First Blockade of the West Coast of Mexico
For two weeks now I have been debating about revealing the Holy Grail connected with Virginia’s family. For a month I have been considering calling for a Holy Crusade that would be connected to the Kurdish battle with ISIS. However, it now appears the United States may go to war with Iran and its ally, Russia, if they try to run the blockade at Yemen. The aircraft carrier Roosevelt is prepared to do battle.
This morning I discovered my kindred, Commodore Joseph Hull, captures a Mexican warship named after the brother of Saladin, Malek Adhel. Captaining the U.S.S. Warren, he captured this vessel. Hull also captained the U.S.S. Savannah seen above. But, what is truly astounding, Hull helped my kindred, John Fremont, capture California.
Hull is the alleged nephew of my great-grandfather, Commodore Isaac Hull, who captained the Argus in the war against the Caliphate of Tunisia. However, there is evidence he was Isaac’s son from a previous marriage, or, was a bastard. He married Ann Hart’s youngest sister, Amelia, and is said to have had a daughter. There was a fight over Isaac’s estate. Joseph was stationed at Monterey, and took San Diego. When he handed over the Malek Adhel to Commodore Stockton, he made a note that read;
“Malek Adhel, Saracen, and brother of the great Saladin chief who opposed Richard Coeur de Lion on his crusade to the Holy Land.”
Queen Eleanore of Aquitaine was Richard’s mother, and followed a rouge thread into the labyrinth he husband, King Henry, had made to keep his paramour, Fair Rosamond. In the Supreme Court of Monterey are filed papers where I mention Rosamond, the Crusades, and the Knights Templar in my attempt to keep Christine Rosamond Benton’s legacy and history from falling into the hands of outsiders that I said would destroy my families Artistic Legacy. Henry and Eleanore begat the House of Plantagenet from which the War of the Roses would wage. ‘Game of Thrones’ is just a game. This is the real deal.
Then there is Rena Easton’s husband.
At Isaac command, Joseph took several historic paintings to another Commodore who was at Tripoli, so that they could be salvaged. They had been neglected and had been damaged. The heads of American Warriors who fought the Caliphate were cut from the large canvases, and framed.
This is my grandson’s history. These are his people. A aunt whose aged husband owned a party boat docked in San Pedro Harbor, lured my daughter away with money, and convinced her, and my grandson, I was insane. Tyler Hunt’s kindred, Jessie Benton-Fremont, says the British were about to invade Northern California with an army of Irish-Catholics.
History had caught up with my twenty year search for the Holy Grail, thus, my book will have to wait. I am now a war correspondent for Royal Rosamond Press. All my reports are protected by my copyright.
John G. Presco
President: Royal Rosamond Press
Richard, however, has promised Matilda’s hand to Guy de Lusignan, his sworn brother in arms and, out of pride, refuses to entertain any other possibility. The situation is further complicated when Richard and Adhel meet in battle and Adhel, out of love for Matilda, spares Richard’s life. Richard consequently feels himself to be shamed; his jealous feelings build. Malek Adhel and Saladin are reconciled, and as a sign of their reconciliation, Saladin offers Adhel the kingdom of Jerusalem, which he may hold jointly with Matilda. “Accept the throne of Jerusalem,” Saladin tells his brother, “place the Princess of England by thy side; let her bring thee Ptolemais for her dowry; and let the crusaders, contented with seeing a Princess of their blood reigning in Judea, return at last to Europe.—Thou wilt still remain the servant of Mahomet, the friend of thy brother”
The Pacific Coast Campaign refers to United States naval operations against targets along Mexico’s Pacific Coast during the Mexican-American War. It excludes engagements of the Conquest of California in Alta California. The objective of the campaign was to secure the Baja California peninsula, blockade or capture west coast ports of Mexico and especially capture Mazatlan, a major Mexican seaport used for imported supplies. The resistance of the Californios in Alta California and the lack of ships, soldiers and logistical support prevented an early occupation of Baja California Sur and the west coast seaports of Mexico. The U. S. Navy blockaded the ports three times before being able to successfully blockade or occupy them.
WASHINGTON — The U.S. military, backed by the firepower of the aircraft carrier USS Theodore Roosevelt, continued Tuesday to shadow a convoy of Iranian cargo ships in waters off the coast of war-torn Yemen.
The key concern: the ships could hold weapons intended for the Iranian-supported Houthi rebels, violating United Nations resolutions.
The Iranian ships remain in international waters off of Yemen, Army Col. Steve Warren, a Pentagon spokesman, said Tuesday. It consists of nine cargo vessels. There are no warships in the Iranian convoy.
The Roosevelt, with 5,000 sailors and 60 aircraft, is monitoring the ships. The Navy has several other ships off Yemen, including the USS Normandy, a guided-missile cruiser.
“We are continuing to watch this Iranian convoy,” Warren said.
The commander of Iran’s ground forces Ahmad Reza Bordestan warned on Sunday that the war in Yemen would spill into neighboring Saudi Arabia and engulf the kingdom unless Riyadh stops its bombings raids there.
“There will be explosions in Saudi Arabia through rockets fired into its territory and the price of this (conflict) will be heavy for Saudi authorities,” Bordestan said in an interview with Iran’s state-owned Al-Alam TV.
“With their past experience and abilities the Yemeni army can hit hard at Saudi Arabia,” he warned.
Traditional regional rivals Iran and Saudi Arabia are on opposite ends in the war in Yemen: Tehran backs Shiite Houthi rebels that have driven the Yemeni president into exile in Saudi Arabia; the Saudis back the government and have been leading bombing raids against the Houthis for more than three weeks.
Following an easy occupation at first, due to the capitulation of La Paz by Governor Col. Francisco Palacios Miranda, loyal Bajacalifornios met and declared Miranda a traitor and rose in revolt under a new governor, Maurico Castro Cota and then under the leadership of Manuel Pineda Munoz who defended Mulege from American landings, then attempted to expel the Americans from La Paz and San Jose del Cabo. Pineda was eventually captured and the Mexican army under Cota finally defeated at Todos Santos but only after the peace treaty that ended the war returned the captured regions south of Alta California to Mexico.
(Brig: dp. 125; l. 80′; b. 20’7″; dr. 7’9″; a. 10 guns)
Brig named for a sultan of Turkey.
Malek Adhel was a brig built for Mexico by William H. Webb at New York City in 1840. She was originally assigned to serve in the Pacific trade, but with the outbreak of the war with Mexico 11 May 1846 she served in the Mexican Navy as a 10 gun brig.
The brig was captured at Mazatlan, Mexico, 6 September 1846 by Warren, Comdr. Joseph B. Hull in command. She was taken into the U.S. Navy and placed in service under the command of Lt. James F. Schenck. During the remainder of the war she operated along the lower coast of California. She was sold in 1848.
Following the July to August 1846 campaign of the Conquest of California Commander of the Pacific Squadron, Robert F. Stockton proclaimed United States control of Alta California, on August 17, 1846. Following this, Commander Stockton, on August 19, ordered Joseph B. Hull, commander of the USS Warren, to blockade Mazatlan. Samuel F. Dupont, commander of the second class sloop-of-war Cyane, was ordered to blockade San Blas, about 125 miles south of Mazatlan. Stockton intended to seize Acapulco, and use it as a base for a joint Army-Navy expedition into Mexico. On September 2, 1846 the Cyane captured two Mexican vessels in the harbor then a landing party spiked 34 cannons in the port of San Blas. On September 7, the Warren seized the Mexican brig Malek Adhel at Mazatlan.
Additionally in his August 17 proclamation, Stockton had claimed the United States control of the Baja Peninsula as part of the new American territory of California. To make good on this claim Commander Dupont then sailed north to the Gulf of California to La Paz, seized nine small pearl-fishing boats and secured a promise of neutrality from Colonel Francisco Palacios Miranda, governor of Baja California. On October 1, the Cyane seized two schooners at Loreto, about 150 miles north of La Paz. On October 7, the Cyane cannonaded Guaymas on the mainland after Colonel Antonio Campazano refused to surrender it. A boarding party from the Cyane seized the brig Condor in that port, but found unusable, they burned it.
The revolt of the Californios in Alta California in October, prevented the resupply and replacement of the blockade force who could not maintain station without them. When the news of the revolt came the Warren left for San Francisco. On November 13, the Cyane followed ending the first blockade of Mexico’s west coast after about four weeks.
Second Blockade of the West Coast of Mexico, Occupation of Baja California Sur
On December 24, 1846, Secretary of the Navy John Y. Mason ordered Stockton to impose an effective blockade on the west coast of Mexico. Its object was to prevent the enemy from getting munitions and other supplies and to make possible the landing of American soldiers.
The Battle of La Mesa January 9, 1847 was the last armed resistance to the American conquest of California. The conquest and annexation of Alta California was confirmed with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga by US Army Lieutenant-Colonel John C. Frémont and Californio General Andrés Pico on January 13, 1847. With the fate of California settled, on January 11, 1847, Secretary of War William L. Marcy instructed General Stephen Watts Kearny, commanding the Army forces in California, to make the American hold on the Californias so secure that none could successfully challenge it. However at the time he had few soldiers to garrison what he had and was awaiting reinforcements.
On February 3, Commander Stockton, in San Diego ordered Commander John B. Montgomery, on the Portsmouth, to reestablish the blockade at Mazatlan and to raise the United States flag at San Jose del Cabo, La Paz, Pichilingue, and Loreto. However resistance to the Americans was arising in Baja California Sur. On February 15, a council meeting at Santa Anita, about 20 miles north of San Jose del Cabo, declared Governor Miranda a traitor and named Maurico Castro Cota, of San Jose del Cabo, as his successor. Castro then attempted to raise a company of volunteers without success.
Montgomery imposed a blockade at Mazatlan on February 17 despite British objections. Montgomery then sailed for Baja California Sur, seized San Jose del Cabo and San Lucas, but without sufficient forces did not set up garrisons there. On April 14, Montgomery accepted Colonel Miranda’s surrender of La Paz. The articles of capitulation granted the Bajacalifornios who accepted the capitulation the rights of United States citizens and retained their own officials and laws.
Fortunately for Kearny the means to occupy Baja California Sur arrived at San Francisco, in March and April, in the form of the 1st Regiment of New York Volunteers. Acting under blockade instructions issued by the new commander of the Pacific Squadron, Commodore James Biddle, Commodore William Shubrick in the Independence, with the Cyane on April 26, relieved Montgomery and Portsmouth, and resumed the blockade of Mazatlan April 27, 1847.
On May 30, General Kearny, sent U.S. Army Lieutenant Colonel Henry S. Burton, with Companies A and B of the New York Volunteers to La Paz on the storeship Lexington. Burton was to take possession of Baja California Sur and uphold United States’ laws. On July 15, 115 New York Volunteers landed at La Paz. Burton reinstated the civil government on condition it remain loyal to the United States. Residents of La Paz in turn entertained the Volunteers.
On June 3, after the Independence left for San Francisco, the Cyane was the only U. S. Navy warship on the west coast of Mexico. To provide the friendly inhabitants of La Paz and San Jose del Cabo with a semblance of protection, Commander Dupont sailed the Cyane back and forth between San Jose and Mazatlan, which broke the blockade. Upon meeting the Cyane at San Jose del Cabo, on June 20, Montgomery, of the Portsmouth, became aware that Mazatlan was open to commerce. After conferring with Dupont, Montgomery returned June 28 to San Francisco to ask Biddle for instructions while the Cyane sailed to Hawaii for supplies. The second blockade had failed.
Third Blockade of West Coast of Mexico, Revolt of Baja California Sur
Meanwhile to the north of Baja California Sur, at Loreto, and Mulege, Padre Gabriel Gonzalez of Todos Santos and Padre Vicente Sotomayor of Comondu incited rancheros to join the resistance to the Americans. In late September, Captain Manuel Pineda, of the Mexican army, arrived in Mulegé with officers and soldiers from Guaymas and began recruiting rancheros for his command.
August 10, 1847, United States Navy Commodore Shubrick had assumed command of the Pacific Squadron. His first orders were to send the frigate Congress with of sloops-of-war USS Dale and USS Portsmouth to commence a new blockade of Mazatlán, Guaymas and San Blas.
On October 2, Mexican and Bajacalifornio resistance forces led by Captain Manuel Pineda prevented a detachment of American forces from USS Dale from capturing the small port of Mulegé. This alerted the Americans to the serious revolt that was brewing in Baja California Sur.
On October 19 the threat of bombardment of the fort and city of Guaymas by Captain Elie A. F. La Vallette with his USS Congress and the sloop USS Portsmouth led to secret evacuation of the Mexican garrison and fortress artillery on the night the 19th of November by Col. Antonio Campuzano. Following the morning bombardment of the fort and city, La Vallette landed to take possession, to find the city abandoned by its defenders and most its population. On November 11, 1847, a large Pacific Squadron landing party captured Mazatlan without firing a shot. On November 19–20, 1847 a land force cooperaating with a landing force fought the Skirmish of Palos Prietos and the hard fought Skirmish of Urias to break up the close blockade of the city by the Mexican commander. Afterward, behind defensive works designed by Henry Wager Halleck defended by a 400 man garrison, the city remained in American hands for the rest of the war, with a few minor skirmishes with the Mexican forces nearby.
Meanwhile in Baja California Sur, on November 16, the Mexican resistance forces under Pineda descended on La Paz attacking the American garrison and pro American Bajacalifornios, but were repulsed. The following day at Guaymas, Col. Campuzano attempted to reoccupy Guaymas, was repulsed by a landing party of sailors and marines under Lieutenant W. T. Smith, supported by the guns of the USS Dale. On November 20–21 the Bajacalifornio resistance forces under José Antonio Mijares were defeated in their attempt to capture San José del Cabo from the American garrison and pro American Bajacalifornio militia. From November 27 – December 8, Manuel Pineda besieged La Paz ending in an American victory, when word came of the arrival of the USS Cyane at San José del Cabo from blockading San Blas.
On January 11, 1848, a landing party from the bark USS Whiton under Lieutenant Frederick Chatard, captured the coastal fort of San Blas and brought off two pieces of artillery and two schooners, one belonging to the custom-house. With no force sufficient to defend it and the port made defenseless, no American occupation of the city took place. A week later, on January 18, Lieutenant Chatard landed a small party at Manzanillo and spiked three large guns defending the port, rendering it defenseless.
From January 22 to February 15, Manuel Pineda besieged San José del Cabo. With the garrison nearly starving and low on water the siege was relieved when the USS Cyane arrived with a relief force under Captain Seymour G. Steele and with part of the garrison under Lieutenant Charles Heywood defeated Pineda breaking the siege. Soon afterward Lt. Col. Henry S. Burton marched out against Pineda, surprised and captured him at San Antonio. Burton then marched on Todos Santos where the remaining Mexican forces in Baja California Sur were gathered under Governor Mauricio Castro Cota. On March 31, at the Skirmish of Todos Santos, Burton defeated Cota and broke up the remaining Mexican forces, after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was already signed but before word of the March 6th truce had reached him.
At the outbreak of fighting in the American Revolution, Hull joined a local militia and was quickly promoted to captain, then to major, and to lieutenant colonel. He was in the battles of White Plains, Trenton, Princeton, Stillwater, Saratoga, Fort Stanwix, Monmouth, and Stony Point. He was recognized by George Washington and the Continental Congress for his service.
Hull was a friend of Nathan Hale and tried to dissuade Hale from the dangerous spy mission that would cost him his life. Hull was largely responsible for publicizing Hale’s famous last words, “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.” After the American Revolution, he moved to his wife’s family estate in Newton, Massachusetts and served as a judge and state senator in Massachusetts. He was elected captain of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of Massachusetts in 1789.
Michigan Territory and War of 1812
On March 22, 1805, President Thomas Jefferson appointed him Governor of the recently created Michigan Territory as well as its Indian Agent. As almost all of the territory except for two enclaves around Detroit and Fort Michilimackinac were in the hands of the Indians, Hull undertook the goal of gradually purchasing more Indian land for occupation by American settlers. He negotiated the Treaty of Detroit, in 1807, with the Ottawa, Chippewa, Wyandot and Potawatomi nations, which ceded most of present-day Southeast Michigan to the United States. These efforts to expand American settlement began to generate opposition, particularly from the Shawnee leaders Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa, the Shawnee Prophet, who preached resistance to the American lifestyle and to further land giveaways.
By February 1812, the US was openly talking about and making plans in Congress for war with Great Britain, including an invasion of Canada. The British responded by recruiting Native American tribes to form part of their defense in the Michigan, Canada area in case the Americans attacked Canada. While Hull was in Washington, Secretary of War William Eustis informed him that President Madison wished to appoint him a Brigadier General in command of the new Army of the Northwest. Hull, then nearly 60 years old, expressed his disinterest in a new military commission, and a Colonel Kingsbury was selected to lead the force instead. Kingsbury fell ill before taking command, and the offer was repeated to Hull, who this time accepted. His orders were to go to Ohio, whose governor had been charged by Madison with raising a 1,200-man militia that would be augmented by the 4th Infantry Regiment from Vincennes, Indiana, to form the core of the army. From there he was to march the army to Detroit, where he was to also continue serving as Territorial Governor. During this war he was known as the man of sound.
March to Detroit
Hull arrived in Cincinnati on May 10, 1812, and on May 25 took command of the militia at Dayton. The militia comprised three regiments, who elected as their commanding Colonels Duncan McArthur, Lewis Cass, and James Findlay. They marched to Staunton and then to Urbana, where they were joined by the 300-man 4th Infantry Regiment. The men of the militia were ill-equipped and averse to strong military discipline, and Hull relied on the infantry regiment to quell several instances of insubordination on the remainder of the march. By the end of June, the army had reached the rapids of the Maumee River, where Hull committed the first of the errors that would later reflect poorly on him.
The declaration of war on Great Britain was signed on June 18, 1812, and that same day Secretary Eustis sent two letters to General Hull. One of them, sent by special messenger, had arrived on June 24 but did not contain any mention of the declaration of war. The second one, announcing the declaration of war, was sent via the postal service, and did not arrive until July 2. As a result, Hull was still unaware that war had broken out when he reached the rapids of the Maumee, and as the army was now on a navigable waterway, he sent the schooner Cuyahoga Packet ahead of the army to Detroit with a number of invalids, supplies, and official documents. Unfortunately for Hull, the British commander at Fort Amherstburg had received the declaration of war two days earlier, and captured the ship as it sailed past, along with all of the papers and plans for an attack on Fort Amherstburg.
Invasion of Canada
Hull was, at least in part, the victim of poor preparation for war by the U.S. government and miscommunication. While governor, Hull’s repeated requests to build a naval fleet on Lake Erie to properly defend Detroit, Fort Mackinac, and Fort Dearborn were ignored by the commander of the northeast, General Henry Dearborn. Hull began an invasion of Canada on 12 July 1812; however, he quickly withdrew to the American side of the river after hearing the news of the capture of Fort Mackinac by the British. He also faced unfriendly Native American forces, which threatened to attack from the other direction.
Surrender of Detroit
Facing what he believed to be superior forces thanks to his enemy’s cunning stratagems such as instructing the Native American warriors to make as much noise as possible around the fort, Hull surrendered Fort Detroit to General Isaac Brock on August 16, 1812. Accounts of the incident varied widely. A subordinate, Colonel Lewis Cass placed all blame for the surrender on Hull and subsequently succeeded Hull as Territorial Governor. Hull was court-martialed, and at a trial presided over by General Henry Dearborn, with evidence against him given by Robert Lucas, a subordinate and the future governor of Ohio and territorial governor of Iowa. Hull was sentenced to be shot, though upon recommendation of mercy by the court, Hull received a reprieve from President James Madison.
Hull lived the remainder of his life in Newton, Massachusetts, with his wife Sarah Fuller, and wrote two books attempting to clear his name (Detroit: Defence of Brig. Gen. Wm. Hull in 1814 and Memoirs of the Campaign of the Northwestern Army of the United States: A.D. 1812) in 1824. Some later historians have agreed that Hull was unfairly made a scapegoat for the embarrassing loss. The publication of his Memoirs in 1824 changed public opinion somewhat in his favor, and he was honored with a dinner in Boston on May 30, 1825. That June, Lafayette visited Hull and declared, “We both have suffered contumely and reproach; but our characters are vindicated; let us forgive our enemies and die in Christian love and peace with all mankind.” Hull died at home in Newton several months later, on November 29, 1825.
His son, Abraham, was an Army Captain during the War of 1812, and died at the Battle of Lundy’s Lane. His remains were buried in the Drummond Hill Cemetery in Niagara Falls, Ontario. He is the only American Officer to be buried there.
He was also uncle to Isaac Hull and adopted Isaac after his father (William’s brother Joseph) died while Isaac was young.
Amelia Hull (Hart)
|Birthplace:||Old Saybrook, Middlesex County, Connecticut, United States|
|Death:||(Date and location unknown)|
|Immediate Family:|| Daughter of Elisha Hart and Jennett Hart
Wife of Capt. Joseph Hull, USN
Sister of Sarah McCurdy Jarvis; Ann McCurdy Hull; Mary Ann Hart; Jannette McCurdy Hart; Elizabeth Allen and 1 other; and Harriet Augusta Hart « less
Chauncey, born in Black Rock, Connecticut, 20 February 1779, was appointed a Lieutenant in the Navy from 17 September 1798. He fought with gallantry in the West Indies during the Quasi-War with France; in the Mediterranean during the First Barbary War; and commanded John Adams (1804–5), Hornet (1805–6), Washington and the Mediterranean Squadron (1815–1820). He was promoted to Captain in 1806.
Perhaps his most outstanding service was during the War of 1812 when he commanded the naval forces on Lake Ontario, conducting amphibious operations in cooperation with the Army, and containing the large British fleet under the command of Sir James Yeo stationed there. He also served twice as commandant of the New York Naval Shipyard.
His last service was as member, and, for four years, President, of the Board of Navy Commissioners. Commodore Chauncey died in Washington 27 January 1840.
The Pacific Squadron was instrumental in the capture of Alta California in the Mexican–American War of 1846 to 1848. In the conflict’s early months after war was declared on 24 April 1846, the American navy with its force of 350-400 marines and bluejacket sailors on board several ships near California were essentially the only significant United States military force on the Pacific coast. Marines were stationed aboard each warship to assist in close-quarters, ship to ship combat and to serve as both ship-board guards and the primary component of boarding or landing parties; they could also be detached for extended service on land. In actual practice, some sailors on each ship were detached from each vessel to supplement the marine force, although rarely more than would compromise a ship’s ability to remain functional. The Pacific Squadron had orders, in the event of war with Mexico, to seize the ports in Mexican California and elsewhere along the Pacific Coast.
The only other United States force in California was a sixty-two man “mapping” expedition which had entered California in late 1845 under the command of U.S. Army Brevet Captain John C. Frémont. They had been dispatched under the auspices of the Corps of Topographical Engineers. Frémont, the son-in-law of expansionist U.S. Senator Thomas Hart Benton, had acted provocatively with California’s Mexican government, and sustained a shadowy relationship with the American emigrants who began the Bear Flag Revolt on June 10, 1846 by stealing government horses they feared would be used against them. On July 5th Frémont proposed to the American insurgents that they unite with his party and become a single military group under his command. A compact was drawn up which all volunteers of the California Battalion signed or made their mark. 
Under John D. Sloat, Commodore of the Pacific Squadron, the USS Savannah with USS Cyane and USS Levant captured the Alta California capital city of Monterey, California on 7 July 1846. Two days later on 9 July, USS Portsmouth, under Captain John S. Montgomery, landed seventy marines and bluejacket sailors at Clark’s Point in San Francisco Bay and captured Yerba Buena, which is today’s San Francisco, without firing a shot. On July 11 the British Royal Navy sloop HMS Juno entered San Francisco Bay, causing Montgomery to alert his defenses. The large British ship, the 2,600 ton man-of-war HMS Collingwood, flagship of Pacific Station Commander-in-Chief Sir George S. Seymour, also showed up about this time outside Monterey Harbor. Both British ships observed, but did not enter the conflict.
Commodore Robert F. Stockton took over as the senior United States military commander in California in late July 1846; his flagship was the frigate USS Congress. Stockton accepted the California Battalion under Fremont’s command to help secure Southern California. The Battalion left for San Diego on the USS Cyane on July 226. Most towns surrendered without a shot being fired. Fremont’s California Battalion members were sworn in and the volunteers paid the regular United States Army salary of $25.00 a month for privates with higher pay for officers. The California Battalion varied in size with time from about 160 initially to over 450 by January 1847. Pacific Squadron war ships and storeships served as floating store houses keeping Fremont’s volunteer force in the California Battalion supplied with black powder, lead shot and supplies as well as transporting them to different California ports. The USS Cyane transported Fremont and about 160 of his men to the small port of San Diego which was captured on 29 July 1846 without a shot being fired.
Leaving about forty men to garrison San Diego, Fremont continued on to the Pueblo de Los Angeles where on 13 August, with the United States Navy band playing and colors flying, the combined forces of Stockton and Frémont entered the town without a man killed or gun fired. United States Marine Major Archibald Gillespie, Fremont’s second in command, was appointed military commander of Los Angeles, the largest settlement in Alta California with about 1,500 residents. Gillespie had an inadequate force of from thirty to fifty troops stationed there to keep order and garrison the city. The USS Congress is credited with capturing the Los Angeles harbor and port at San Pedro Bay on 6 August 1846. The Congress later helped capture Mazatlan, Mexico on 11 November 1847.
The revolt of about 100 Californios in Los Angeles forced Gillespie and his troops departure on about 24 September 1847. Commodore Stockton used about 360 marines and bluejacket sailors with four field pieces from the USS Congress in a joint operation with the approximate seventy cavalry troops supplied by United States Army Brigadier General Stephen W. Kearny, who had arrived from New Mexico, and part of Fremont’s California Battalion of about 450 men to retake Los Angeles on 10 January 1847. The result of this Battle of Providencia was the Californios signing the Treaty of Cahuenga on 13 January 1847 — terminating the warfare and disbanding the Californio troops in Alta California. On January 16, 1847, Commodore Stockton appointed Frémont military governor of U.S. territorial California – a move later contested by General Kearny.
The retired ship of the line USS Independence was brought back into service, cut down and recommissioned as a razee frigate in 1846. The newly reconfigured ship removed the old top deck and reduced the gun count from ninety to fifty-four making her less well gunned but much easier to sail. The rebuilt USS Independence, now classified as a heavy frigate, launched on 4 August 1846 when the nation was already at war with Mexico and departed Boston 29 August 1846 for California. She entered Monterey Bay on 22 January 1847 after a fast 146 day trip around Cape Horn and became the flagship of Commodore William Shubrick, now commanding the Pacific Squadron.
Found 10 Records, 10 Photos and 1,788,790 Family Trees
Harriet Augusta Hart
|Birthplace:||Old Saybrook, Middlesex County, Connecticut, United States|
|Immediate Family:|| Daughter of Elisha Hart and Jennett Hart
Sister of Sarah McCurdy Jarvis; Ann McCurdy Hull; Mary Ann Hart; Jannette McCurdy Hart; Elizabeth Allen and 1 other; and Amelia Hull « less
Capt. Joseph Hull, USN
|Birthdate:||estimated between 1769 and 1829|
|Death:||(Date and location unknown)|
|Immediate Family:||Husband of Amelia Hull|
- James Reid Lambdin, 10 May 1807 – 31 Jan 1889
- Amelia Hart Hull, 1810 – 1910?
- Amelia Josepha Florence Hull, 1830 – 1930?
- Oil on canvas
- 74.5cm x 71.9cm (29 5/16″ x 28 5/16″), Sight
- c. 1835-1845
- Credit Line:
- Current Owner: Historical Society of Pennsylvania
- Object number:
- See more items in:
- Catalog of American Portraits
- Data Source:
- Catalog of American Portraits, National Portrait Gallery
- Record ID:
- Visitor Tag(s):
On or about 30 June, 1840, the brig Malek Adhel sailed from New York bound to Guayamas, in California, under the command of Joseph Nunez. The vessel was armed with a cannon and
some ammunition, and there were also pistols and daggers on board. It appeared from the evidence, which is hereinafter particularly set forth, that she stopped several vessels upon the high seas, and at length put into the port of Fayal, where she remained for some days. Departing thence, she arrived at Bahia, in Brazil, about the twenty-first of August, 1840, where she was seized by the Enterprise, a vessel of war belonging to the United States, and sent into the port of Baltimore for adjudication. A libel was there filed against vessel and cargo upon five counts, all founded upon the act of Congress to protect the commerce of the United States, and to punish the crime of piracy, passed on 3 March, 1819, ch. 76, (200). Two other counts were afterwards added in an amended information, charging the acts complained of to have been done in violation of the laws of nations.