“Some have suggested that Arthur was a mythological or folklore figure, that other mythological figures also may have become historicised: one suggestion is that Hengest and Horsa were originally Kentish totemic horse-gods, ascribed a historical role by Bede. There is, however, no more early trace of this fictional Arthur than there is of a historical one.”
The Trojan Horse was made as a lure because the horse was the emblem of Troy. No further information is to be found on this emblem. Is Troy the source Kentish totemic horse-gods? Hengest and Horsa cam from Jutland where the Cimri made a home. Rosamonde, the Queen of the Cimri, married Pharamond to make the Sicambrian Franks who descend from the Kings of Troy.
“The name Rosamund (also spelt Rosamond and Rosamunde) is a girls’ name and can also be a family name (surname). Originally it combined the Germanic elements hros, meaning horse, and mund, meaning “protection”. Later it was influenced by the Latin phrases rosa munda, meaning “pure rose”, and rosa mundi, meaning “rose of the world”. “Rosamunde” is the German and “Rosemonde” the French form of the name.”
The name Rosamund means “horse protection”. The names Hengest and
Horsa means “stallion” and “horse” respectively. These twin brothers
were Jutes from Jutland where the Cimmerians came to dwell. Gauthier
de Costes de la Calprenede is said to have written the first historic
romance novel when 1668 he compiled the history of the Merovingian
Frankish Kings in ‘Faramond’. Within we have an account of
Pharamond’s love for Rosemonde, the Cambrian princess whose tribe,
the Cimri, are mentioned in the Bible, they associated with the Royal
Scythians and the people of the ‘Prince of Rosh’ that Ezekiel
prophecised against in chaper 38. They are the horseman of the
Russian Steppes who would form the Celtic peoples when they moved
west. The ancestors of the Merovingians are kin to the Cimri, who
they chased into Asia, all the way to Ceylon India. The Royal Scots
claim in the ‘Arbroath’ they are descended from theCimri, a name that
means “red”, or “rouge”.
“That which I was obliged to tell you of the beauty of Rosemonde,
inrecounting to you what fashion she appeared to the eyes of my
master, hindered me from extending something upon that of Albisinda:
but Imay tell you with truth, that if Rosemonde were not in the
world, perhaps there would be nothing more beautiful then that
Princess; and that next to Rosemonde, she has those particular
charms, which nothing can withstand: she has without doubt has less
splendor and Majesty than the Princess of the Cambrians.”
“Pharamond was a legendary Frankish king, possibly a historical ruler
of the fifth century. His life parallels that of Vortigern and
Arthur. Indeed, one can make a case Arthur was modeled after
Pharamond. In Arthurian romance he was a freedman (a slave who had
been setfree) who seized the French throne. He came in disguise to
Arthur’s court, for Arthur was an enemy, but his disguise was
penetrated. His daughter, Belide, was enamored of Tristan, who did
not requite herpassion, thereby causing her to die of a broken heart.
Pharamond provided a refuge for Tristan and Gorvenal after the of
Meliodas. Ariosto tells us that Tristan defeated Pharamond’s son,
Clodion, in combat . According to a non-Arthurian romance of the
seventeenth century, Pharamond was enamored of Rosemonde, daughter of
the King of the Cimbri. Gauthier de Costes de la Calprenede is the
said father/inventor of Historic-Romance, and his ‘Pharamond’ has
Rosemonde as the centerpiece of his story. ”
I am looking at the possibility Rosamund ‘Hrosmund’ is kin to the
horse goddess, Epona for the fact reliefs of her were nailed to the
centerpost of barns, and fresh garlands of roses hung about her image
for protection of the barns and the horses within. This may be the
source of the Rosary, a means of protection from the plague. Barns
were prone to catch barn due to lightening strikes and spontaneous
If history in the last two thousands years had been written by
horses, rather then by the celebate fathers of Saint Paul, the lying
Pharisee for the Herodians, then one would behold the origional
Nazarite church going forth on horseback to all parts of the world,
even China, spreading the teaching of the Parthian ‘King of Kings’.
The Chinese called the Parthian horses “dragons”, no doubt Rouge
Dragaons of the Scythians and Cimri.
One author associates the Cimmerians to Tolkien’s horseman of Rohan.
Another suggestes the Cimri are the ‘Rose Line’ made famous by Dan
Brown. Allow me to tweak his code device, and reveal to you the APPLE
is a member of the ROSE family, and thus as a MAGIcian, I turn the
apple into a rose. Now, whom PROTECTED this real ROSELINE?
“In this light, I can make a suggestion to all who perceive the Rose
Line as stemming through the Merovingian Franks (i.e. to the De
Bouillon family): that’s only a part of the story, while another part
is the Scandinavian right to the Rose Line, just as much or more than
the Merovingians. Those who would buck against this suggestion should
know right here and now that the Merovingians worshipped Wotin/Odin
and other gods worshipped by the Scandinavians. Plus, while there are
many Scandinavians who freely claim descent from Cimmerians having
settled proto-Hungary en route to founding Denmark and Sweden, it
just so happens that the Merovingian Franks descdended from
Sicambrian Franks. Sicambria was named after the Cimmerians, and it
was a city located in proto-Hungary. That is, it looks a lot like the
Sicambrian Franks were one and the same stock, the Danes, Swedes, and
Some have suggested that Arthur was a mythological or folklore figure, that other mythological figures also may have become historicised: one suggestion is that Hengest and Horsa were originally Kentish totemic horse-gods, ascribed a historical role by Bede. There is, however, no more early trace of this fictional Arthur than there is of a historical one.
According to these sources Hengist and Horsa arrived in Britain as mercenaries serving Vortigern, King of the Britons. This event is traditionally recognised[by whom?] as the beginning of the Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain. Sources disagree with whether Hengist was the father or grandfather of Oisc of Kent and Octa of Kent, one of whom succeeded Hengist as king. In the Historia Brittonum Hengist had an unnamed daughter (Historia Regum Britanniae first gave her name as Rowena) who seduced Vortigern, eventually leading to the Night of the Long Knives when Hengist’s men massacred the Britons at a peace accord. While the early sources indicate that Horsa died fighting the Britons, no details are provided about Hengist’s death until Geoffrey’s Historia, which states that Hengist was beheaded by Eldol, the British duke of Gloucester, and buried in an unlocated mound.
A figure named Hengest, who may be identifiable with the leader of British legend, appears in the Finnesburg Fragment and in Beowulf. In present-day Northern Germany, horse head gables, or gable signs adorned with two rampant horse figures, were referred to as “Hengist and Hors” up until the late 19th century. Other founding horse-associated twin brothers are attested among various other Germanic peoples, and appear in other Indo-European cultures. As a result, scholars have theorized a pan-Germanic mythological origin for Hengist and Horsa, stemming originally from divine twins found in Proto-Indo-European religion. In older scholarship, the scholar J. R. R. Tolkien and others have argued for a historical basis for Hengist.
Sicambri as poetic name for Salian Franks
In Roman and Merovingian times, it was a custom to declare panegyrics. These poetic declarations were held for fun or propaganda to entertain guests and please rulers. Those panegyrics played an important role in the transmission of culture. One of the ritual customs of these poetic declarations is the use of archaic names for contemporary things. Romans were often called Trojans, and Salian Franks were called Sicambri. An example of this custom is remembered by the 6th century historian Gregory of Tours (II, 31), who states that the Merovingian Frankish leader Clovis I, on the occasion of his baptism into the Catholic faith, was addressed as a Sicamber by Saint Remigius, the officiating bishop of Rheims. At the crucial moment of Clovis’ baptism, Remigius declared, “Now you must bend down your head, you proud Sicamber. Honour what you have burnt. Burn what you have honoured.” It is likely that this recalled a link between the Sicambri and the Salian Franks, who were Clovis’ people.
More examples of Salians being called Sicamber can be found in the Panegyrici Latini, Life of King Sigismund, Life of King Dagobert and other old texts.
Sicambri in Frankish mythology
An anonymous work of 727 called Liber Historiae Francorum states that following the fall of Troy, 12,000 Trojans led by chiefs Priam and Antenor moved to the Tanais (Don) river, settled in Pannonia near the Sea of Azov and founded a city called Sicambria. In just 2 generations from the fall of Troy (by modern scholars dated in the late Bronze Age) they arrive in the late 4th century AD at the Rhine. A variation of this story can also be read in Fredegar, and similar tales continue to crop up repeatedly throughout obscure, mediaeval-era European literature.
These stories have obvious difficulties. Historians, including eyewitnesses like Caesar, have given us accounts that place the Sicambri firmly at the delta of the Rhine, and archaeologists have confirmed ongoing settlement of peoples. Furthermore the myth does not come from the Sicambri themselves, but from later Franks, and includes an incorrect geography. But most of all these stories are a “farrago nonsense” (Wood), for a man does not live that long. For these reasons, and since the Sicambri were known to have been Germanic, and not Scythian as the story claims, modern scholars reject it as an unhistorical legend. For example J.M. Wallace-Hadrill states that “this legend is quite without historical substance”. Ian Wood says that “these tales are obviously no more than legend” and “nonsensical”, “in fact there is no reason to believe that the Franks were involved in any long-distance migration”.
After the fall of Troy to the Achaeans in the Trojan War of 1181 BC (1184 BC), some Trojans had fled to Italy under the Dardanian prince, Aeneas. Many others fled to the Black Sea area and joined the nomadic Cimmerians with whom they had good relations. Eventually, these Trojans established several separate tribes within the Cimmerian nation. One such tribe under Francio migrated into the area around modern Budapest and established the Kingdom of Sicambria. When Sicambria was destroyed by the Goths, Francio’s followers, the Franks broke into tribal groups. One tribe, the Sicambrian Franks, of whom Marcomir was a member, led by members of the old royal house, migrated westward toward the River Rhine.
Roman historians, including eyewitnesses like Caesar, have given us accounts that place the Sicambri firmly at the delta of the Rhine. The Sicambri appear in history around 55 BC, during the time of conquests of Gaul by Julius Caesar and his expansion of the Roman Empire. Caesar wrote in his Commentarii de Bello Gallico that at the confluence of the Rhine and Meuse River a battle took place in the land of the Menapii with Tencteri and Usipetes. When these two peoples were routed by him their cavalry escaped and found asylum north of the river with the Sicambri. Caesar then built a bridge across the river to punish the Sicambri.
Claudius Ptolemy located the Sicambri, together with the Bructeri Minores, at the most northern part of the Rhine and south of the Frisians who inhabit the coast north of the river. Strabo located the Sicambri next to the Menapii, “who dwell on both sides of the river Rhine near its mouth, in marshes and woods. It is opposite to these Menapii that the Sicambri are situated”. So the Sicambri must have lived at the lower Rhine in what is now called the Netherlands.
Marcomir married Frotmund, daughter of Boaz ben Frimutel ha Judah, last prince of the Desposyni in Roman Gaul. They had a son named Faramund (Pharamond) in whose person was combined the bloodline of the House of Judah and King David of Israel.
The Old English names Hengest and Horsa mean “stallion” and “horse” respectively.
The original Old English word for a horse was eoh. Eoh derives from the Proto-Indo-European base *ekwo, hence Latin equus which gave rise to the modern English words equine and equestrian. Hors is derived from the Proto-Indo-European base *kurs, which also gave rise to hurry, carry, harry, hurrah and current. Hors eventually replaced eoh, fitting a pattern elsewhere in Germanic languages where the original names of sacred animals are abandoned in favour of adjectives; for example, the word bear. While the Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum and the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle refer to the brother as Horsa, in the Historia Brittonum his name is simply Hors. It has been suggested that Horsa may be a hypocorism for a compound name whose first element was hors.
Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum
A page from Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum
In his Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum, Bede records that the first chieftains among the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes in England were said to be Hengist and Horsa. Bede says that Horsa was killed in battle against the Britons and was thereafter buried in east Kent. Bede adds that a monument bearing Horsa’s name stood in east Kent at the time of his writing. According to Bede, Hengist and Horsa were the sons of Wictgils, son of Witta, son of Wecta, son of Woden. Later in the same work, Bede notes that Hengist was the father of Oeric, and that Oeric accompanied Hengist upon his invitation by Vortigern.
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle entry for the year 449 records that Hengest and Horsa were invited to Britain by Vortigern to assist his forces in fighting the Picts. Hengist and Horsa arrived at a place called Ipwinesfleet, and went on to defeat the Picts wherever they fought them. Hengist and Horsa sent word to the Angles describing “the worthlessness of the Britons, and the richness of the land” and asked for assistance. Their request was granted and support arrived. Afterward, more people arrived in Britain from “the three powers of Germany; the Old Saxons, the Angles, and the Jutes”. The Old Saxons populated the areas of the kingdoms of Essex, Sussex and Wessex. The Jutes populated the area of Kent, the Isle of Wight and an area of the adjacent mainland that would later be part of Wessex. The East Angles, Middle Angles, Mercians and “all those north of Humber” arrived from the region of Anglia (a peninsula in Southern Schleswig, Northern Germany) “which has ever since remained waste between the Jutes and Saxons”. These forces were led by the brothers Hengist and Horsa, sons of Wihtgils, son of Witta, son of Wecta, son of Woden.
The Cimbri were a Germanic tribe, who together with the Teutones and the Ambrones fought the Roman Republic between 113 and 101 BC. The Cimbri were initially successful, particularly at the Battle of Arausio, in which up to 120,000 Roman soldiers were killed, after which they raided large areas in Gaul and Hispania. In 101 BC, during an attempted invasion of Italy, the Cimbri were decisively defeated by Gaius Marius, and their king, Boiorix, was killed. Some of the surviving captives are reported to have been among the rebelling Gladiators in the Third Servile War. A contemporary Germanic community in Northern Italy who speak the Cimbrian language is also known as the Cimbri.
Strabo gives this vivid description of the Cimbric folklore (Geogr. 7.2.3, trans. H.L. Jones):
Their wives, who would accompany them on their expeditions, were attended by priestesses who were seers; these were grey-haired, clad in white, with flaxen cloaks fastened on with clasps, girt with girdles of bronze, and bare-footed; now sword in hand these priestesses would meet with the prisoners of war throughout the camp, and having first crowned them with wreaths would lead them to a brazen vessel of about twenty amphorae; and they had a raised platform which the priestess would mount, and then, bending over the kettle, would cut the throat of each prisoner after he had been lifted up; and from the blood that poured forth into the vessel some of the priestesses would draw a prophecy, while still others would split open the body and from an inspection of the entrails would utter a prophecy of victory for their own people; and during the battles they would beat on the hides that were stretched over the wicker-bodies of the wagons and in this way produce an unearthly noise.
The Cimbri are depicted as ferocious warriors who did not fear death. The host was followed by women and children on carts. Aged women, priestesses, dressed in white sacrificed the prisoners of war and sprinkled their blood, the nature of which allowed them to see what was to come.
If the Cimbri did in fact come from Jutland, evidence that they practised ritualistic sacrifice may be found in the Haraldskær Woman discovered in Jutland in the year 1835. Noosemarks and skin piercing were evident and she had been thrown into a bog rather than buried or cremated. Furthermore, the Gundestrup cauldron, found in Himmerland, may be a sacrificial vessel like the one described in Strabo’s text. The work itself was of Thracian origin.