate.
“Johnson had enormous clout in the Senate,” Wolfe wrote. “And much of this power was due to these Texas oilmen.”
One of the right-wing, anti-communist zealots drawn to Dallas in the early 1960s was U.S. Army Gen. Edwin Walker.
A veteran of World War II and the Korean conflict, Walker resigned his Army commission in November 1961, after civilian superiors in Washington admonished him for pressing John Birch Society literature on his troops.
Walker openly called prominent politicians “pink,” a term for those suspected of being communist sympathizers. He even embraced the John Birch Society’s view that Eisenhower, a World War II hero before becoming president, was a communist. Most people, of course, found that notion absurd.
Nonetheless, the extreme right worshiped Walker as a super-patriot. When he moved to Dallas in December 1961, Mayor Earle Cabell greeted him with a welcoming proclamation, presented before a crowd of 5,000 well-wishers.
Within days, Walker began a campaign for governor of Texas, filing as a candidate in the Democratic primary. Dallas was his campaign headquarters. With the backing of H.L. Hunt, he ran as a states’ rights segregationist dedicated to exposing communists in every walk of life.
In a primary field of six Democrats, he finished sixth.
Walker, however, wasn’t nearly finished carving his name into Dallas’ political history.
In a bizarre twist of history, Walker would become the victim of an assassination attempt April 10, 1963, seven months before Kennedy was killed.
His would-be assassin? Lee Harvey Oswald, a troubled ex-Marine and self-described communist who had defected to the Soviet Union in October 1959 before returning to the United States and settling in Dallas in the summer of 1962.
After Oswald’s arrest in connection with the Kennedy assassination, his wife, Marina, testified that her husband told her he had taken a bus to Walker’s home on Turtle Creek Boulevard and, from outside the home, fired one rifle shot at the former general, who was seated at a desk and visible through a window. The bullet struck the window frame, and Walker sustained only minor injuries.
Marina Oswald said her husband told her Walker was the leader of a “fascist organization.” She could offer no logical explanation for why Lee Oswald, an avowed leftist, would target the right-wing extremist Walker and the president, who was despised by so many on the far right.
Attack on U.N. envoy
At his home, Walker flew an American flag upside down — a symbol of distress. Later, he would plant a billboard in his yard calling for the impeachment of Earl Warren, the chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, who was viewed by the far right as the evil architect of school integration and the outlawing of officially sanctioned prayers in the classroom.
But those symbols were mere smudges on the national snapshot of Dallas, compared with the attack on U.N. Ambassador Adlai Stevenson II on Oct. 24, 1963, a month before Kennedy’s assassination.
The story goes like this: When Walker heard that Stevenson was coming to Dallas to deliver a speech at Memorial Auditorium commemorating U.N. Day, he scheduled a “U.S. Day” celebration one day earlier at the same downtown locale.
Walker, speaking to 1,000 people, called his gathering a “symbol of our sovereignty,” then added: “Tomorrow night, there will stand here a symbol of the communist conspiracy and its United Nations.”
During Stevenson’s U.N. Day address, a heckler stood up in the audience and began shouting into a bullhorn. He was later identified as a founder of the National Indignation Convention, another right-wing Dallas group that had supported Walker in his failed run for governor.
Police escorted the heckler from the auditorium, but the trouble had just begun.
After the speech, a hostile crowd of about 100 protesters surrounded the ambassador outside the auditorium. Many carried signs denouncing the U.N. — signs that had been stored at Walker’s home, according to Payne, the Dallas historian.
Stevenson tried to reason with the protesters. Suddenly, one woman conked him on the head with her sign. A man spat on him. After police broke through the crowd to rescue him, Stevenson was heard to say, “Are these human beings or are these animals?”
Once again, the spotlight shone on Dallas. “A City Disgraced,” read the headline in Time magazine.
The Dallas Morning News, in an editorial headlined “Our Apologies,” defended the ambassador’s right to deliver his speech and admonished demonstrators for their crude manners. The editorial ended with words that, read today, are chilling:
“The President of the United States will be here in November. We trust he will be welcomed and accorded the respect and dignity that go with the office he represents.”
In the early 1960s, the opinion pages of The Dallas Morning News reflected the anti-Kennedy views of the newspaper’s publisher, E.M. “Ted” Dealey. Day after day, editorials and opinion columns criticized the president. He was soft on communism. He was deceitful. He was expanding the reach of the federal government at the expense of individual liberty.
One of the newspaper’s prominent columnists was Robert Morris. Like Walker, he had moved to Dallas in the early 1960s. Morris made his reputation as chief counsel to the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee’s subcommittee on internal security.
Morris had been a close associate of Sen. Joseph McCarthy, the Wisconsin Republican who became infamous for his witch hunts against imagined communists in the State Department, the Truman White House, the U.S. Army, even the Voice of America.
In a ceremonial 1961 visit to the White House, Ted Dealey decided to let the president know just what he thought of him. The occasion was a luncheon for Texas publishers. When Kennedy asked them if they had any questions, Dealey rose.
Reading from a prepared text, he told Kennedy, “The general opinion of the grassroots thinking in this country is that you and your administration are weak sisters.”
It got worse.
“We need a man on horseback to lead this nation,” Dealey said, “and many people in Texas and the Southwest think that you are riding Caroline’s tricycle.”
The other publishers were aghast at the rude display. Kennedy kept his cool, but later expressed anger that Dealey had derided him with a reference to his 3-year-old daughter.
On Nov. 22, 1963, The News greeted the first couple with a print version of “good cop, bad cop.”
The newspaper’s lead editorial expressed hope that JFK’s visit to Dallas might help “Democrats, Republicans and Independents unite today in a genuineness of welcome and cordiality.”
However, a full-page advertisement on Page 14, framed by a funereal black border, carried a sarcastic headline: “Welcome Mr. Kennedy to Dallas.”
It asked a series of 12 biting questions, each starting with “WHY” in bold capital letters.
“WHY has Gus Hall, head of the U.S. Communist Party praised almost every one of your policies and announced that the party will endorse and support your re-election?”
“WHY have you scrapped the Monroe Doctrine in favor of the ‘Spirit of Moscow?’”
And so forth.
The ad was signed by “The American Fact-Finding Committee,” which listed a “Bernard Weissman” as its chairman. But these were fronts.
Warren Commission investigators later determined that Joseph P. Grinnan, an oil broker and local leader of the John Birch Society, had paid for the ad with “around $1,500” donated by three men: H. R. “Bum” Bright, an oil man who later became owner of the Dallas Cowboys; Nelson Bunker Hunt, a son of H.L. Hunt; and Edgar Crissey, an insurance company executive.
Ted Dealey acknowledged approving the ad in advance because it lined up with the editorial opinions of The News.
Stanley Marcus, the head of Neiman Marcus and a Kennedy supporter, reflecting on those times, later said: “The News, in my opinion, was almost single-handedly responsible for the prevailing state of mind in Dallas at the time of the assassination.”
Police chief’s fears
The news that JFK would visit Dallas broke on Sept. 25, 1963. The attack on Stevenson came a month later.
Civic leaders and Dallas police were determined to prevent anything similar from happening when the president and the first lady were in town.
The city had been embarrassed enough.
“As the tension mounted, the small and violent minority were in danger of upsetting the stability of the entire city,” Jesse Curry, the police chief at the time of the assassination, wrote in a 1969 memoir.
Curry was riding in the presidential motorcade on Nov. 22. Cheering crowds lined the route between Love Field and downtown. People waved and strained to catch a glimpse of the president and his wife in their big Lincoln limousine.
The atmosphere contradicted the image of Dallas as a city that hated the president.
“The people of Dallas had turned out in overwhelming numbers and had given the President a vibrant and warm welcome,” Curry recalled. “For a brief moment, I almost started to relax.”
Nov. 2 symposium
Tickets are on sale for the Nov. 2 symposium, “Understanding Tragedy: The Impact of the JFK Assassination on Dallas,” presented by the Dallas Institute of Humanities and Culture in partnership withThe Dallas Morning News and other organizations.
The symposium will take place from 10 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. at The South Side Ballroom in Dallas and will feature more than a dozen high-profile speakers, including Jim Lehrer, Stephen Carter, Nikky Finney, Richard Rodriguez and Lawrence Wright. The event will explore how President John F. Kennedy’s death affected Dallas from four perspectives: Journalism, Politics, Art & the Humanities, and Religion. Tickets range from $25 to $300 and are available at www.dallasinstitute.org. More information is also available at JFK50.com.
Nest had two younger brothers, Gruffydd ap Rhys and Hywel, and, possibly, an older sister named Marared, as well as several older illegitimate half-brothers and half-sisters. After their father’s death in battle in 1093, “the kingdom of the Britons fell” and was overrun by Normans. Nest’s younger brother Gruffydd was spirited into Ireland for safety; their brother Hywel may have been captured by Arnulf de Montgomery, along with their mother, unless, as appears likelier, their mother was captured with Nest; their fate is unknown. Two older brothers, illegitimate sons of Rhys, one of them named Goronwy, were captured and executed.
First marriage and issue
After Nest reached puberty, she came to the attention of the youngest son of William the Conqueror, Henry I of England, to whom she bore one of his numerous illegitimate children, Henry FitzHenry (c. 1103–1158).
Some time after the rebellions of Robert of Normandy and Robert of Belesme, head of the powerful Montgomery family of Normandy and England, the king married Nest to Gerald FitzWalter of Windsor, Arnulf de Montgomery‘s former lieutenant and constable for Pembroke Castle. In 1102, for siding with the Montgomerys against the king, Gerald had been removed from control of Pembroke, and one Saher, a knight loyal to Henry, installed in his place. When Saher proved untenable in his new position, the king restored Gerald to Pembroke in 1105, along with Nest as his wife. By Gerald, Nest is the maternal progenitor of the FitzGerald dynasty, one of the most celebrated families of Ireland and Great Britain. They are referred to as Cambro-Normans or Hiberno-Normans, and have been peers of Ireland since 1316, when Edward II created the earldom of Kildare for John FitzGerald.
Nest bore Gerald at least five children, three sons and two daughters. Through her children by Gerald, Nest is an ancestress of the de Bohun Family, the Tudor monarchs of England, and, through the Tudors, of the Stuarts, as well as of President John F. Kennedy, and Diana, Princess of Wales.
- William FitzGerald, Lord of Carew and Emlyn (died c. 1173). By his marriage to Marie, a daughter of Arnulf de Montgomery [see Note following Maurice FitzGerald below], William was the father of:
- Odo de Carew
- Raymond FitzGerald le Gros
- William, Justice of Eyre
- Isabella; m. William Hay (Gulielmus de Haia Wallenisis).
- Note: William Hay is frequently, and incorrectly, noted as an illegitimate son of Nest; the speculation is based on Nest’s grandson, Gerald of Wales, naming William as a Geraldine, which William Hay was, by his marriage to Nest’s granddaughter. William’s father is erroneously given as one “Hayt”, a Flemish sheriff of Pembroke in 1130, by which time Nest would probably have been past childbearing age. Most likely William was the son of Robert de la Hay, who held Gwynllŵg as a fief from Robert fitz Hamo, Earl of Gloucester.
- Maurice FitzGerald, Lord of Lanstephan, Naas and Maynooth, (died 1 September 1177). By his marriage to Alice [see Note below], a daughter of Arnulf de Montgomery, Maurice was the father of:
- Note: The existence of Marie de Montgomery and Alice de Montgomery, along with that of their alleged half-brother Philip, is disputed by Kathleen Thompson, Honorary Reader in history from Sheffield University, who claims Arnulf died without issue.
- David FitzGerald, Archdeacon of Cardigan and Bishop of St David’s who was the father of:
- Milo FitzBishop of Iverk
- Angharad, who married (2) William Fitz Odo de Barry, by whom she was the mother of
- Gwladys, mother of
- Milo de Cogan
Second marriage and issue
After Gerald’s death, Nest’s sons married her to Stephen, her husband’s constable of Cardigan, by whom she had another son, possibly two; the eldest was Robert Fitz-Stephen (d. 1182), one of the Norman conquerors of Ireland; the second son, if such there were, may have been named Hywel. Some sources say that Robert was a bastard. This is unlikely to be the case as Robert’s heirs were the Carew (Carey) family, the representatives of his eldest half-brother, William de Carew. According to Rev. Barry, they “…should not have gone to them, but to the Crown, if Robert FitzStephen were illegitimate”. With Nest’s son Maurice FitzGerald, his half-brother, Robert laid siege to the town of Wexford in 1169. With Maurice, he was granted joint custody of the town.
Rape and abduction
The details of this most famous episode of Nest’s life are obscure and vary, depending on who is relating it. Either Nest and Gerald were present at an eisteddfod given, during a truce, by Cadwgan ap Bleddyn, prince of Powys; or they were not present, and Nest and her husband were “visited” by her second cousin Owain ap Cadwgan, one of Cadwgan’s sons, or they were not visited by Owain, merely attacked by Owain and his men. The usual tale is that Owain hears at the eisteddfod that Gerald is in the neighbourhood, that Gerald’s wife is very beautiful, and so he goes to visit her “as his kinswoman”, but this is unlikely. The earliest account, that of Caradoc of Llancarfan, relates that “At the instigation of the Devil, he [Owain] was moved by passion and love for the woman, and with a small company with him…he made for the castle by night.” The castle was called Cenarth Bychan (possibly modern Cilgerran Castle); Carew Castle is also mentioned, but is unlikely.
Tradition has it that, during Owain’s firing of some of the outbuildings, Nest persuaded her husband and his men to escape via a lavatory chute, rather than face Owain, outnumbered, but this, too, is unlikely. Owain and his men burst into the castle, searched frantically for Gerald, but failed to find him. Nest allegedly told them, “He whom you seek is not here. He has escaped.” An infuriated Owain then raped Nest in front of her children — either her two sons and daughter and Gerald’s son by a concubine; or Gerald’s two sons by a concubine and Nest’s two sons; or any other variant — following which Owain abducted Nest and her children, and took them to a hunting lodge by the Eglwyseg Rocks north of the Vale of Llangollen.
The rape of Nest aroused the wrath of the Normans, as well as of the Welsh who had been victimised by Owain and his followers. The truce was broken. The Norman lords, the Justiciar of Salop, and at least one bishop, bribed Owain’s Welsh enemies to attack him and his father, which they promptly did. Owain’s father tried to persuade him to return Nest, but to no avail. According to Caradoc, Nest told Owain, “If you would have me stay with you and be faithful to you, then send my children home to their father.” She secured the return of the children. Owain and his father were driven to seek exile in Ireland. Nest was returned to her husband.
In recent years, Nest has been given two specious children by her rapist, Llywelyn and Einion. In fact, Owain had a brother, but not a son, named Einion, and Welsh genealogies do not name the mother of Owain’s son Llywelyn. The omission of the name of a mother with the highborn status of Nest is startling, if it were true.
In the 19th century, this “abduction”, as well as the fighting which followed, earned Nest the nickname “Helen of Wales”. She was depicted at having connived with Owain at her rape and abduction, given more children than she had borne, along with more lovers than she had had.
In 1112, her brother Gruffydd returned from Ireland, spending most of his time with Gerald and Nest. When he was denied his inheritance from his father, and accused to the king of conspiring against him, he allied with the prince of Gwynedd, and war broke out. Owain ap Cadwgan had, by now, been pardoned by the king, and was prince of Powys; in 1111, his father had been assassinated by Owain’s cousin and former comrade-in-arms, Madog ap Rhiryd, whom Owain captured, castrated, and blinded. Being then on the king’s good side, Owain was ordered to rendezvous with a Norman force to proceed against Gruffydd. En route, he and his force chanced to run into none other than Gerald FitzWalter. Despite Owain being a royal ally, Gerald chose to avenge his wife’s rape, and killed Owain.
Some historians have recently cast doubts on the account, suggesting it may have been revised or rewritten at a later date, by an author who had a motive to both demean Gerald and enhance the reputation of Owain. Thus,”we should hesitate to take it at full face value”.
The title King of the Britons (Latin Rex Britannorum) was used (often retrospectively) to refer to the most powerful ruler among the Celtic Britons, both before and after the period of Roman Britain up until the Norman conquest of England. The Britons were the Brittonic-speaking peoples of what is now England, Wales, Cumbria and the Hen Ogledd in southern Scotland, whose ethnic identity is today maintained by the Welsh, Cornish and Bretons.
The same title was also used to refer to some of the rulers of Brittany in the ninth century, but there it is best translated as King of the Bretons. This page concerns only rulers in Britain (with the exception of Riothamus, who may have ruled both in Britain and Continental Europe.)
At least twenty kings were referred to as “King of the Britons”, while others were given related titles or descriptions. The table below also contains the paramount native Welsh rulers in the Norman and Plantagenet periods – by this time only Wales (or parts thereof) remained under Brittonic rule in Britain and the term “Briton[s]” (Brython[iaid], Brutaniaid) was used synonymously with what is now the term for the Welsh people, Cymry. This, and the diminishing power of the Welsh rulers relative to the Kings of England, is reflected in the gradual evolution of the titles by which these rulers were known from “King of the Britons” in the 11th century to “Prince of Wales” in the 13th.
Although the majority of the rulers listed below had their power base in Gwynedd in North Wales, most insular Brittonic areas from the 7th century on are to be found in the list below, from Dumnonia in the West Country, to Strathclyde in southwest Scotland.