Jessie Benton Fremont held a Salon in San Francisco, and her sister a Salon in Paris. Jessie wrote her husband’s journals of his journey to Oregon and the Willamette Valley. My grandfather, Royal Rosamond, went camping with members of the Black Mast authors on Anacapa Island. Christine married into the Benton family who were artists and politicians who cared for the State of Oregon. Fremont was the first Presidential candidate for the Republican Party he co-funded. Here is the list of Bohemian Club members. There were American Pre-Raphaelites.
”PAINT the leaves as they grow! If you can paint one leaf, you can paint the world,” wrote the English critic John Ruskin in his epic ”Modern Painters.” And in the mid-19th century, a small group of American artists took the advice to heart, rendering Nature close up with such fidelity as to make today’s Photo-Realism look – well, out of focus. They came to be known as the American Pre-Raphaelites, and their work – celebrating Ruskin’s bless-every- blade-of-grass esthetic – left something of a mark on American landscape and still-life painting. Now ”The New Path: Ruskin and the American Pre-Raphaelites,” the first show to study this short-lived movement in depth, has been mounted by the Brooklyn Museum, where it will run through June 10 before moving to Boston.
It’s by no means a ”big” show, rife with stirring, dramatic works. The artists involved tended to work small, concentrating on watercolor still lifes and landscapes rather than the complex narrative themes – mostly done in oil – of the English Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood that preceded them. The Americans sacrificed interpretation and imagination to obsessive reportage: one of the best-known of them, William Trost Richards, spent the entire summer of 1858 limning ”a blackberry bush in the open air.” And technically dazzling as some of these paintings are, they lack the romantic grandeur of such concurrent American masters as Church and Bierstadt. What this exhibition, 15 years in the making, really celebrates is the scholarship that has rescued the movement – most of its works still unlocated – from near-oblivion and given it art-historical focus.
The American Pre-Raphaelites, also known as Realists or Naturalists, were led by Thomas Charles Farrer, an English expatriate artist and ardent Ruskin acolyte. In ”Modern Painters,” Ruskin’s insistence on long and earnest study of nature as the basis for art had inspired the English Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, which aimed at reviving the ”purity” of Italian art before Raphael. Yet the nostalgic, literary compositions of the English artists were fussily detailed and mannered, with bright coloring and high finish. The Americans picked up on the color, finish and detail, but they eschewed the figural for still life and landscape, already important genres here. Following Ruskin, they believed that spiritual insight came from diligent perusal of, and lenslike fidelity to, nature in the raw. And in 1863, under Farrer’s leadership, a small band of them formed the Association for the Advancement of Truth in Art. In their publication, ”The New Path,” they pushed Ruskinian principles and brushed off the more painterly landscapists whose work was gaining favor.
The show in Brooklyn, organized by Linda S. Ferber, curator of American painting and sculpture there, and William H. Gerdts, executive officer of the Ph.D. program in art history at the Graduate School of the City University of New York, is mounted in three sections. The first presents work by Ruskin and William Henry Hunt, an English watercolorist whose supreme technical control Ruskin admired. His specialty was birds’ nests (with eggs), and the one shown here is a very model of such studies, the nest lying among yellow blossoms on the ground, with three abandoned blue eggs, a meditation – one supposes – on the fragility of life. Also here is Ruskin’s famous watercolor, ”Fragment of the Alps,” a closeup view of boulders more rocklike than rock itself (he felt that stone was the artist’s great challenge).
Works by the core group of American Pre-Raphaelites constitute the second section: among them Farrer, John William Hill and his son, John Henry Hill, Charles Herbert Moore, Henry Roderick Newman, Robert J. Pattison and William Trost Richards. Detailed close-ups – many of them exquisitely rendered – of leaves, trees, bushes, berries, blossoms, fruits, dead birds and birds’ nests abound, along with some stunning landscapes and one or two English Pre-Raphaelite-style melodramas by Farrer. Outstanding here are Richards’s 1861 oil, ”Sunset on the Meadow,” a perfect meld of close-up detail and general view; Charles Herbert Moore’s tiny, unbelievably meticulous canvas, ”Winter Landscape, Valley of the Catskills,” 1866, and John William Hill’s 1864 watercolor ”Pineapples,” a pair of fruit lying on the ground, so realistically depicted you can smell them. Lovers of watercolor will have a picnic here.
By 1870, the movement was over, but its coloristic principles and focus on detail had an effect on the course of American art. And the third section is devoted to less dogmatic painters who, though they may not have subscribed to the full Pre-Raphaelite message, were nevertheless influenced by it. Enhancing the show are works by Bierstadt, Church, Asher Brown Durand, Thomas Moran, Martin Johnson Heade and Worthington Whittredge, among others. The Pre- Raphaelites may not be the most exciting sub-chapter in American art history, but – thanks to this show and its scholarly catalogue – they are at last enshrined in it.
The Bohemian Newspaper and Radio Club
Ambrose Gwinnett Bierce (June 24, 1842 – circa 1914) was an American editorialist, journalist, short storywriter, fabulist, and satirist. He wrote the short story “An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge” and compiled a satirical lexicon, The Devil’s Dictionary. His vehemence as a critic, his motto “Nothing matters”, and the sardonic view of human nature that informed his work, all earned him the nickname “Bitter Bierce”.
Despite his reputation as a searing critic, Bierce was known to encourage younger writers, including the poetsGeorge Sterling and Herman George Scheffauer and the fiction writer W. C. Morrow. Bierce employed a distinctive style of writing, especially in his stories. His style often embraces an abrupt beginning, dark imagery, vague references to time, limited descriptions, impossible events, and the theme of war.
In 1913, Bierce traveled to Mexico to gain first-hand experience of the Mexican Revolution. He was rumored to be traveling with rebel troops, but was not seen again.
In San Francisco, Bierce was awarded the rank of brevet major before resigning from the Army. He remained in San Francisco for many years, eventually becoming famous as a contributor or editor of a number of local newspapers and periodicals, including The San Francisco News Letter, The Argonaut, the Overland Monthly, The Californian and The Wasp. A selection of his crime reporting fromThe San Francisco News Letter was included in The Library of America anthology True Crime.
Bierce lived and wrote in England from 1872 to 1875, contributing to Fun magazine. His first book, The Fiend’s Delight, a compilation of his articles, was published in London in 1873 by John Camden Hotten under the pseudonym “Dod Grile”.
Returning to the United States, he again took up residence in San Francisco. From 1879 to 1880, he traveled to Rockerville and Deadwood in the Dakota Territory, to try his hand as local manager for a New York mining company. When the company failed he returned to San Francisco and resumed his career in journalism.
From January 1, 1881 until September 11, 1885 he was editor of The Wasp magazine, in which he began a column titled “Prattle”. He also became one of the first regular columnists and editorialists on William Randolph Hearst‘s newspaper, The San Francisco Examiner, eventually becoming one of the most prominent and influential writers and journalists of the West Coast. He remained associated with Hearst Newspapers until 1909.
At least three films have been made of Bierce’s story “An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge“. A silent film version, The Bridge, was made in 1929. A French version called La Rivière du Hibou, directed by Robert Enrico, was released in 1962; this black-and-white film faithfully recounts the original narrative using voiceover. It aired in 1964 on American television as one of the final episodes of thetelevision series The Twilight Zone: “An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge“. Prior to The Twilight Zone, the story had been adapted as an episode of Alfred Hitchcock Presents. Another version, directed by Brian James Egen, was released in 2005. It was also adapted for the CBS radio programs Suspense and Escape.
James F. Bowman (January 21, 1826 – April 29, 1882) was a journalist and poet in Northern California, and a co-founder of theBohemian Club. Bowman served on several newspapers in Placerville, Sacramento and San Francisco during a 24-year career. Through his contacts among San Francisco journalists, Bowman befriended Mark Twain, artist William Keith, critic Ambrose Bierce(who included an anecdote about Bowman in his own The Devil’s Dictionary) and a great many others.
Bowman occasionally appeared in public to read his own poetry, and was mentioned in the Daily Morning Call for giving a recitation at a 4 July celebration in San Francisco, 1864. Bowman connected in 1871 with George Frederick Parsons in Sacramento at theRecord, was encourage to write more poetry, and to publish. Bowman was subsequently subject to attempted plagiarism of his work by “literary purloiners”.
In 1864, Bowman picked up a regular assignment as co-editor with Bret Harte of The Californian newspaper. In 1865, the dailyDramatic Chronicle began publication in San Francisco as a theatre and literary review, under the direction of teenager brothers Charles and Michael de Young. Charles de Young began buying witty articles from writers such as drinking buddies Twain and Bowman, including a piece written anonymously by Bowman which savaged both the grandiose style of a poetry review in The Californian and the poetry itself, a book by Twain and Bowman’s mutual friend Charles Warren Stoddard. The targeted review was one written by Bowman himself. In 1868, The Californian closed, but by then Bowman was editing both the Dramatic Chronicle and the Oakland News. In August 1868, the name Dramatic Chronicle was shortened to Chronicle, and the newspaper given wider latitude in subject matter.[3
Henry Edwards (August 27, 1827 – June 9, 1891), known as “Harry“, was an English stage actor, writer andentomologist who gained fame in Australia, San Francisco and New York City for his theater work.
Edwards was drawn to the theater early in life, and he appeared in amateur productions in London. After sailing to Australia, Edwards appeared professionally in Shakespearean plays and light comedies primarily in Melbourne and Sydney. Throughout his childhood in England and his acting career in Australia, he was greatly interested in collecting insects, and the National Museum of Victoria used the results of his Australian fieldwork as part of the genesis of their collection.
In San Francisco, Edwards was a founding member of the Bohemian Club, and a gathering in Edwards’ honor was the spark which began the club’s traditional summer encampment at the Bohemian Grove. As well, Edwards cemented his reputation as a preeminent stage actor and theater manager. After writing a series of influential studies on Pacific Coastbutterflies and moths he was elected life member of the California Academy of Sciences. Relocating to the East Coast, Edwards spent a brief time in Boston theater. This led to a connection to Wallack’s Theatre and further renown in New York City. There, Edwards edited three volumes of the journal Papilio and published a major work about the life of the butterfly. His large collection of insect specimens served as the foundation of the American Museum of Natural History‘s butterfly and moth studies.
Samuel Marsden Brookes was born in England in 1816 to a wealthy Dutch family that traced its ancestry back to a 17th century knight and lady in waiting in the court of William of Orange. His father was a botanist who operated a nursery in London. In 1833 the family moved to America to settle near the newly founded town of Chicago. Despite disapproval by his father, as a teenager Brookes decided he wanted to be an artist and he began copying traveling portrait artists of the day producing his own miniature portraits. He married and by 1845 had saved enough from his career as a frontier portrait painter to travel to Europe where he spent a year copying masterpieces in the galleries of London. He returned a more accomplished artist to a thriving career in Wisconsin as a portrait painter of influential people, including Indian chiefs. He also became known as a genre and historical painter.
Maritime painter Gideon Denny left San Francisco in 1851 to study with Brookes for six years and in 1862 Brookes followed Denny to San Francisco. Brookes later sent for his wife and six children and settled them in a family home in the Mission District. Brookes and Denny shared a studio for many years where Brookes focused on portraits. In 1865 Brookes helped organize the California Art Union, eventually becoming vice president of the San Francisco Art Association and a founder of the Bohemian Club. Although he never training formally himself, Brookes began teaching art from the age of 25 and continued throughout his career. Among his students in San Francisco was the young William Keith. In the 1870s he shared his studio with artist Edward Deakin, a painter of landscapes and architecture. A famous painting by Deakin in the collection of the de Young Museum shows Samuel Brookes painting in his ramshackle studio.
By the 1880s Brookes was a prominent figure in the art world of San Francisco and his studio was a popular gathering place for artists of the day. He had a notable presence as a short, stocky man, with a large head, long hair and beard and a cigar clenched at all times between his teeth. Brookes became renowned for his meticulously detailed still life paintings of fish, flowers, fruit, and birds, often in a cascading arrangement. He is considered to be the finest American still life painter of the 19th Century (Karlstom, 2011). He received numerous commissioned by Mrs. Mark Hopkins, including his famous painting of a peacock, and E. B. Crocker, with some of his paintings fetching up to $10,000 each (AskArt). Many of his paintings were lost when the Hopkins mansion, which had become the Hopkins Institute of Art, burned in the earthquake and fire of 1906. The Society of California Pioneers has two Samuel Brooks still lifes, one with fish and one with fowl.
Edward Bosqui, widely known San Francisco pioneer, last living charter member of the Bohemian Club and patron of artists, died Saturday at his home, 2010 Lyon street. He was 85 years old and death resulted from declining health due to his advanced years. Coming to California in 1850 on a sailing vessel, Bosqui became vitally connected with the development of San Francisco and California. He was associated with the pioneer firm of Palmer, Cook and Company, bankers, and later was agent and secretary for General Fremont, who at that time had vast holdings throughout the west. In later years Bosqui headed a firm of lithographers and printers and was active in the business life of San Francisco until recent years. He was a leading spirit in the founding and growth of the Bohemian Club and to his activity, with that of others, is due the progress of the San Francisco Art Association and the founding of the Academy of Science. He was a lover of art and patron of Travernier, Keith and Wandesdorf, famous artists or early San Francisco. He was a native of Montreal, Canada,
Edward Bosqui Passes
Last of the charter members of the Bohemian Club, Edward Bosqui, in his 85th year, has passed to the beyond. He was a patron of art and literature, and by his kindly manner and genial companionship endeared himself to all his associates, who were from the beginning his friends. He was the leading spirit in the founding of the Bohemian Club, and the progress of the San Francisco Association of Art is due to his energy. He was one of the founders of the Academy of Science. His love of art was shown early in his patronage of Kieth, Tavernier and Wandesdorf.
Mr. Bosqui was born in Montreal and came to California in a sailing vessel in 1850. He was associated with the pioneer firm of Palmer, Cook & Co., bankers, and later was agent and secretary for General Fremont, who at that time had much property throughout the West. He is survived by eight children.
Sat., Sepf. %5, 1965 The Ross Pioneer Printmaker Edward Bosqui Played Principal Role In Its History Continued from Page M3 rooms, and still there was sometimes an overflow of friends in the guest cottage. In his memoirs, Bosqui told of the fateful Sunday afternoon of March 14, 1897: . . WHILE reading in the southeast room of our house in Ross Valley, I noticed thin wreaths of smoke rising from beneath the veranda. Hastily entering the hall, I felt heated air in my face and realized the house was on fire. Looking toward the stairway, I saw smoke and the light of flames, and I shouted to my wife and daughter, Laura, to hasten out of the house. Taking in my arms my ^-year-old granddaughter, Helen Spinney, who stood by the side of her terrified grandmother, I got out onto the roof of the veranda. “Smoke was issuing from doors and windows. Rushing back and forth in my helplessness and painfully anxious for the safety of my wife and daughter, who were tardy in following me, I determined to re-enter to save them or to share their fate. Then, to my relief, they appeared, coming out of the window. “We descended to the ground by means of a frail trellis, which we expected would crash momentarily from our weight. “IN THE meantime the fire had enveloped the whole upper story, and had our escape been delayed a few minutes longer, we must certainly have perished. As it was, we suffered from bruises and my hair and eyebrows were singed. “In five minutes the whole house was a raging furnace. The flames rose to a great height and swept through the tall pines, destroying everything they reached. Half dazed, we retreated to our little cottage 200 yards away, where we watched sadly as the flames devoured our household treasures by which we had been so happily surrounded for many years. “SURVEYING THE ruins sorrowfully, we were nevertheless impressed by the narrowness of our escape, and a feeling of gratitude for our deliverance reconciled us to the loss of the treasures we had held so dear.” The Bosquis built a second house on the foundations of the first. It, too, had seven bedrooms. Miss Treat says: “My grandparents were not content unless the house was occupied by their children and their grandchildren.” She adds that after the Bosquis’ daughter Calista married Charles Spinney, they lived much of the time with her parents. MISS TREAT recalls the “fun trips” to San Rafael where the family went by carriage about once a week to buy supplies for the home. Shopping was a real ceremony as the store owner would come to the carriage to take the order and stood by as a clerk stowed the parcels carefully in the vehicle. Edward Bosqui wqs born in Montreal, Canada, on July 23, 1832, the oldest son in a family of seven children. His father, a cabinetmaker, was French; his mother, also born in Montreal, was of Scotch descent. Young Bosqui had a great love for the beautiful and delighted to watch his father do exquisite woodearving. When he was 11 years old, he went to work in a bookstore, for the family was poor. He peddled books from door to door and at intervals attended school. An avid reader, he feasted on the books on the shop shelves. He also was interested in geology and liked to sketch natural beauty. WHEN NEWS of the discovery of gold in northern California reached Canada, young Bosqui determined to go west. He traveled with a friend who had received some money from a family estate. They sailed from New York on March 26, 1850, to the mouth of the Rio Grande. There the friend bought mules, saddles and supplies. Soon the duo was joined by another group, also bound for California. They journeyed across Mexico. Their horses and mules stampeded, so that much of the journey was on foot. At night they camped near Mexican villages, and if it had not been for the kindness of the poor peons, who shared their tortillas and frijoles with them, they «would have starved. Most of the party was ill with malaria when they finally reached Mazatlan. They sailed from there aboard a French ship, Camilla, to San Francisco. Bosqui agreed to work his way as a cabin boy. THE CAMILLA anchored ill San Francisco on July 23- young Bosqui’s 18th birthday. For several days he looked for work and at the bank of Palmer, Cook & Co. on Portsmouth Square, was employed as clerk and messenger, carrying gold dust from various places of business to the bank. The bank was housed in an old adobe, and at the north end of the building was the law office of H. H. Haight, who afterwards became governor of California. Bosqui became well acquainted with him. The young bank .messenger slept on a counter in the bank. By December of 1850, young Bosqui had saved enough money to go to the mines. He chose Mariposa where Cook’s brother, George, was in charge of one of Col. John C. Fremont’s mines. HE WENT TO Stockton on a crowded steamer and then traveled on foot to Mariposa. But the young man soon found his strength was not equal to the task of shoveling dirt and washing sand, so he sold the few ounces of gold he had grubbed from the earth and returned to San Francisco just after the big fire of 1851. The bank building had been burned and Palmer, Cook & Co. had moved into temporary quarters. Bosqui resumed his duties with the bank but now he was in charge of rents from the company’s real estate holdings. Fine furniture from the foremost factories, custom carpets & draperies al realistic prices. A quality minded firm Dick Saltiman Decorator Sftlkition a diDNi ot Mai in FURNITURE THIS WAS the handsome young Edward Bosqui who came to California in 1850, arriving in San Francisco on his 18th birthday. He was to leave his imprint stamped indelibly upon the history of the area. IN THE SPRING of 1852, Bosqui met John Fremont for the first time. Bosqui wrote: “He was heayily bearded and looked weatherbeaten and bronzed by the sun and wind. Fremont was at that time in the prime of life, dignified yet genial and courteous. With a piercing bright eye, a fine head and a trim commanding figure, he fully realized my ideal of a hero.” On April’4, 1853, the California Academy of Sciences was organized, and Edward Bosqui was one of the 41 charter members. He became well acquainted with Prof. George Davidson, who conducted many scientific expeditions; with James Lick, who gave the academy much of his fortune, and with Charles F. Crocker and Sen. Leland Stanford, who generously supported the institution. He admired Dr. Albert Kellogg, a naturalist. “His watercolor drawings of flowers were true to nature.” AFTER DR. Kellogg’s death in 1888 a collection was made of his drawings, and their reproduction was in the charge of Edward Bosqui. In December of 1853 Bosqui left for a visit to his Canadian home on the Winfield Scott, bound for Mexico. About 300 passengers were aboard, including Jose Yves Limantour, a French resident of Mexico. Limantour had made a claim for large portions of California, including the Tiburon Peninsula, four square leagues in San Francisco, the Farallones, Alcatraz and Yerba Buena Island. The ship was wrecked on Anacapa Island but panic was prevented by the orders of Capt. Simon Blunt, U.S. Navy, who drew his pistol to prevent a mad rush to the lifeboats, and by quick-thinking from Limantour. OF THE LATTER, Bosqui said: “F: was one of the coolest and most self-possessed.” All aboard were saved and camped on a beach on the island. Bosqui organized a fishing group to provide food for the stranded. The most astonishing part of this episode is that Bosq;«i made a sketch of the sinking Winflela Scott. After sever’d weeks on ihe inland, the shipwreck victims were picked up by another steamer and taken to Acapulco. Bosqui then crossed the Isthmus of Panama’ on mule-back and sailed for New York, arriving in a snowstorm. He was ill with Panama fever and went to Montreal where he saw “no charms In a Canadian winter.” In two weeks he left for California, accompanied by his brother, Kenneth. Bosqui then resumed his duties with Palmer, Cook & Co. Open Mon thru Sot. 10-5 30 Sunday ‘2 – 4 fvening» by appointm*ni John Barry Insurance Agency 44t Av*. larkspur 924-3300 As his responsibilities increased, so did his salary. HE WROTE that partner Joseph Palmer’s visit to Washington, D.C., where he was received by the President, feted and flattered, changed the fortunes of the bank. Palmer, Cook & Co. became involved in politics. The first notable mistake was Palmer’s rupture with Senator Gwin and support of the candidacy of David C. Broderick. Later John C, Fremont, a close friend of both Palmer and Cook,’ had their backing for his ill- fated candidacy for presidency of the United States. Bosqui made several trips to look after the interests of Colonel Fremont and Joseph Palmer in the Pescadero grant on the San Joaquin River. He also took charge of Fremont’s Mariposa grant. A SMALL WAR was developing at Mariposa between a mine company and Fremont’s men. Colonel Fremont insisted he would go to the mine. Bosqui quoted Mrs. Fremont as saying: “You shall not go there. Your life is worth a thousand of such lives as those at stake at the camp.” 1 1 Bosqui added: “Mrs. Fremont was a highly accomplished woman of fine intellect with a towering ambition and courage equal to her husband’s. The acquisition of power’and love of display and leadership were her ruling passions and caused much of her husband’s trouble and disappointment.” THE FIRST public setback d the banking firm came after a large loan was refused to James King of William, publisher of the Bulletin, by a junior member of the firm. A few days later the Bulletin published a violent attack on Palmer, Cook & Co., and made editorial comments on the impending insolvency of the bank. This was followed up day by day with similar charges which, while untrue and malicious, destroyed the bank’s credit. It closed its doors early in 1858. For a while after the bank closed, Bosqui was in charge of its property. He opened an office in the Naglee Building on Continued on Page MS 1011 Magnolia, Larkspur Call 461-0610 Hallway b**w**ii Larkipur-Kaatfiald
De Young was born in St. Louis, Missouri, the son of Amelia (née Morange) and Miechel de Young (possibly originally De Jong or De Jongh), who was a jeweler and dry-goods merchant. The family was Jewish, and immigrated from the Netherlands and France. His maternal grandfather, Benjamin Morange, served as the Minister from France to Spain under Napoleon. De Young moved with his family to San Francisco, California while he was still young. There, he and his brother, Charles de Young (1845–1880), founded theDaily Dramatic Chronicle newspaper, first published on January 16, 1865. The Chronicle was the predecessor of the San Francisco Chronicle, San Francisco’s only remaining daily broadsheet newspaper. De Young was also the director of the Associated Press for many years. De Young was a Heald College graduate.
In 1884, he was shot by an irate businessman, Adolph B. Spreckels, apparently due to a negative newspaper article, but survived. M. H. de Young died on February 15, 1925 and a Catholic church mass was held in St. Mary’s Cathedral (he had converted to Catholicism after marrying his wife, Katherine I. Deane).
He served as a Spanish-language interpreter for the U.S. Boundary Commission which laid out the Mexican and United States Border between 1849–1852. He went on to serve as captain in Company B, 2nd Regiment California Volunteer Cavalry a unit of California Volunteers, with the California Column in New Mexico Territory. He eventually achieved the rank of major in 1864 and commanded the 1st Battalion of Native Cavalry, California Volunteers until 1866. He was the first editor of San Francisco’s Weekly Sunday Times newspaper.
After retiring from the army, Cremony settled in San Francisco, becoming a founding member of the Bohemian Club and establishing the club’s membership guidelines in 1872. He died of tuberculosis on August 24, 1879and is buried at Cypress Lawn Memorial Park on the Laurel Hill Mound in San Francisco, California.