De Bourmont and The Ordre du Croissant

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crescent-beauvau_bertrand1I believe I have found Virginia Hambley de Bourmont’s illustrious ancestor, Bertrand de Beauvau, who was a Senator of the The Ordre du Croissant, that later became The Ordre of the Star. In Louis de Bourmont’s cote of arms we see a crescent moon and star, with the de Bar fish that are in Rene de Anjou’s cote of arms who founded these orders.
The Beauvau family are kindred of Rene a Reneaisance Artist. In the meeting of Virginia and myself, came together the Swan Brethren and the Renisance of Holland led by Gottshcald Rosemondt master of the Falcon Art College in Den Bosche.

On September 8, 2013, on the eve of the day Virginia proposed to me, there appeared a crescent moon with star on the western horizon. How can this not be a sign that the Bourmont’s carried on the Ordres of Rene de Anjou, and, that Virginia and I were born to raise and carry this sign on our banner that bids us to Protect the Art of the World.

Clark Hambley built a trellis in front of his daughter’s house for the grape vines he planted. I believe he was feeling guilty. If he had not married Elizabeth de Bourmont-Craven, and brought her to the States, then Virginia would awake in her castle, go to the window, and behold the help harvesting her grapes.

When it came time to cut these vines back, Virginia and I would go into our skit where we pretended we were in France trimming our vines. Virginia did not tell me her kindred owned Chateaus.

One season, she refused – in anger – to play. This was after her father died. I understand there is resentment and jealousy here. But, I have arrived on my white horse to announce, Virginia is not a part of France – she IS FRANCE!

If her French kindred know the history I this day reveal, they have kept it a closely guarded secret. But, a true profit always sees…the way!

Jon Presco

Copyright 2013

http://www.heraldique-blasons-armoiries.com/armoriaux/par_region/Armorial_chevaliers_croissant.html

https://rosamondpress.wordpress.com/2013/09/11/virginia-with-crescent-moon-and-star/

https://rosamondpress.wordpress.com/2012/10/14/godeschalk-rosemondt-renaissance-man/

The Ordre du Croissant (Order of the Crescent; Italian – Ordine della Luna Crescente) was a chivalric order founded by Charles I of Naples and Sicily in 1268. It was revived in 1448 or 1464 by René I, king of Jerusalem, Sicily and Aragon (including parts of Provence), to provide him with a rival to the English Order of the Garter. René was one of the champions of the medieval system of chivalry and knighthood, and this new order was (like its English rival) neo-Arthurian in character. Its insignia consisted of a golden crescent moon engraved in grey with the word LOZ, with a chain of 3 gold loops above the crescent. On René’s death, the Order lapsed.

Bertrand de Beauvau

Bertrand de Beauvau, Lord of [Pressigny]], Sillé-le-Guillaume and Briançon (1382 – 1474) was a French statesman and diplomat[1].

He is the younger son of Jean III de Beauvau and Jeanne de Tigny[1]. He has an older brother, Pierre i. of Beauvau[2].

He began his career in the service of Louis II of Anjou. Its military acts, career diplomat and creditor to the Court of the Dukes of Anjou, namely Louis III of Anjou and René I of Anjou, and Kings, Charles VII of France and Louis XI of France, finally allowed him to amass a considerable fortune[1]. He was also Seneschal ofAnjou, first lay president of the Chamber of accounts in Paris[1] and Senator of theCrescent order.
He married four times, married successively:
Joan of the Tower-Landry,
Françoise de Brézé, for which he built the Château de Ternay in 1439
1456 Ide of the Châtelet
1467 Jeanne Blanche of Anjou (1438-1470) (natural daughter of King René)
and was widowed 4 times. His first three wives will die all the same way: by making the world their seventh child.
Great friend of Jacques Cœur and René of Anjou, King of Sicily, Bertrand de Beauvau, renowned art lover, built several castles, as Ternay and Pimpean, including the chapels have remarkable decorations: Pimpean with murals and Ternay which arch bows is the vertical walls are fully carved.
In 1462, Louis XI commissioned him to go to the Duke of Milan, as an Ambassador, with Charles I of Amboise and François Royer[3].
It was the great benefactor of the convent of the Augustinians of Angers where he was originally from the chapel built in 1468 on his initiative.
His weapons are Argent langued gules or four Cubs, a star of azure abyss.
He was among 17 children from his four marriages [4]:
Catherine de Beauvau, daughter of Jeanne La Tour – Landry and Bertrand de Beauvau, was married to Philippe de Lenoncourt.
Jean de Beauvau, Bishop of Angers
Beauvau Antoine, eldest son of Bertrand de Beauvau, was a faithful servant of King René.
Charlotte de Beauvau, who married Yves de Scépeaux, then in a second marriage of Jean Rabaud

A first order of the Crescent was created in Messina, in 1268by Charles of Anjou, brother of the King of France Louis IX, in memory of the battle of the Ficino Lake in the plain of Tagliacozzo, near L’Aquila, where he defeated and made prisoner Conradin, grandson of Emperor Frederick II.

A meeting of the order in the dress. Miniature from the Passion of St. Maurice and his companions, Bibliothèque de L’arsenal, Ms.940
It conferred upon the gentlemen and German princes who had supported him in this war, and several other warlords that he wanted to attach to his cause.
The Knights had to justify four degrees of nobility on the paternal side. This order remained little time and was replaced by theorder of the star.
Second-order of the Crescent (1448)[Edit | change the code]

Angers, rue Saint-land, the House of the estaigner where gathered the Knights of the order, over the door and under the window is the coat of arms.
The second order of increasing, totally distinct from the previous one, was founded on 11 August 1448 in Angers by René d’Anjou said the good, King of Sicily and Jerusalem, in honor of saint Maurice. The ambition of this order was to be a level of prestige comparable to that of the Golden Fleece, established a few years earlier.
No one could be received nor wear the Crescent, ‘ if it was Duke, prince, marquis, count, Viscount or ancient chivalry, and gentleman of his four lines, and that his person was without ugly reproach».
There were among the members of this new order of important figures such as the Duke of Milan Francesco Sforza or the County of Vaudémont Ferry II of Lorraine.
Thirty-six Knights forming the order wore a mantle of Crimson red velvet lined with white satin, a mantle of white velvet, and a long suit of the same color, on the side of which was sewn a Golden Crescent. This Crescent was engraved the word loz. The old French loz, rebus-style, meant “loz Crescent”, с’ is to say that “moving forward in virtues, it deserves praise.
The collar of the order was a gold three-row chain, which was suspended by three chains of gold, a Crescent of gold also. It was recognized the value and the generosity of the Knights, to the ferrets of gold aiguillette, number of battles or seats in which they had fought.
The order of the Crescent did not survive its creator René of Anjou himself. Pope Paul II, enemy of René of Anjou, suppressed it by a bubble around the year 1460[1]. Some associations today claim the order of the Crescent.

Theorder of the star is an order of chivalry founded on 16 November 1351 by John the good, King of France, imitation of theorder of the Garter, founded in 1348 in England by Edward III of England. The inaugural ceremony was held in Saint-Ouen on 6 January 1352.

Summary
[hide]
1 History
2 Badges
3 Notes and references
4 Partial source
History[Edit | change the code]
The order is inspired by Geoffroi de Charny, the theorist of the chivalrous ideal[1]who writes for the newly formed Knights his requests for the Joust, tournaments and war. The King creates to attract a new loyalty to the French knights, and to discipline them, to avoid the disaster of Crécyto renew it. To be so admitted, only personal merits on the battlefield were; the value in the tournaments was not taken into account. A balance was paid to Knights members.
Some authors consider that this order is based on the order of our Lady of the star created by Robert the pious (known for his devotion to the Virgin Mary) in August 1022. Composed of thirty Knights, who wore a star embroidery recamée gold five-pointed, this military order was first designed to encourage the letters but declined during the hundred years war, disappeared under Philippe de Valois to be recreated by Jean le Bon[2].
Its statutes entitled it order of Notre-Dame-de-la-Noble-Maison, due to the patronage of the Virgin and the seat of the institution to the Royal abode of the Palace of Clichy at Saint-Ouen. These articles were planning to gather around the King the five hundred best Knights of the French nobility (Jean le Bon is in created only 18) and that these Knights should never turn its back on the enemy. At the battle of Poitiers, this provision caused the death or capture of several members. The order thus soon fell into disuse.
The Knights swore not to back more than four steps. This oath at the first feast of the order of the star cost the lives of ninety Knights at the battle of Mauron in 1352.
Before Louis XIV of France, Jean II le Bon had the idea to create the same year a House collecting the old Knights.

Knight of the order of the Star (1719)
This decoration was so provided that from the time of Charles V, which attributed it by a simple letter without any ceremony, she had lost any value. The order became less an order of chivalry as a Honorary mark. Brantôme, XVIe century, spread fanciful opinion that order, discredited too of largesse, would become the insignia of the Chevalier du Guet, Charles VII who gave the star to the captain of the royal watch[3].
The order of the star directly inspired the creation of theorder of the node, founded by the King of Sicily Louis of Taranto the day of his coronation at Pentecost 1352 (May 23)[4].
Badges[Edit | change the code]
Knights wore the mantle of white damask or the chaperone on the front of which was set at left a star embroidered in gold buckle. Their collar had three strings interlaced roses d or alternately enamelled white and Red at the end hung a star (kitten stamped a Golden Sun) five-spoke with this motto: «Monstrant regibus astra viam»[5] (an allusion to the star of the Magi).
Notes and references[Edit | change the code]
1. ^ Françoise Autrand, Charles V, Fayard 1994, p. 204
2. ↑ François Sicard, history of the military of the French institutions, ed. Corréard, Paris, 1835
3. ↑ order star Article in theEncyclopædia Universalis
4. ↑ From Arcy Jonathan Dacre Boulton, The knights of the crown: the monarchical orders of knighthood in later medieval Europe, 1325-1520, Boydell Press, 2e Edition, 2000, pp. 221-225.
5. ↑ “the stars show the road to Kings.”
Partial source[Edit | change the code]
Marie-Nicolas Bouillet and Alexis Chassang (dir.), ‘Order of the Star (France)’ in universal history and geography dictionary, 1878  (Wikisource)

Contents
 [hide] 
1 Provence
2 In later culture
3 External links
4 Sources
Provence[edit source | editbeta]
The Order of the Crescent, also known as “Order of the Crescent in the Provence”, a French chivalric order was founded on 11 August 1448 in Angers by King Rene of Provence as a court order. The order, which united itself, features from knighthood and spiritual orders, had to count 50 knights, which should be dukes, princes, marquises, viscounts and knights with four quarters of nobility.
The Knights committed themselves to mutual assistance and loyalty to the order which, after the Provence became part of France in 1486, was soon forgotten.
Ackermann mentions this knighthood as a historical order of France.
In later culture[edit source | editbeta]
René and his Order of the Crescent were adopted as “historical founders” by the Lambda Chi Alpha Fraternity in 1912, as exemplars of chivalry and Christian charity. Ceremonies of the Order of the Crescent were referenced in formulating ceremonies for the fraternity.
The Order was neo-Arthurian in character, and so has been used to link René with the Holy Grail and the fictitious Priory of Sion.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ordre_du_Croissant

ANJOU (John from)

Cut to a party of two, which makes six neighbourhoods: 1 Barry Argent and gules, eight parts (Hungary); 2 azure, semé of fleurs-de-lis or, gules five chief points (ANJOU-SICILY) label; 3 Argent, the cross of Jerusalem of gold, enquerre (JERUSALEM); 4 azure, semé of fleurs-de-lis or, a bordure gules (former ANJOU); at 5 azure, semy of cross-crosslets fitché or, to two bars backed of even surmounted on the any (BAR): 6 gold, responsible for three silver alerions gules band (LORRAINE); a point label gules three Chief points, over large areas.

Coat of arms of the Knights of the order of the Crescent, established by René d’Anjou, ms. fr. 5225
Constitution of the order of the Crescent, founded by René d’Anjou (1448), ms. fr. 25204
(source: gallica.bnf.fr, national library of France)

Duke of Calabria and Lorraine, Senator of the Crescent (1470); eldest son of René of Anjou and Isabelle of Lorraine; married, by Treaty of April 2, 1437, with Marie de Bourbon, daughter of Charles Ier, Duke of Bourbon and Agnes of Burgundy. born in Toul on August 2, 1426, died in Barcelona on December 16, 1470, and buried in Angers, in the Church of the Cordeliers (1).

(1) On a glass roof of this church, this prince was represented at knees, joined hands, a Flory Crown upon his head, and covered with a loose-fitting coat folded collar. Before him stood the described above, coat of arms supported by the emblem of the order of the Crescent with his motto.(MONTFAUCON, op. cit., t. II, pl. LXI11). These weapons are absolutely identical to those appearing on a Jean d’Anjou, affixed sidesaddle on a document from 1465 (DOUET of ARCQ, Collection of seals, t. I, no. 789).

ANJOU (René of)

Cut a, party of two, which makes six neighbourhoods; 1 of Hungary; 2 of ANJOU-SICILY; 3 of JERUSALEM; 4 Anjou former; at 5 bar; 6 of LORRAINE; on all or, four pallets of gules (ARAGON).

Coat of arms of the Knights of the order of the Crescent, established by René d’Anjou, ms. fr. 5225
Constitution of the order of the Crescent, founded by René d’Anjou (1448), ms. fr. 25204
(source: gallica.bnf.fr, national library of France)

King of Naples, Sicily, Jerusalem and Aragon, Duke of Anjou, of Lorraine and Bar, the comte de Provence, Senator of the Crescent (1449). son of Louis II, Duke of Anjou, King of Naples, and Yolande of Aragon; Marie, first marriage, by Treaty of March 20, 1419, with Isabelle of Lorraine, eldest daughter and heiress of Charles II, Duke of Lorraine and Marguerite de Lorraine; in a second marriage, September 10, 1454, with Jeanne de Laval, daughter of Guy XIV, count of Laval, and Isabelle of Brittany; born in Angers 16 January 1409, died July 10, 1480, in Aix and buried in the Church of Saint-Maurice of Angers on October 26, 1481.

Since the imposition of the Crescent, King René accompanied these weapons (1) (still existing in 1620, at Saint-Maurice d’Angers) of the badge of the order (2), he did paint and sculpt on a large number of monuments and objets d’art, burn on its seals (3) and embroidery (4) tapestries and its ceremonial costumes.

(1) With regard to the various coats worn successively by René, see our book: the cross of Jerusalem in the blazon, p. 14.
(2) Radiant Ung and wonderful Crescent,
Garny of fine gold and white esmaillure,
Which y eust in franche escripture,.
Loz growing in serious and understood,
Such currency had this made Lord.
Not without reason, because its fesoit croistre loz
On all living which eust loz and estre.
(Octavia SAINT – GELAIS, residence of honor.)
(3) Some of these seals provide the reverse a double Crescent that Mr Douet of Arcq (collection of seals, n ° 11783) took two bags or superimposed scholarships.
(4) In 1448, Pierre du Villant, painter and brodeur of the King of Sicily, two professions closely United to the middle ages, executed four croissants embroidered for his new order of chivalry (LECOY DE LA MARCHE, extracts from accounts and memorials, no. 632).

AVAUGOUR (Gui or William of)

Argent, in Chief gules, on a twin of gold.

Lord of the lodges, bailiff of Touraine in 1424.

BEAUVAU (Bertrand de)

Money, to four Cubs cantoned gules; the star has six points of azure abyss (breakage).

Coat of arms of the Knights of the order of the Crescent, established by René d’Anjou, ms. fr. 5225
Constitution of the order of the Crescent, founded by René d’Anjou (1448), ms. fr. 25204
(source: gallica.bnf.fr, national library of France)

Baron of Précigny, Lord of Sillé-le-Guillaume and Briançon, Seneschal of Anjou and Provence, grand maître d ‘ Hôtel of the King of Sicily, bailiff of Touraine, Captain of Angers, Senator of the Crescent in 1452, Counsellor and Chamberlain to the King of France, president of the Court of Auditors of Anjou; son of Jean III de Beauvau and Jeanne de Tigny; Marie: 1 ° with Jeanne de La Tour – Landry; 2 ° with Françoise de Brézé (+ 1460); 3 ° with Ida of the Châtelet; 4 °, November 28, 1467, with Blanche of Anjou (3), Lady of Mirebeau, natural daughter of King René; died at Angers 30 September 1474, and buried in the Church of the Augustinians, in the middle of the choir.

(3) René, who was particularly fond of this girl, confirmed, by marrying, the gift that it had already made of the lordship of Mirebeau; her husband, consideration of the honour and advantage of this alliance, assigned a jointure of £ 500 to rent on the land of Ternay, the tithe of Loudun and a few other assets. Blanche of Anjou, born c. 1438, died at Aix April 16, 1470.Elle was buried in the Church of the Grands-Carmes, near the choir. The only epitaph has been preserved, and they can be seen embedded in the wall of the cloister of the Cathedral of Saint-Sauveur. The statue of the Princess who was lying on the Tomb has disappeared: on the dress of white dAnjou were sown of Lion Cubs, Jerusalem crosses and fleurs-de-lis. Beauvau Bertrand, in his will, complained strongly of Blanche of Anjou, as does him having served, aymé, nor honored, as good woman must do to her mary.

BEAUVAU (Jean IV of)

Ecartelé: 1 and 4, Argent, four Lion Cubs quartered of gules, armed, langued and crowned azure (BEAUVAU); 2 and 3, diamond gold and gules (CRAON).

Constitution of the order of the Crescent, founded by René d’Anjou (1448), ms. fr. 25204
(source: gallica.bnf.fr, national library of France)

Lord of the Rochettes, Sermaizes and des Essarts, baron of Manonville appointed Seneschal of Anjou April 14, 1458, consideration of its previous services, said the Act, and because “ceulx of the House which he is yssu have been and are principaulx servants of the our, in which they have servy moult greatly and commendably”; son of Pierre de Beauvau and Jeanne de Craon (1); husband of Jeanne de Manonville, only daughter and heiress of Jean and Alarde de Chambley, sister of Margaret, wife of Louis de Beauvau, his older brother; death in 1468.

Jean de Beauvau fills important missions to Louis XL for René of Anjou. II left his duties with life and was replaced on 21 January 1669, by Jean de Lorraine, father of Ferry de Lorraine and cousin of the King of Sicily.

(1) A line of heroic courage is committed on behalf of the mother of Jean and Louis de Beauvau, Jeanne de Craon, last heir to a powerful House of Brittany. About to give birth to her second son, she asked it even the Caesarean operation, become necessary to save the life of her child, “otherwise, says the Chronicle, this dark Dungeon was este envoj’e to eternal darkness. ” Thus the Lady of Beauvau may be quite honoured to have, by a resolution so generous and piety really Christian, dedicated to God and to his seed this mortal life, to deprive his son of the immortal, him removing the means of being reclaimed from the waters of the Holy baptesme, if it the eust put the stillborn world. But, for the record of this, she required her mary their son portast the arms of Beauvau escartelees with those of Craon and ceulx that naisteroient luy and his posterity would be obliged to make similar in perpetuity, which since has been observed to the descendants of the same. “This last sentence is incorrect, because it results from authentic monuments that Louis de Beauvau, Jean elder brother, écartela also its weapons of those of Craon, and this in the lifetime of the latter.

BEAUVAU (Louis of)

Ecartelé: 1 and 4, Argent, four Lion Cubs quartered of gules, armed, langued and crowned azure (BEAUVAU); 2 and 3, diamond gold and gules (CRAON).

Lord of Champigné, and La Roche sur Yon, baron of Château-Renard (1), Seneschal of Anjou and Provence, Governor of Lorraine, Captain of fort Saint-Jean in Marseille, first Chamberlain of René of Anjou; eldest son of Pierre de Beauvau and Jeanne de Craon; Marie: 1 ° with Marguerite de Chambley, daughter of Ferry and Jeanne de Launay. 2 ° with Jeanne de Baudricourt; 3 ° with Jeanne de Beaujeu, daughter of Edward, Lord Amplepuis, and Jacqueline de Linières; death in Rome in 1472.

Louis de Beauvau was particularly dear to King René, because he had shared the vicissitudes of his good and bad fortune. Like him, he loved the letters, arts, poetry, tournaments and celebrations; showing always good, just and fair, full of generosity and Valor. The brightness which shone this illustrious Knight was such as Jean de Bourbon, count of Vendôme, in calling for the hand of Isabelle of Beauvau (+ 1474), his only daughter and heiress, believed not make an alliance (November 9, 1454) unworthy of a grandson of saint Louis. At that time, the royal blood that flowed down to the France, mingled often than large knightly breeds, as to draw a new heroism in this inexhaustible source of virtue and honor. Henry IV, the great Condé, all the princes of their blood and by them all the princes of Europe, are direct descendants of Isabelle de Beauvau. It seems that René of Anjou was this glorious destiny when, in his novel of Doulce Mercy, he attached the Blazon of his Seneschal among those heroes and emperors, on the ceiling of the portico of the Cymetiere of Vlsle of the God of love.

It was in Rome, where René had sent it in Embassy to Pius II, died Louis de Beauvau. His coffin, reported in Angers by pious servants, was laid beside that of Marguerite de Chambley (mother of Isabelle de Beauvau), in the Church of the Cordeliers, built by his ancestors and fell under the revolutionary hammer. The stained glass windows of the choir traced the portraits of both spouses. Louis was represented in arms, knees and head naked near the graceful Marguerite, wearing of the hennin with a Crescent on the front (2).

Louis de Beauvau cultivated with success literature; He is, in addition to a translation of the Boccaccio Philostratus (attributed by some to Pierre de Beauvau, his father), a relationship the Shepherdess, held in Tarascon, in June 1449 pitch. Louis de Beauvau was the nephew of Bertrand de Beauvau.

(1) Louis de Beauvau had acquired this important Lordship of le roi René, June 14, 1453. The load of great senechal of Provence, that he came for, him giving the opportunity to visit often Château-Renard, he beautifully decorated the Interior of the Castle and it embellishes paintings, from the lobby to the second floor. Remains of these paintings still existed in the great room, at the time of the Revolution, having thus survived three centuries old. We saw in this room, all the in-between of Corbels of vaults, the quartered arms of Beauvau Craon, and Marguerite de Chambley. These coats were accompanied by the motto “without dispose”, which was also in every corner of the great room; currency whose body consisted of a tree trunk from which came out several cut twigs of distance in distance. The motto “without dispose” has always been that the House of Beauvau-Craon: she recalls or consistency and strength in the conjugal union of Pierre de Beauvau and Jeanne de Craon, that paid his life for his sublime sacrifice, or fraternal union of Louis and Jean de Beauvau. This last explanation appears all the more likely that there were on the walls of the room above a painting representing two men dressed in the Roman. They stood entwined, supported on the trunk of a tree whose roots are piledriving to their legs, with the motto “without dispose”. (Prince H. VALORI, history of the Royal barony of Château-Renard, p. 80).
(2) MONTFAUCON, op. cit., t. III, pl. LIV.

The coat of arms of René of Anjou, by Luca della Robbia, about 1466-78

‘Stemma of René of Anjou’, coat of arms, Luca Della Robbia, about 1466-78. Museum no. 6740-1860
The ‘Stemma’, or coat of arms of René of Anjou (1409–80) was acquired by the Victoria and Albert Museum in 1861, a few years after it had been removed from a villa at Montughi near Florence, which had previously belonged to the Pazzi family.
Although unrecorded in contemporary documents, this enamelled terracotta relief is unanimously accepted as a work by Luca della Robbia, executed for Jacopo de’ Pazzi some time between 1466 and 1478. Measuring eleven feet (3.35 metres) in diameter, the monumental scale of the ‘Stemma’ was dictated by its original position, high on an outside wall of the villa. As a result of its age and removal from its original position the work is cracked in many places and has been repaired with plaster.
Heraldry
The centre of the roundel depicts a shield bearing the arms of René of Anjou. Quarterly of five, three in chief and two base, they are (from top left to bottom right) Kingdom of Hungary (Ancient), Anjou-Naples, Kingdom of Jerusalem, Duchy of Anjou and Duchy of Bar. Over-all is superimposed the escutcheon in pretence for the Kingdom of Aragon. Above the shield is a crowned helmet surmounted with the crest of a double fleur-de-lys between a pair of dragon’s wings.
Behind the helmet and shield is a mantle decorated with the arms of Anjou. Above the crest the letters IR in tree-trunk capitals refer to René’s christian name and that of his second wife, Jeanne de Laval. Below the shield is the insignia of René’s own chivalric Order of the Crescent (‘Croissant’), a collar enscribed  OS:EN:CROISSANT:.
On either side appears a flaming brazier, a symbol common both to René and the Pazzi family. The base of the left-hand brazier is decorated with the crosslets of the Pazzi arms. From the inner handles of the braziers hangs a scroll with René’s motto :DARDANT:DESIR:.
Symbolism
Around the centre runs a decorative border within which is recessed a garland of fruit. Its circular form suggests a wreath, which has honourific and commemorative associations appropriate to the function of the ‘Stemma’. In a similar way, portraits or coats of arms on Quattrocento medals were sometimes set within wreaths. However, this garland is not composed of laurel, but of seven different types of fruit, each tied in four bunches. They are: pine-cones, pears, lemons or oranges, quinces, figs, grapes and cucumbers.
In Renaissance works of art fruit and vegetables were often used for purely decorative purposes, as in Luca’s ‘Stemma’ of the Mercanzia at Or San Michele. They could also serve a wide variety of emblematic functions, as in Luca’s frieze in the chapel of the Madonna at Impruneta, where bunches of grapes, citrons and quinces were symbolic respectively of the Eucharist, the Virgin Mary and the Resurrection.
As emblematic and decorative requirements overlapped and as the same image could often be symbolically interpreted in several different ways, it is sometimes difficult to be sure that an iconographic significance was intended by the artist.
In the ‘Stemma’ of René of Anjou, the fruits can all be iconographically related to a single coherent theme, which appears to justify a symbolic interpretation of their significance. Quince, pine-cones and pears are all symbols of Virtue. Grapes, figs and quince can signify Resurrection. Oranges or lemons and figs can suggest Salvation. On another level, pine-cones serve as a symbol of Immortality and quince denotes Immortal Virtue.  Although the cucumber has some negative connotations, it is often iconographically interchangeable with the gourd, symbolic of Resurrection and Salvation. It therefore seems likely that the fruit was intended to allude to the theme of Virtue and its just reward: Resurrection, Salvation and Immortality.

About Royal Rosamond Press

I am an artist, a writer, and a theologian.
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1 Response to De Bourmont and The Ordre du Croissant

  1. Reblogged this on rosamondpress and commented:

    I have found a Holy Grail

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