For twenty five years I have wondered about the statement above. Jesus does not say he is God. Today, many Christian-X ministers say he is God. This is blaspheme. There is no indication members of the first church believed Jesus was God, or, the Lord. Why then are the priests and King and Queen of Israel giving their approval for Saul-Paul to hunt down Jews and torture men and women in order to get them to blaspheme? The only answer I arrive at is Jesus and his disciples worshipped Baal Hadad-Raman whom the Arameans worshipped at Damascus.
“Acts 26:12 “Whereupon I went to Damascus with authority and commission from the chief priests,”
It appears that John the Baptist’s church and followers are here, and is why the “chief priests” gave Paul Roman documents of passage that he might to go there and destroy the followers of the Savior of Baal who has come for the poor disenfranchised followers of Baal. They are the ancient orthodoxy who has risen up against Rome for they are in the majority. They dwell beyond the reach of the Roman army that has been defeated by the Parthians.
Paul sees himself as Elijah who is given permission by the followers of the cult of YHWH, and their Roman backers, to destroy all Baal worship, even in “strange cities”. What cities? How about cities in Libya where live the followers of Hanibal who made war on Rome? Hanibal means ‘Grace of Baal” Johannan-baal would mean ‘Gift of Baal’. The name Anna is here, meaning “grace”.
All thru the Old Testament one reads how most of the original Jews chose Baal over YHWH. These native people were here when Moses and the multitude arrived. I will show how this preference continues into the New Testament. I am going to put forth a theory that Hanibal became Woden after he fled north to live amongst the Norseman, who like the Gauls fought with Hanibal against the Slave Masters of the World. God-el, or, Baal? What’s the difference who you follow when it comes to Romans defeating your warriors and taking your children as sex-slaves?
Paul is a Roman Jew and Roman agent and quisling who goes after leaders of the first church – after his conversion! For years I wondered how Paul recognized Jesus’ followers. I suspect he rounded up everyone who spoke a northern dialect of Aramaic, and tortured them all to see who was a follower of Jesus.
Hanibal lost one eye in battle, and, allegedly left a suicide note. There are no records of his death. Hanibal’s god was a thunder god, like Woden – who is one-eyed. Consider Thor’s hammer and the long war the Norseman had with Rome. This is why the Roman Catholic church named the days of the week after Viking gods so they will associate with Roma, verses Rome’s bitter enemy – Carthage where Baal and his consort, Asherah, reigned.
John the Baptist’s mother descends from the priestly line of Aaron who made a golden calf of Baal. Then, here come Moses with the laws of YHWH which the Jews rejected. Moses was introduced to YHWH by his father-in-law Jethro, or, so the leaders of the YHWH…..claim! How odd that Paul tells his followers to disregard the Laws of Moses – and God. How odd that Paul rarely mentions Jesus – or God!
The Romans never conquered the Norse in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark and thus never eradicated the worship of Baal.
Paul went all over the world to hunt them down in “strange cities.”
Acts 26:12 “Whereupon . went to Damascus with authority and commission from the chief priests,”
Damascus was the capital of the Aramaean state Aram-Damascus during the Iron Age. The Arameans of western Syria followed the cult of Hadad-Ramman, the god of thunderstorms and rain, and erected a temple dedicated to him at the site of the present-day Umayyad Mosque.
The Phoenician Tyrians named their priests Cohanim (Kohanim). In the Torah, the priests of Baal are referred to as Cohen or Kohen or plural: Cohanim or Kohanim, which is a Hebrew word for priest or king, and the word Bol-Khan, specifically refers to the priests of Baal. These priests claim direct patrilineal descent from the Biblical Aaron who is often called “‘Aaron the Priest“‘ (אֵהֲרֹן הֵכֹּהֵן) and once Aaron the Levite (אַהֲרֹן הַלֵּוִי) (Exodus 4:14). He who was the older brother of Moses, (Exodus 6:16-20, 7:7; Qur’an 28:34) and a prophet of God, that which we find in Baal which means “Lord and Master.”
Acts 26:12 “Whereupon . went to Damascus with authority and commission from the chief priests,”
Paul was on his way to capture Christian men and women and bring them back to be imprisoned in Jerusalem. You see, at that time Paul was working hand in hand with the high priests. They all thought they were in the will of God stopping these Christians.
When I first read the Bible in 1987 I wondered why Atheliah would murder all her kindred. Royalty always wants to strengthen their lineage so as to keep it from becoming extinct. Therefore, this story may be the invention of Jewish followers of YHWH s as to keep down all Phoenician and Carthaginian claimants to the throne of Judah. This may be the reason we have two genealogies for Jesus to prove he was not a prophet of Ba’al which would be the motive for killing him. Being of a Moabite lineage, he and others had come to believe that going back to traditional family gods was the way, because YHWH had failed to keep the Roman wolves out of the promised land. The worship of Melqart-Ba’al was found in Europe amongst the alleged pagans who were at war with Rome. Jesus Ba’al would be another Hannibal, a warrior priest-king, who is kin to Jezzebal and Athelia. If there was, and is a Abolitionist God of the Jews then I would want a champion to come forth and destroy the Slave Masters and their empire that is found in the South, and is holding our nation in suspense in the name of false Jesus.
The Ruthless Queen Athalia
A military commander by the name of Jehu was sent by God to kill off the royal line of Ahab. Jehu had carried out God’s orders and destroyed most of Ahab’s family including Athaliah’s husband Jeroham and her son King Ahaziah. Once her son had passed away Athalia decided to kill off the rest of the royal line so that no one could claim any right to rule. Apparently, it didn’t matter if the people she was killing was her children, grandchildren and relatives. After she carried out this deed she became the undisputed Queen of Israel.
Aramaic is a family of languages (traditionally referred to as “dialects”) belonging to the Semitic family, and more specifically, is a part of the Northwest Semitic subfamily, which also includes Canaanite languages such as Hebrew and Phoenician. The Aramaic script was widely adopted for other languages and is ancestral to both the Arabic and modern Hebrew alphabets.
During its 3,000-year written history, Aramaic has served variously as a language of administration of empires and as a language of divine worship. It was the day-to-day language of Israel in the Second Temple period (539 BC – 70 AD), the language that Jesus Christ probably used the most, the language of large sections of the biblical books of Daniel and Ezra, and is the main language of the Talmud. However, Jewish Aramaic was different from the other forms both in lettering and grammar. Parts of the Dead Sea Scrolls are in Jewish Aramaic showing the unique Jewish lettering, related to the unique Hebrew script.
Jehoiada Assassinates the Queen
While Queen Athalia was wiping out her royal line her sister Jehosheba hid one of Ahaziah’s children named Joash and hid him in Solomon’s Temple under the watch of her husband Jehoiada who made sure that he would remain safe until the right time. Jehoiada was a godly man and the head priest in the temple. While Athalia ruled the kingdom he plotted her assassination in order to place the young king Joash back on the throne. In the sixth year of Athalia’s rule Jehoiada carried out his plot. He took the young king to the temple and declared him king before the people. Athalia heard the commotion and tried to figure out what was going on. When she went down to observe what was happening, Jehoiada ordered his soldiers to assassinate her and anyone who followed her. Once Athalia was slain young Joash was finally free to rule the kingdom.
Jezebel is the Anglicized transliteration of the Hebrew אִיזָבֶל (‘Izevel/’Izavel). Attempts to trace the meaning of the name are speculative, since its origin can only be conjectured.
The biblical Hebrew ‘Izebel may be rooted in a Hebrew word for “prince/nobility” or “husband” (בעל bul/ba’al) combined with the word for “naught/none” (יי ‘iy), “there is no prince/nobility/husband,” suggesting a lack of character (i.e. implying lack of royal sensibilities) or of morality (i.e. unmarried, implying adultery or fornication). It may also find its root in a Hebrew word for “dung” (from זבל gbl; note here Ba’al-zebul/Ba’al-zebub, “Lord of dung”) combined with the word for either “naught/none” (‘iy) or “island” (‘iyz), thus “no dung” or “island of dung.”
Other sources find meaning from the character’s native Syro-Phoenician language. It may be rooted in the word ba’al (lord), referring either to the Syro-Phoenician god, the “King of Heaven,” or simply the royal title “lord.” Thus, Iz-ba’al may mean “the Lord (Ba’al) exists/exalts” or “where is the prince,” a name known from liturgies of the Syro-Phoenician Ba’al cults.
 Scripture and history
Jezebel from “Promptuarii Iconum Insigniorum “
The death of Jezebel, by Gustave Doré
Jezebel’s story is told in 1st and 2nd Kings, which details an intense religious-political struggle — the most detailed such account of any period in the history of the Kingdom of Israel. The account portrays the religious side of the events, with the political, economic and social background — highly important to modern historians — given only incidentally.
Jezebel was a Phoenician princess, the daughter of Ethbaal, king of the Phoenician empire. She married King Ahab of the Northern Kingdom (i.e. Israel during the time when ancient Israel was divided into Israel in the north and Judah in the south). She helped convert Ahab from worship of the Jewish God to worship of the Phoenician god Baal. After she had many Jewish prophets killed, Elijah challenged 450 prophets of Baal to a competition (1 Kings 18), exposed the rival god as powerless, and had the prophets of Baal slaughtered (1 Kings 18:40). Jezebel becomes his enemy.
The scholar V. Barzowski interprets Ahab’s marriage to Jezebel as a dynastic marriage intended to cement a Phoenician political alliance. This went back to the times of King Solomon, to give the then-inland Kingdom of Israel access to the Mediterranean Sea and international trade. The monarchy (and possibly an urban elite connected with it) enjoyed the wealth derived from this trade, which gave it a stronger position vis-a-vis the rural landowners. The monarchy became more centralized with a powerful administration.[dubious – discuss]
Hadad (Ugaritic ?�ﾐﾎﾄ? Haddu) is a Northwest Semitic storm and rain god, cognate in name and origin with the earlier attested East Semitic Akkadian (Assyrian-Babylonian) god Adad. Hadad was also called “Pidar”, “Rapiu”, “Baal-Zephon”, or often simply Baʿal (Lord), but this title was also used for other gods. The bull was the symbolic animal of Hadad. He appeared bearded, often holding a club and thunderbolt while wearing a bull-horned headdress. Hadad was equated with the Anatolian storm-god Teshub; the Egyptian god Set; the Greek god Zeus; and the Roman god Jupiter, as Jupiter Dolichenus.
In religious texts, Ba‘al/Hadad is the lord of the sky who governs the rain and thus the germination of plants with the power of his desire that they be fertile. He is the protector of life and growth to the agricultural people of the region. The absence of Ba‘al causes dry spells, starvation, death, and chaos. Also refers to the mountain of the west wind. The Biblical reference[clarification needed] occurs at a time when Yahweh has provided a strong east wind (cf. Exodus 14:21,22) to push back the waters of the Red or Erythrian Sea, so that the sons of Israel might cross over.
In the Ugaritic texts El, the supreme god of the pantheon, resides on Mount Lel (perhaps meaning “Night”) and it is there that the assembly of the gods meet. That is perhaps the mythical cosmic mountain.
Stele of Baal with Thunderbolt, 15th-13th century BC. Found at the acropolis in Ras Shamra (ancient city of Ugarit).
The Ba‘al cycle is fragmentary and leaves much unexplained that would have been obvious to a contemporary. In the earliest extant sections there appears to be some sort of feud between El and Ba‘al. El makes one of his sons who is called both prince Yamm (“Sea”) and judge Nahar (“River”) king over the gods and changes Yamm’s name from yw (so spelled at that point in the text) to mdd ’il, meaning “Darling of El”. El informs Yamm that in order to secure his power, Yamm will have to drive Ba‘al from his throne.
In this battle Ba‘al is somehow weakened, but the divine craftsman Kothar-wa-Khasis strikes Yamm with two magic clubs, Yamm collapses, and Ba’al finishes the fight. ‘Athtart proclaims Ba‘al’s victory and salutes Ba‘al/Hadad as lrkb ‘rpt (“Rider on the Clouds”), a phrase applied by editors of modern English Bibles to Yahweh in Psalm 68.4. At ‘Athtart’s urging Ba‘al “scatters” Yamm and proclaims that Yamm is dead and heat is assured.
A later passage refers to Ba‘al’s victory over Lotan, the many-headed sea-dragon. Due to gaps in the text it is not known whether Lotan is another name for Yamm or a reference to another similar story. In the Mediterranean area, crops were often threatened by winds, storms, and floods from the sea, indicating why the ancients feared the fury of this cosmic being.
A palace is built for Ba‘al/Hadad with cedars from Mount Lebanon and Sirion and also from silver and from gold. In his new palace Ba‘al hosts a great feast for the other gods. When urged by Kothar-wa-Khasis, Ba’al, somewhat reluctantly, opens a window in his palace and sends forth thunder and lightning. He then invites Mot ‘Death’ (god of drought and underworld), another son of El, to the feast.
But Mot is insulted. The eater of human flesh and blood will not be satisfied with bread and wine. Mot threatens to break Ba‘al into pieces and swallow Ba‘al. Even Ba‘al cannot stand against Death. Gaps here make interpretation dubious. It seems that by the advice of the goddess Shapsh ‘Sun’, Ba‘al has intercourse with a heifer and dresses the resultant calf in his own clothes as a gift to Mot and then himself prepares to go down to the underworld in the guise of a helpless shade. News of Ba‘al’s apparent death leads even El to mourn. ‘Anat, Ba‘al’s sister, finds Ba‘al’s corpse, presumably really the dead body of the calf, and she buries the body with a funeral feast. The god ‘Athtar is appointed to take Ba‘al’s place, but he is a poor substitute. Meanwhile ‘Anat finds Mot, cleaves him with a sword, burns him with fire, and throws his remains on the field for the birds to eat. But the earth is still cracked with drought until Shapsh fetches Ba‘al back.
Seven years later Mot returns and attacks Ba‘al in a battle which ceases only when Shapsh tells Mot that El now supports Ba’al. Thereupon Mot at once surrenders to Ba‘al/Hadad and recognizes Ba‘al as king.
In Sanchuniathon’s account Hadad is once called Adodos, but is mostly named Demarûs. This is a puzzling form, probably from Ugaritic dmrn, which appears in parallelism with Hadad, or possibly a Greek corruption of Hadad Ramān. Sanchuniathon’s Hadad is son of Sky by a concubine who is then given to the god Dagon while she is pregnant by Sky. This appears to be an attempt to combine two accounts of Hadad’s parentage, one of which is the Ugaritic tradition that Hadad was son of Dagon. The cognate Akkadian god Adad is also often called the son of Anu (“Sky”). The corresponding Hittite god Teshub is likewise son of Anu (after a fashion).
In Sanchuniathon’s account, it is Sky who first fights against Pontus (“Sea”). Then Sky allies himself with Hadad. Hadad takes over the conflict but is defeated, at which point unfortunately no more is said of this matter. Sanchuniathion agrees with Ugaritic tradition in making Muth, the Ugaritic Mot, whom he also calls “Death”, the son of El.
Hadad in Aram and Israel[edit source]
In the second millennium BCE, the king of Aleppo, or Halab, received a statue of Ishtar from the king of Mari, as a sign of deference, to be displayed in the temple of Hadad in Kilasou. The god “Adad” is called on a stele of the Assyrian king Shalmaneser I “the god of Aleppo”.
Hadad son of Bedad, who defeated the Midianites in the country of Moab, was the fourth king of Edom and Hadad was also the seventh of the twelve sons of Ishmael. The name Hadad appears in the name of Hadadezer (“Hadad-is-help”), the Aramean king defeated by David. Later Aramean kings of Damascus seem to have habitually assumed the title of Benhadad, or son of Hadad, just as a series of Egyptian monarchs are known to have been accustomed to call themselves sons of Ammon.
An example is Benhadad (“Son of Hadad”), the king of Aram whom Asa, king of Judah, employed to invade the northern kingdom, Israel, according to 1Kings 15:18. In the 9th or 8th century BCE, the name of Bar-Hadad ‘Son of Hadad’, king of Aram, is inscribed on his votive basalt stele dedicated to Melqart, found in Bredsh, a village north of Aleppo (National Museum, Aleppo, accession number KAI 201).
As a byname we find Aramaic rmn, Old South Arabic rmn, Hebrew rmwn, Akkadian Rammānu (“Thunderer”), presumably originally vocalized as Ramān in Aramaic and Hebrew. The Hebrew spelling rmwn with Massoretic vocalization Rimmôn (2Kings 5:18) is identical with the Hebrew word meaning ‘pomegranate’ and may be an intentional misspelling and parody of the original.
The word Hadad-rimmon, for which the inferior reading Hadar-rimmon is found in some manuscripts in the phrase “the mourning of (or at) Hadad-rimmon” (Zechariah 12:2), has been a subject of much discussion. According to Jerome and all the older Christian interpreters, the mourning is for something that occurred at a place called Hadad-rimmon (Maximianopolis) in the valley of Megiddo. The event alluded to was generally held to be the death of Josiah (or, as in the Targum, the death of Ahab at the hands of Hadadrimmon). But even before the discovery of the Ugaritic texts some suspected that Hadad-rimmon might be a dying god like Adonis or Tammuz, perhaps even the same as Tammuz, and the allusion could then be to mournings for Hadad such as those which usually accompanied the Adonis festivals. (Hitzig on Zechariah 12:2, Isaiah 17:8; Movers, Phonizier, 1.196).
T. K. Cheyne (Encyclopædia Biblica s.v.) pointed out that the Septuagint reads simply Rimmon, and argues that this may be a corruption of Migdon (Megiddo), in itself a corruption of Tammuz-Adon. He would render the verse, “In that day there shall be a great mourning in Jerusalem, as the mourning of the women who weep for Tammuz-Adon” (Adon means “lord”).
No further evidence has come to light to resolve such speculations.
Anat, the consort and sister of Baal, the most active Canaanite god, was called the “lady of the mountain,” and it was through he flattery of El that Baal was allowed to build a house on Saphon, a mountain situated in “the sides of the north.” In spite of her maiden and mother titles Anat was an aggressive goddess who slew Baal enemies, waded in the blood of her human victims, and desired to possess Aqhat’s bow. She was pictured with helmet, battle-axe, and spear. In Egypt, where the Hyksos invaders introduced her, the cow horns of Hathor became part of her iconography.
Athirat, “the lady of the sea,” appears to be the consort of El, the equivalent of the Hebrew god Yahweh. Her role was restricted to fertility. Astarte, “the queen of heaven,” was almost as fierce as Anat but less remote than Athirat. The Hebrews knew her as the goddess of the Sidonians, whom they worshiped. This angered Yahweh who complained to the prophet Jeremiah. At Mizpah temples of Yahweh and Astarte were erected side by side, while in Upper Egypt the Hebrews considered the goddess the divine consort still in the fifth century BC. The same as in the temples of Ishtar and Inanna, the sacred marriage and temple prostitution were prominent features of the cult, of which Yahweh also complained. Astarte was a beautiful goddess as well as a dangerous one; although the horns of the bull that she wore represented fertility, they could appear fearsome. In her fearful aspect she was the “mistress of horses and chariots,” which might have been an Arabian variant of the god Athtar, known as the terrible god who unsuccessfully tried to oust Baal.
Astarte’s name was first recorded about 1478 BC, but her cult was firmly established by then. The cult spread westward from Phoenicia into Greece, Rome, and as far as the British Isles. Prophets of the Old Testament condemned her worship because it included sexual rituals, and sacrifices of firstborn children and newborn animals to her.
Some scholars hold Astarte was a prototype of the Virgin Mary. Their theory is based on the ancient Syrian and Egyptian rituals of celebrating Astarte’s rebirth of the solar god on December 25th. A cry was heard that the Virgin had brought forth a newborn child, which was exhibited. Sir James Frazer in the Golden Bough writes, “No doubt the Virgin who thus conceived and bore a son on the twenty-fifth of December was the great Oriental goddess whom the Semites called the Heavenly Virgin or simply the Heavenly Goddess, in Semitic lands she was a form of Astarte.” The theory that credits Astarte as being a prototype of the Virgin Mary made be given creditability by many who accept that Christ was born on December 25th; but not by those who do not believe this was the date of Christ’s birth, and say the exact date is unknown. A.G.H.
Worship[edit source | editbeta]
Tanit was worshiped in Punic contexts in the Western Mediterranean, from Malta to Gades into Hellenistic times. From the fifth century BC onwards Tanit’s worship is associated with that of Ba`al Hammon. She is given the epithet pene baal (“face of Baal”) and the title rabat, the female form of rab (chief). In North Africa, where the inscriptions and material remains are more plentiful, she was, as well as a consort of Baal Hammon, a heavenly goddess of war, a virginal (not married) mother goddess and nurse, and, less specifically, a symbol of fertility, as are most female forms. Several of the major Greek goddesses were identified with Tanit by the syncretic interpretatio graeca, which recognized as Greek deities in foreign guise the gods of most of the surrounding non-Hellene cultures.
Tanit with a lion’s head
Her shrine excavated at Sarepta in southern Phoenicia revealed an inscription that identified her for the first time in her homeland and related her securely to the Phoenician goddess Astarte (Ishtar). One site where Tanit is uncovered is at Kerkouane, in the Cap Bon peninsula in Tunisia.
The worship of Baʿal Hammon flourished in the Phoenician colony of Carthage. His supremacy among the Carthaginian gods is believed to date to the 5th century BC, after relations between Carthage and Tyre were broken off at the time of the Punic defeat in Himera. Modern scholars identify him variously with the Northwest Semitic god El or with Dagon.
In Carthage and North Africa Baʿal Hammon was especially associated with the ram and was worshiped also as Baʿal Qarnaim (“Lord of Two Horns”) in an open-air sanctuary at Jebel Bu Kornein (“the two-horned hill”) across the bay from Carthage. He was probably never identified with Baʿal Melqart, although one finds this equation in older scholarship.
Ancient Greek writers identified him with the Titan Cronus. In ancient Rome, he was identified with Saturn, and the cultural exchange between Rome and Carthage as a result of the Second Punic War may have influenced the development of the Roman religious festival Saturnalia.
Greco-Roman sources report that the Carthaginians burned their children as offerings to Baʿal Hammon. (See Moloch for a discussion of these traditions and conflicting thoughts on the matter.) Attributes of his Romanized form as an African Saturn indicate that Hammon was a fertility god.
Name and functions[edit source | editbeta]
The meaning of Hammon or Hamon is unclear. In the 19th century when Ernest Renan excavated the ruins of Hammon (Ḥammon), the modern Umm al-‘Awamid between Tyre and Acre, he found two Phoenician inscriptions dedicated to El-Hammon. Since El was normally identified with Cronus and Ba‘al Hammon was also identified with Cronus, it seemed possible they could be equated. More often a connection with Hebrew/Phoenician ḥammān ‘brazier’ has been proposed, in the sense of “Baal (lord) of the brazier”. He has been therefore identified with a solar deity. Yigael Yadin thought him to be a moon god. Edward Lipinski identifies him with the god Dagon.
Frank Moore Cross argued for a connection to Khamōn, the Ugaritic and Akkadian name for Mount Amanus, the great mountain separating Syria from Cilicia based on the occurrence of an Ugaritic description of El as the one of the Mountain Haman. The name given to Baal Hammon “lord of the two horns” identifies him as the ancient moon god who was worshipped in Ur of the Chaldees in North Syria during the era of Ur-Nammu who reigned c2112 BC. This is the same deity who was worshipped by the forefathers of the Hebrew race in their ancient homeland of Syria where Abraham and his ancestors sojourned according the Bible before receiving the promise to conquer Canaan. The association of Baal Hammon with Cronos/Saturn is no coincedence at all but something which is well known in ancient Mesopotamian text. Text from ancient Babylonia clearly identifies him as the “son of El”, this El, is the same deity commonly known as En.Lil, “lord of the firmanent” and chief god of the city of ancient Nippur in Sumer. His two sons were known as Sin or Nanna Suen the moon god, and Ishkur aka Baal “the rider of the clouds”. The daughter of the moon god is said to be Ishtar of the planet Venus who became the wife of Baal Ishkur in Ugarit and Canaanite ancient text.
In the description of the Phoenician pantheon ascribed to Sanchuniathon, Astarte appears as a daughter of Epigeius (Greek: Uranus) and Ge (Earth), and sister of the god Elus. After Elus overthrows and banishes his father Epigeius, as some kind of trick Epigeius sends Elus his “virgin daughter” Astarte along with her sisters Asherah and the goddess who will later be called Ba`alat Gebal, “the Lady of Byblos”. It seems that this trick does not work, as all three become wives of their brother Elus. Astarte bears Elus children who appear under Greek names as seven daughters called the Titanides or Artemides and two sons named Pothos “Longing” and Eros “Desire”. Later with Elus’ consent, Astarte and Hadad reign over the land together. Astarte puts the head of a bull on her own head to symbolize Her sovereignty. Wandering through the world, Astarte takes up a star that has fallen from the sky (a meteorite) and consecrates it at Tyre.
Long before the Yahweh cult emerged among the Hebrews in the Ancient Near East the Goddess Astarte was worshipped by them. Her oldest temple at Byblos dates back to the Neolithic and she flourished in the Bronze Age where she was also known as Demeter in Greece and Ishtar in Babylonia. King Solomon worshipped Astarte when the Israelites had not yet fully committed to a monotheism with Yahweh cult (1 Kings 11:5). During the Bronze Age some Israelites perceived her as the female consort to Yahweh. Her symbol was the dove and coinage portrayed Astarte as the heavenly dove of Wisdom (Walker, 1983, p. 253-54).