The Hart of the Nez Perce






Eliza Spalding was the first white woman to cross the Rockies on what would be know as the Oregon Trail, that was explored and mapped by my kindred, John Fremont, who married Jessie Benton, the daughter of Senator Thomas Hart Benton, the author o Manifest Destiny. Eliza was born a Hart, and thus is kin to my great great grandfather, Isaac Hull, a Captain of the U.S. Constitution. That members of the Hart family played a huge role in the Western Expansion, will be seen in a new light by this Historian, who found a Continent born in the union of Christine Rosamond, and Garth Benton.

Eiza Spalding was very well liked by the Nez Perce peoples, whose women often followed her around her home wanting to see how the “white woman” cooked, cleaned, dressed, and cared for her children. She was quickly liked by them and respected for her courage and for her attempts to act as a buffer between the Nez Perce and Henry, who was not always as well liked.

Since I can remember, I was told by my mother, Rosemary, that she descends from Commodore Isaac Hull the Captain of the Enterprise and U.S.S. Constitution. Six years ago my aunt Lillian confirmed this, she telling me she owned a book her father, Royal Rosamond, gave her with a handwritten inscription inside. Isaac married Ann Hart, who I discovered is kin to Princess Diana ‘The Rose of England’.

Ann and her six sisters were considered the most beautiful women in America. Their kindred have been described as a “beautiful race” anyone who is of their blood, blessed with extraordinary good looks. Consider Christine Rosamond and the beautiful women she rendered, and our kindred, Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor. Now add Diana Spencer, her mother, and Kate Windsor, the Duchess of Cambridge, who is due to give birth to a child in July. This child will own Hart blood, and thus will be very beautiful.

What is really curious, is that Ann’s sister, Jennette, was the lover of Simon Bolivar, who thought she miscarried his child, and was furious that she brought the fetus home to be buried. It is said this was the child of another sister, but, there is a un-marked grave that allegedly contains Jeanette’s favorite slave names Sarah, but, there is another grave for another “Sarah”?

Isaac took other Hart Beauties on cruises aboard the Constitution, and spend much time at the home of Elisha Hart surrounded by his seven daughters who adored Isaac who is kin to the Rose of England, as is Eliza Spalding Hart whom the Nez Perce adored.

I will inform William and Kate Windsor, the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, who pay homage to the Goddess Britannia, they are kin to the Hart family who explored the West. We Americans have our beloved Lady Liberty. May a new Statue of Liberty be built in the Great Plains to honor the coming together of Native American Women, the Women of New England, and old Celtic England.

A descendant of Stephen HART is
Diana Spencer, the Princess of Wales.
Here is the way:
1.Stephen Hart 1602/3-1682/3
2.Mary Hart abt 1630-1710 +John Lee 1620-1690

“From sea, to shining sea!”

As part of the New Ghost Dance, I will declare an American Jubilee where everyone will be spiritually forgiven of the their debts. The ‘Lord’s Prayer’ is based upon the Jubilee that Jesus declared when he came out of the wilderness. False Christine prophets and potlicians are using our National Debt to install fear in all of us so We the People will vote them into office so they can destroy the Social Safety Net. They work hard to make sure we own shame that does not belong to us. Let us throw down their yoke of shame, and burn it.

Native Americans are being devastated by the disease of alcoholism. As part of the New Ghost Dance I will spread the teaching of the Nazarites. Jesus told me;

“Spiritual Strength, will be met with Spiritual Strength!”



For those who suffer from all addictions, what Jesus means, if you show just a little strength, the Lord in Heaven will match that strength, and increase it.

Ask, and thou shall receive the Spirit of God – directly!

Jesus has not come to lead you in politics, or guide you to a political party. He has come to lift the yoke of slavery off your shoulders so you may enjoy the great chance your were born with to know God, and thyself. Be true to yourself, is the first step in own all the Courage there is to own in this great wide wonderful world

Jon Presco

The Nazarite Judge

The Hart Family

This page presents much of what I know about Stephen Hart and his descendants. Stephen Hart was the progenitor of one the many Hart families in North America. It is though that he arrived in Plymouth on the ship the Lyon in 1632. He and his family moved to Hartford, Connecticut with Thomas Hooker in 1636. A few years later Stephen Hart and others settled the town of Farmington, Connecticut, where Harts have remained until the modern era. Many of Stephen Hart’s descendants left Farmington to settle in other parts of Connecticut, the United States, and Canada. This website focuses on Stephen Hart and all of his descendants.

His father, W. S. Spaulding,
and Gary Cooper’s father were
Business partners

Eliza Spalding was very well liked by the Nez Perce peoples. Her husband Henry, who was not always as well liked. He was inflexible on gambling, liquor, and polygamy and reproved many people and even went as far as whipping some Nez Perce or having them whip each other. This led to him being ridiculed and denounced by some. Henry was the opposite of Eliza in his relationship with the Nez Perce; where she sought to understand them, he sought for them to understand him.[4] Similarly, the relationships with Spalding’s fellow missionaries were also less than ideal. Amid criticism by Whitman and others in the region, Spalding was dismissed by the American Board in 1842, although he never left his mission or stopped his missionary work. He was reinstated following a review by the Board.
Impact of the Whitman massacre[edit]

On November 29, 1847, Marcus and Narcissa Whitman and twelve male residents (ten adult men and two boys of 15 and 18) of their mission at Waiilatpu, Washington were murdered at the hands of several Cayuse. The natives blamed them for introducing deadly diseases, including the measles, as the tribe had experienced a recent epidemic and a number of children had died. The Spalding’s daughter Eliza, who was staying at the Whitman’s mission school, escaped injury along with 45 other women and children. Little Eliza served as a translator, as she was the only survivor knowing Nez Perce. Henry Spalding learned of the murders two days later en route to the Whitman’s, and narrowly escaped being killed himself during his five day trip home. After a tense month negotiating the release of the massacre survivors, protected by some friendly Nez Perce, the Spaulding family evacuated down the Columbia to Oregon City, Oregon. The Spaldings were brought into the home of Alvin T. Smith in what is now Forest Grove, Oregon. They stayed with the Smiths for a few months while the ABCFM was notified (via ship). Concerned over continuing violence between Native Americans and settlers in the area, and against Spalding’s wishes, the ABCFM decided to make the abandonment of the mission permanent.

The Spaldings built a small home in the area, while Eliza became the first teacher at Tualatin Academy, which eventually grew into Pacific University. Henry served as an academy trustee for many years. In May 1849 they relocated to Brownsville, Oregon in the south end of the Willamette Valley and established a homestead in modern North Brownsville. Spaulding served as pastor of the Congregational Church. He was also postmaster and acted as commissioner of common schools for Oregon between 1850 and 1855. Eliza died on January 7, 1851. On May 15, 1853 Henry married Rachel Smith, the sister-in-law of Oregon missionary John Smith Griffin, who had arrived the previous fall.

In his last years, Henry’s employment depended on his church funding sponsorships and relations with the US Indian Affairs agent. To his great delight, he returned to the Nez Perce in September 1859, and to Lapwai in 1862. In the late 1860s, he was back in Brownsville. He blamed much of his difficulties in the mission field on the Catholic Church, and on the federal government. He felt strongly enough about the latter that, in October 1870, he took a steamship to San Francisco, then rode the new transcontinental railroad to Chicago, then to his birthplace, to New York City, Boston, and Washington DC. In March 1871 he testified before the US Senate. He did not return to the Northwest until September. In 1871 he created a federally sponsored Indian school under the Peace Policy to the Indians sponsored by Ulysses S. Grant. Under the auspices of the Presbyterian Board of Missions, Spalding also continued missionary work with native tribes in northwestern Idaho and northeastern Washington territories. He died in Lapwai, Idaho, August 3, 1874.
The Spaldings had four children: Eliza Spalding Warren, Henry, Martha, and Amelia Spalding Brown. Eliza and Henry were the eldest; Amelia, the youngest. Eliza Hart Spalding was buried in Brownsville, in 1851. Over sixty years later, her remains were disinterred for reburial beside her husband at Lapwai, Idaho.
The village of Spalding, Idaho, located in Nez Perce County, was named after Spalding who taught the Nez Perce, among other things, how to use irrigation and cultivate the potato.

Henry Harmon Spalding (1803–1874), and his wife Eliza Hart Spalding (1807–1851) were prominent Presbyterian missionaries and educators working primarily with the Nez Perce in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. The Spaldings and their fellow missionaries were among the earliest Americans to travel across the western plains, through the Rocky Mountains and into the lands of the Pacific Northwest to their religious missions in what would become the states of Idaho and Washington. Their missionary party of five, including Marcus Whitman and his wife Narcissa and William H. Gray, joined with a group of fur traders to create the first wagon train along the Oregon Trail.[1]

Henry Spalding was born in Bath, New York, in either 1803 or 1804. He graduated from Western Reserve College in 1833, and entered Lane Theological Seminary in the class of 1837. He left, without graduation, upon his appointment in 1836 by the Boston-based American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM) as a missionary to the Nez Perce Indians of Idaho.
Eliza Hart was born August 11, 1807 to Levi Hart and Martha Hart (they were first cousins) in Kensington, Connecticut. In 1820 the family moved to Oneida County, New York. She was introduced to Henry from a mutual acquaintance who said that Henry “wanted to correspond with a young lady.”[2] The couple were pen pals for about a year, and the relationship quickly deepened after they met in the fall of 1831. Eliza was as interested in participating in missionary work as was Spalding. They married on October 13, 1833 in Hudson, New York.

The Nez Perce /ˌnɛzˈpɜrs/ (autonym: Niimíipu) are Native American people who live in the Pacific Northwest region (Columbia River Plateau) of the United States. An anthropological interpretation says they descended from the Old Cordilleran Culture, which moved south from the Rocky Mountains and west in Nez Perce lands.[2] The Nez Perce Nation currently governs and inhabits within the exterior boundaries of the reservation in Idaho.[3] The Nez Perce’s name for themselves is Nimíipuu (pronounced [nimiːpuː]), meaning, “The People.”[4]


The Nez Perce /ˌnɛzˈpɜrs/ (autonym: Niimíipu) are Native American people who live in the Pacific Northwest region (Columbia River Plateau) of the United States. An anthropological interpretation says they descended from the Old Cordilleran Culture, which moved south from the Rocky Mountains and west in Nez Perce lands.[2] The Nez Perce Nation currently governs and inhabits within the exterior boundaries of the reservation in Idaho.[3] The Nez Perce’s name for themselves is Nimíipuu (pronounced [nimiːpuː]), meaning, “The People.”[4]

They speak the Nez Perce language or Niimiipuutímt, a Sahaptian language related to the several dialects of Sahaptin. The Sahaptian sub-family is one of the branches of the Plateau Penutian family (which in turn may be related to a larger Penutian grouping).

Nez Perce baby, 1911.

Nez Percé is an exonym given by French Canadian fur traders who visited the area regularly in the late 18th century, meaning literally “pierced nose”. The most common self-designation used today by the Nez Perce is Niimíipu.[4] “Nez Perce” is also used by the tribe itself, the United States Government, and contemporary historians. Older historical ethnological works use the French spelling “Nez Percé,” with the diacritic. The original French pronunciation is [ne pɛʁse], with three syllables.

In the journals of William Clark, the people are referred to as Chopunnish /ˈtʃoʊpənɪʃ/. This term is an adaptation of the term cú·pʼnitpeľu (the Nez Perce people) which is formed from cú·pʼnit (piercing with a pointed object) and peľu (people).[5] When analyzed through the Nez Perce Language Dictionary, the term cúpnitpelu contains no reference to “Piercing with a pointed object” as described by D.E. Walker. The prefix cú- means “in single file.” This prefix, combined with the verb -piní, “to come out (e.g. of forest, bushes, ice)”. Finally, with the suffix of -pelú, meaning “people or inhabitants of”. Put all three parts of the Nez Perce word together now to get cú- + -piní + pelú = cúpnitpelu, or the People Walking Single File Out of the Forest.[6][original research?] Nez Perce oral tradition indicates the name “Cuupn’itpel’uu” meant “we walked out of the woods or walked out of the mountains” and referred to the time before the Nez Perce had horses.[7]

Nez Perce is a misnomer given by the interpreter of the Lewis and Clark Expedition at the time they first encountered the Nez Perce in 1805. It is from the French, “pierced nose.” This is an inaccurate description of the tribe. They did not practice nose piercing or wearing ornaments. The actual “pierced nose” tribe lived on and around the lower Columbia River in the Pacific Northwest and are commonly called the Chinook tribe by historians and anthropologists. The Chinook relied heavily upon salmon as did the Nez Perce and shared fishing and trading sites but were much more hierarchical in their social arrangements.

No Horn on His Head, a Nez Perce man painted by George Catlin
The Nez Perce area at the time of Lewis and Clark was approximately 17,000,000 acres (69,000 km2). It covered parts of Washington, Oregon, Montana, and Idaho, in an area surrounding the Snake, Salmon and the Clearwater rivers. The tribal area extended from the Bitterroots in the east to the Blue Mountains in the west between latitudes 45°N and 47°N.[8]

In 1800, there were more than 70 permanent villages ranging from 30 to 200 individuals, depending on the season and social grouping. About 300 total sites have been identified, including both camps and villages. In 1805 the Nez Perce were the largest tribe on the Columbia River Plateau, with a population of about 6,000. By the beginning of the 20th century, the Nez Perce had declined to about 1,800 because of epidemics, conflicts with non-Indians, and other factors.[9]

The Nez Perce, as many western Native American tribes, were migratory and would travel in seasonal rounds, according to where the abundant food was to be found at a given time of year. This migration followed a predictable pattern from permanent winter villages through several temporary camps, nearly always returning to the same locations year after year. They were known to go as far east as the Great Plains of Montana to hunt buffalo, and as far west as the west coast. In their travels Celilo Falls was a respected and favored location to fish for salmon on the Columbia River. They relied heavily on q’emes or camas gathered in the region between the Salmon and Clearwater River drainages as a food source.

The Nez Perce believed in spirits called weyekins (Wie-a-kins) which would, they thought, offer “a link to the invisible world of spiritual power”.[10] The weyekin would protect one from harm and become a personal guardian spirit. To receive a weyekin, a young girl or boy age 12 to 15 would go to the mountains on a vision quest. The person on quest would carry no weapons, eat no food, and drink very little water. There, he or she would receive a vision of a spirit that would take the form of a mammal or bird. This vision could appear physically or in a dream or trance. The weyekin was to bestow the animal’s powers on its bearer—for example; a deer might give its bearer swiftness. A person’s weyekin was very personal. It was rarely shared with anyone and was contemplated in private. The weyekin stayed with the person until death.

The Nez Perce National Historical Park includes a research center which has the park’s historical archives and library collection. It is available for on-site use in the study and interpretation of Nez Perce history and culture.[11]


First contact[edit]

The Heart of the Beast described in the Nez Perce origin story
William Clark was the first Euro-American to meet any of the tribe. While he, Meriwether Lewis and their men were crossing the Bitterroot Mountains they ran low of food, and Clark took six hunters and hurried ahead to hunt. On September 20, 1805, near the western end of the Lolo Trail, he found a small camp at the edge of the camas-digging ground that is now called Weippe Prairie. The explorers were favorably impressed by those whom they met; and, as they made the remainder of their journey to the Pacific in boats, they entrusted the keeping of their horses to “2 brothers and one son of one of the Chiefs.” One of these Indians was Walammottinin (Hair Bunched and tied, but more commonly known as Twisted Hair), who became the father of Chief Lawyer, a prominent member of the “Treaty” faction in 1877. The Indians were, generally, faithful to the trust; and the party recovered their horses without serious difficulty when they returned.[12]

Flight of the Nez Perce[edit]

See also: Nez Perce War

Map showing the flight of the Nez Perce and key battle sites
The Nez Perce split into two groups in the mid-19th century, with one side accepting coerced relocation to a reservation and the other refusing to give up their fertile land in Washington and Oregon. The flight of the non-treaty Nez Perce began on June 15, 1877, with Chief Joseph, Looking Glass, White Bird, Ollokot, Lean Elk (Poker Joe) and Toohoolhoolzote leading 800 men, women and children in an attempt to reach a peaceful sanctuary. They originally intended to seek shelter with their allies the Crow but upon the Crow’s refusal to offer help they attempted to reach the camp of Lakota Chief Sitting Bull, who had fled to Canada.

The Nez Perce were pursued by over 2,000 soldiers of the U.S. Army on an epic flight to freedom of over 1,170 miles (1,880 km) across four states and multiple mountain ranges. Two hundred Nez Perce warriors defeated or held off the pursuing troops in 18 battles, skirmishes, and engagements in which more than 100 soldiers and 100 Nez Perce (including women and children) were killed.[13]

A majority of the surviving Nez Perce were finally forced to surrender on October 5, 1877, after the Battle of the Bear Paw Mountains in Montana, only 40 miles (64 km) from the Canadian border. Chief Joseph surrendered to General Oliver O. Howard of the U.S. Cavalry.[14] During the surrender negotiations, Chief Joseph sent a message, usually described as a speech, to the soldiers which is often considered one of the greatest American speeches: “…Hear me, my chiefs, I am tired. My heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands, I will fight no more forever.”[15]

The route of the Nez Perce flight is preserved by the Nez Perce National Historic Trail.[16] The annual Cypress Hills ride in June commemorates the Nez Perce people’s crossing into Canada.[17]

Nez Perce horse breeding program[edit]

Nez Perce warrior on horse, 1910.
The Nez Perce tribe began a breeding program in 1994 based on crossbreeding the Appaloosa and a Central Asian breed called Akhal-Teke to produce the Nez Perce Horse.[18] This is a program to re-establish the horse culture of the Nez Perce, a proud tradition of selective breeding and horsemanship that was destroyed in the 19th century. The breeding program was financed by the United States Department of Health and Human Services, the Nez Perce tribe and a nonprofit group called the First Nations Development Institute (based in Washington D.C.), which promotes such businesses in Native American country. These horses that the Nez Perce had developed were known for their speed.


Fishing is an important ceremonial, subsistence, and commercial activity for the Nez Perce tribe. Nez Perce fishers participate in tribal fisheries in the mainstream Columbia River between Bonneville Dam and McNary Dam. The Nez Perce also fish for spring and summer Chinook salmon and steelhead in the Snake River and its tributaries. The Nez Perce tribe runs the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery on the Clearwater River as well as several satellite hatchery programs.

Nez Perce people historically depended on fish for their food. Chinook salmon were eaten the most, but other species such as lampreys, whitefish, and chiselmouth.[19] Prior to contact with Europeans, the Nez Perce’s traditional hunting and fishing areas spanned from the Cascade Range in the west to the Bitterroot Mountains in the east.[20]

Nez Perce Indian Reservation[edit]

The current tribal lands consist of a reservation in north central Idaho at

46°18′N 116°24′W, primarily in the Camas Prairie region south of the Clearwater River, in parts of four counties. In descending order of surface area, the counties are Nez Perce, Lewis, Idaho, and Clearwater. The total land area is about 1,195 square miles (3,100 km2), and the reservation’s population at the 2000 census was 17,959.[21] Its largest community is the city of Orofino, near its northeast corner. Lapwai, the seat of tribal government, has the highest percentage of Nez Perce people, at about 81.4 percent.

Similar to the opening of lands in Oklahoma, the U.S. government opened the reservation for white settlement on November 18, 1895. The proclamation had been signed less than two weeks earlier by President Cleveland.[22][23][24][25]

About Royal Rosamond Press

I am an artist, a writer, and a theologian.
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