Yesterday I noticed how my former wife, Mary Ann Tharaldsen, looks like my grandmother, Mary Magdalene Rosamond, whose maiden name is Wieneke. Above is the Wieneke cote of arms showing bunch of grapes coming across a body of water. I have seen a hand coming out of a cloud holding a bunch of grapes which migh suggest ‘Wodin-given’ of ‘God-given’. The cloud is visible at the upper-right. In the name Wieneke is wine.
Vineland is Wine-land. Because their are large waves I suspect this bunch of grapes was brought across the Atlantic. Did Monks hire the Vikings to go in search of grapes? Did they rob grape plants? Consider the Holy Grail and the Eucharist…..hand coming out of a cloud holding a cup.
According to Rosemary, the Wieneke’s owned several castles on the Hephoon Heil, a place in Germany I have yet to locate. The wine country in Germany is found on the Rhine. Did the Vikings bring a new species here, they always on the look-out for wild grapes?
In the book Erik the Red, Leif the Lucky and Other Pre-Columbian Discoverers of America (1911) we read that a German named Tyrker discovered grape plants in Vineland, and knows how to transport them. He appears to be from the Rhineland.
“I have not been far from here but I have something new to tell you of. I have found vines and grapes.”
“Is that true, my old one.?” said Leif.
“It is really true,” Tyrker replied. “I should know, for where I was brought up there are plenty of vines and
Could it be Tyrker is my kindred? He is described as Leif’s ‘foster father’ or guardian. Was Leif brought up in the Rhineland so he could learn the skills of a vinter? The Norseman were business men and opportunists, first.
In thinking aloud I believe I have come across a startling new theory, being Tyrker was a Monk whose tonsured head is responsible for the account of he having a protruding forehead, that could also imply the top of the head.
“He was a little, wretched-looking fellow, with protruding forehead, unsteady eyes, and tiny face, yet a man skilled in all manner of handicraft.”
Monks were skilled in all manner of handicrafts, including growing wine. Leif was converted to Christianity and may be calling Tyrker “Father” and thus the idea he was his foster-father. The birthplace of Leif is not known. His father was exiled. Did Eric go up the Rhine where he became allied with a monestary that raised his son? It is said King Olaf converted Leif, but, it may be the other way around.
One account says Leif was looking for wood. How much wood would a Viking vessel hold – along with thirty-five men and their provisions? It is said a large load of dried grapes was brought aboard, but, was there enough sun to dry them just before winter set in?
What I suspect is that Tryker built planter-boxes and barrels to hold fresh water to keep the vines alive. Tryker was a cooper. He was looking for a hardier northern species that could be grown in the lands of the Norseman, and parts of Germany, where forests abound. I see a Viking ship coming down the Rhine guiding a large raft of fallen logs. I see Eric the Red paying a Father for another load.
As Christianity spread into Sweden, Norway, and Denmark, you’re going to need a lot of wine for the Eucharist, because one little sip will not do these mighty drinking men.
“Fill up me cup Father, for I have seen the light!’
It is this thinking aloud that promotes true scholarship, verses squirreling away your theory behind a berm and pouring down oil upon all comers. The wandering Viking were the first world wide web.
The Wieneke family fled from Germany because of Bismark’s Kulturekumf. The Wienekes were supporters of the Order of Saint Francis. My grandmother’s cousin, Mother Mary Dominica, founded Briar Cliff college.
A month after Mary Ann and I got married, her ex-husband, David Seidler, sued for custody of their thrirteen year old daughter, Britt, wo was named after the Scandanavian Goddess, Brigid. This is key because Brigid was fought over by Pagans and Christians to the point the Catholic Church made her a Saint.
Mary Ann told me David Seidler was proud of his German Heritage. This is key because the Nazis latched on to the Oera Linda books and used the Frisian Atlanteans to depict their bloodline as superior. Consider my post on the Nazi Titanic. Atland is the Frisian Atlantis. Rosamond was a Frisian Folk-Mother, and Jon was a Sea-King – who founds Britain, a name that stems from Brigit. The Zeno map shows an island named Frisland. The Rosemondt family were Swan Brethren in Holland.
It is my belief that my Muse brought I and my former wife together so we could bring together the Legend of Eric the Red a Sea-king, and the legend of Atland in order to raise a New Atlantis from the depths of despair. This done, we will release the Dove of Peace. Jonah means ‘dove’. Ian is a form of Jon. We were ‘The Peace Generation’.
I believe I have permission from Mary Ann, and Rena Easton to render an Atlantean Family Tree, where Rena is the model for Brigid the goddess of fire. I believe Rena’s diceased daughter, Kathlene, saw herself as Brigid because she was into the Celtic Cosmology. But, most of all, I own permission from my Muse who is an Atlantean, amongst other things.
These posts on Atland will be a Work of Art, rather then a Work of History. In rendering a work of art, one does not need, nor can one expect to get permission from all parties. In the union of Mary Ann, and Mary Magdalene ‘Rose of the World’ in my family tree, alas we find two souls in perfect agreement.
Mary had four beautiful daughters. She saw me as the son she wanted.
I would like Mary Ann to contribute to this great work that we would have begun soon after we met. But, masterpieces have a way evolving that transcend the boundaries of time and space. Information is gathered in ways that are mysterious. Let us begin a New Genesis and leave a Worthy Legacy for the future.
“At this time Rosamond the Mother, who had done all in her power by gentle means to preserve peace, when she saw how bad it was, made short work of it. Immediately she sent messengers throughout all the districts to call a general levy, which brought together all the defenders of the country. The landsmen who were fighting were all
caught, but Jon with his seamen took refuge on board his fleet, taking with him the two lamps, as well as Minerva and the maidens of both the citadels. Helprik, the chief summoned him to appear; but while all the soldiers were on the other side of the Scheldt, Jon sailed back to the Flymeer, and then straight to our islands. His fighting men and many of our people took women and children on board, and when Jon saw that he and his people would be punished for their
misdeeds, he secretly took his departure. He did well, for all our islanders and the other Scheldt people who had been fighting were transported to Britain.
Jon, John, Jhon, Jan, are all the same name, though the pronunciation varies, as the seamen like to shorten everything to be able to make it easier to call. Jon – that is, “Given” – was a sea-king, born at Alberga, who sailed from the Flymeer with a fleet of 127 ships.
One evening he found a man
of his company missing, the German, named Tyrker,
already mentioned. He was greatly concerned and
after reproaching his people for their negligence,
selected twelve men and set out to find the lost
man. After going a short distance, they met Tyrker
and were much delighted. Leif had had many
proofs that his ward had more than usual ability
and a good mind. Tyrker was of slight build, and
had pleasant features and sharp, quick eyes, and was
a skilled mechanician. Leif said to him: “Why
do you come back so late and why did you stray
away from your companions.^” Tyrker cast down
his eyes, hesitated, and at last said in German:
“I have not been far from here but I have something
new to tell you of. I have found vines and grapes.”
“Is that true, my old one.?” said Leif. “It is really
true,” Tyrker replied. “I should know, for where
I was brought up there are plenty of vines and
That night they devoted themselves to sleep and
on the following morning Leif said to his men:
“We have now two matters to attend to, to gather
LEIF THE LUCKY
grapes and fell timber, and have it ready for the
loading of the vessel.” All were delighted, and
the ship’s long boat was filled with grapes and the
vessel with timber.^ Thev found fields of wheat
which grew wild, and maple trees. They took sam-
ples of the one and enough of the timber to build a
house. In the Spring preparations were made for de-
parture, but before leaving, on account of its fruit-
fulness in grapes, he named the country “Vineland^
Tyrker (or Tyrkir) is a character mentioned in the Norse Saga of the Greenlanders and German historical legend He accompanied Leif on his voyage of discovery around the year 1000, and is portrayed as an older German male servant. He is referred to as “foster father” by Leif Ericson, which may indicate he was a freed thrall, who once had the responsibility of looking after and rearing the young Leif.
He was a little, wretched-looking fellow, with protruding forehead, unsteady eyes, and tiny face, yet a man skilled in all manner of handicraft.
“I was born in a land where grapes grow in plenty. And this land bears them! Behold what I bring you!”
There are two kinds of work now to be done. One day you  shall gather grapes the next you shall cut timber to freight the ship.
After this discovery there is little of interest to record. The winter, which proved to be a very mild one, passed away, and in the spring they set sail again for Greenland, their ship laden deeply with timber, so useful a treasure in their treeless northern home, while the long-boat was filled to the gunwale with the grapes they had gathered and dried.
Around A.D. 1000, Eriksson sailed to Norway, where King Olaf I converted him to Christianity
Leif grew to be a large and imposing man, one known for his fair judgment and honesty. Having been reared under his father’s adventurous hand, Leif had a strong urge to travel and explore. One of his first trips was eastward, to Norway, the homeland of his family. He arrived in Nidaros (Trondheim) and was well received by King Olav Tryggvasson. Leif and his men stayed there for the winter, and were taught the foundations of Christianity. Before they left Norway, Leif, along with all of his men, accepted the faith and were baptised Christians. Returning to Greenland, Leif taught the people of his new-found beliefs. His mother listened to his words and became a Christian. So devout in her belief was she, she asked Eric to have a church built for worship. Grudgingly, Eric fulfilled her request, but he himself never accepted the faith or visited the finished church.
After Bjarni had made his official report in Norway, Leif Ericson (Old Norse: Leifr Eiríksson, the son of Greenland leader Eric the Red) bought the ship that Bjarni had used for the voyage, hired a crew of 35 people and set out to find the land. The result is thought to be the Viking settlement at L’Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland. This is the first known attempt at settlement by Europeans on the mainland of the Americas. (The North American island of Greenland was settled much earlier.)
KALTA AND THE ORIGINS OF THE CELTS
This chapter is the story of Rosamond, Kalta and the early years of Minerva however standard history has very little to say about these historical personages. Their influence on the course of Europe and the Mediterranean was enormous, affecting everything that has followed for thousands of years. Of Rosamond nothing is known except for a namesake, Fair Rosamond, the mistress of King Henry II who has
been endowed with many legends and dubious stories beyond her
station. Kalta is not remembered but the Celts who were named after her have various “historical” descriptions.
Atlantis in Northern Europe
In 1876 Trubner and Co, a respected English publisher, released a curious work entitled The Oera Linda Book. It purported to be the translation of a thirteenth-century ancient Frisian text which spoke of the destruction of a landmass known to ancient mariners as Atland, and to the Frisians of the Netherlands and Denmark as the Aldland, the `Old Land’. This lay in the North Sea between Denmark and the Shetland Isles, and was devastated by floods and cataclysms at a date given specifically as 2193 BC. The book went on to detail how its displaced peoples, who worshipped the goddess Freya, eventually settled in Frisia, where they developed a major maritime culture which traded regularly with the Phoenicians of the eastern Mediterranean. Indeed, the Oera Linda Book suggests that a Frisian sea-king named Teunis founded the Phoenician port of Tyre on the Lebanese coast, c. 2000 BC.
Even though the ancient text was advertised as genuine, its authenticity was quickly challenged by scholars. For instance, one of the Frisian sea-kings named Inka is said to have gone on a quest in search of lost Atland. Having journeyed in the direction of the setting sun, he finally came across an unknown land where he established a kingdom. This clearly is a reference to America, inferring therefore that Inka was the founder of the Inca civilisation of Peru (`inca’ is Peruvian for king). Since we now know that the Incas only rose to power in the thirteenth century it makes nonsense of the claim made in the Oera Linda Book. It is also stated that the Greek alphabet is derived from a much earlier Frisian script. Yet scholars rightly point out that, according to Herodotus, the Greek alphabet came from Phoenicia, and is thus Semitic in origin. Other similar irregularities ensured that no academic ever took the book seriously.
The book was forgotten until 1977 when ancient mysteries writer Robert Scrutton took it upon himself to write a lengthy commentary and introduction for an abridged edition of the Oera Linda Book. Entitled The Other Atlantis, it was an instant bestseller and once again the authenticity of the Frisian text was debated by scholars and historians alike. Furthermore, the close similarity between the name Atland and Atlantis made the former North Sea landmass a major candidate for the site of Plato’s ancient kingdom. Despite this new leash of life, the Oera Linda Book was quickly forgotten and the only references to it which appear in books today right it off as a nineteenth-century hoax.
Wallace argues that Vinland meant “Wineland”, because if you include bits of the Saint Lawrence Seaway in the regional name, there are in fact abundant grapes in the area. In addition, she cites the generations of philologists who have rejected the “pastureland” translation. If it had been “Pastureland” the word should have been either Vinjaland or Vinjarland, not Vinland. Further, the philologists argue, why name a new place “Pastureland”? The Norse had plenty of pastures in other places, but few seriously wonderful sources of grapes. Wine, and not pastures, had an enormous importance in the old country, where Leif fully intended to develop trade networks.
The Gulf of St. Lawrence is some 700 nautical miles from L’Anse aux Meadows, or about half the distance back to Greenland; Wallace believes that the Fjord of Currents was the northern entrance to what Leif called Vinland, and that Vinland included Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, neary 1,000 kilometers south of L’Anse aux Meadows. New Brunswick has and had abundant quantities of the riverbank grape (Vitis riparia), the frost grape (Vitis labrusca) and the fox grape (Vitis valpina). Evidence that Leif’s crew reached these locations includes the presence of butternut shells and a butternut burl among the assemblage at L’Anse aux Meadows—butternut is another plant species that does not grow in Newfoundland but is also found in New Brunswick.
So, if Vinland was such a great place for grapes, why did Leif leave? The sagas suggest that hostile residents of the region, called Skraelingar in the sagas, were a strong deterrent to the colonists. That, and the fact that Vinland was so very far from the people who would have been interested in the grapes and the wine they might have produced, spelled an end to the Norse explorations in Newfoundland.
Despite these drawbacks, it is now accepted by archaeologists that a land-bridge did once exist between Norway and the Shetland Isles. Yet this was drowned by rising sea-levels as early as 6000-5000 BC, not `2193 BC’ as the Oera Linda Book implies. It therefore seemed unlikely that any major landmass ever existed in the North Sea, or in the Baltic as has also been proposed.
Recently, Britain itself has been linked with the traditions surrounding Plato’s Atlantis. Russian scientist Viatscheslav Koudriavtsev of the Institute of Metahistory in Moscow is convinced that evidence of the island’s former existence will be found on the shallow banks that lie beyond Cornwall’s Isles of Scilly, traditionally the site of lost Lyonesse.
Yet such ideas make nonsense of Plato’s suggestion that the Atlantic island he describes in his works the Timaeus and Critias, written c. 350 BC, lay in front of an `opposite continent’, very probably the Americas, which `voyagers’ could reach via a series of `other’ islands. This is unless we assume that these islands are those which mark the Northwest Passage from northern Britain to New England – the route taken by the Vikings to reach Newfoundland in around AD 1000.
Although there is ample evidence of pre-Columbian contact with New England by Iberic Phoenician, Carthaginian and Roman seafarers, it seems unlikely that an island in the North Sea, the Baltic or anywhere off the coast of Britain, would have been referred to as Atlantis, which means `daughter of Atlas’. Plato’s legendary island takes its name from Atlas, the legendary Titan who was granted dominion over the lands of the Far West, including West Africa and the uncharted seas which lay beyond the Pillars of Hercules, the legendary rocks marked the entrance to the Atlantic or Western Ocean. All this would imply that only those islands which lay in this direction would have been known as Atlantides, `daughters of Atlas’. Furthermore, we know that Britain and Northern Europe as a whole was strongly identified with a legendary location sacred to the sun-god Apollo called Hyperborea, and not with any of the legendary islands spoken of in classical tradition.
There seems to be no good reason to link any site in Northern Europe with Plato’s Atlantis tradition.
Order of Priestesses
The judiciary of Friesland shall comprise an Order of Priestesses (Oarder fan Fâmna), which shall also safeguard the constitution. Every year 220 girls, aged 13, shall be chosen by lot as trainees (lêrfâmkis), and four assigned to each borough. At 18 they shall become priestesses (fâmna, sing. fâm). They shall be required to remain chaste, and to spend six hours a day, in two shifts, kneeling before their borough’s beacon (foddik), a perpetual flame representing truth and justice, presided over by a borough-priestess (burchfâm), who may veto any decision of the borough council or sheriff. There shall be seven priestesses and five trainees kneeling before their beacon at all times. At 25 they shall either be discharged, or become elders (i.e. judges), and be eligible for appointment as borough-priestesses.
The head of state of Friesland shall be the Folk Mother (Folksmoder), head of the Order of Priestesses, with her official residence in the former almshouses at Weverstraat 63-67, Den Burg, Texel. The Folk Mother may veto any decision of the National Assembly or the Stadtholder. She shall appoint, and may remove from office, borough-priestesses for each of the other boroughs, and shall herself act as borough-priestess for Texel. The Folk Mother and borough-priestesses shall hold court outdoors, taking petitions in front of their residences. The term of office of the Folk Mother shall be for life, and upon her death her successor shall be elected by a conclave of the borough-priestesses from amongst themselves.
The Frisian Alliance derives its proposals for an independent Friesland from the Oera Linda Book, a collection of ancient writings discovered in the Netherlands in the 1860s, detailing the history and mythology of the Frisians. Although the manuscript apparently dates to the 13th century, it is copied from much older texts, and since it is written in the oldest and purest known form of the Frisian language, it shall be required learning in all schools. It comprises six parts, of which the second, The Book of Adela’s Followers, is by far the longest. These are divided into a total of fifty-three chapters. The first English translation, linked below, was made by William Sandbach in 1876, and published by Trübner & Co. of London.
THE BOOK OF ADELA’S FOLLOWERS
THE WRITINGS OF ADELBROST AND APOLLONIA
THE WRITINGS OF FRÊTHORIK AND WILJOW
THE WRITING OF KONERÊD
 Goddess and Folk-mothers
According to the Oera Linda Book.
Frya, ?-2194 BC (eponymous ancestress of the Frisians, who supposedly inhabited all of Northern and Western Europe)
Fasta, 2194-after 2145 BC (appointed by Frya when the latter ascended to the stars during a terrible flood)
Minna, fl. 2013 BC (faced an invasion of Finns from the east, who settled in the Frisian lands in Scandinavia)
Rosamond, 1631-? BC (the Frisians in Western Europe revolted and became the Celts)
Hellicht, fl. 1621 BC
Frana, ?-590 BC (murdered by the Finns during an invasion)
Adela (de facto), 590-559 BC (supposedly ordered the compilation of what became the Oera Linda Book)
Gosa, 306-before 264 BC (elected after a long vacancy, Frisian rule confined to approximately the modern Netherlands)
Prontlik, fl. c. 60 BC (puppet folk-mother appointed by King Asinga Ascon)
According to the Frisia seu de viris rebusque illustribus (and the Oera Linda Book).
Friso, 313-245 BC (Adel I Friso (de facto), 304-264 BC) (established a militaristic hereditary monarchy)
Adel, 245-151 BC (Adel II Atharik, 264-? BC)
Ubbo, 151-71 BC (Adel III Ubbo)
Asinga Ascon, 71 BC-AD 11 (Adel IV Asega Askar, or Black Adel) (reviled for employing foreign troops and bringing plague)
Diocarus Segon, 11-46
Dibbaldus Segon, 46-85 (? Verritus) (forced to accept Roman protection, and may have visited Rome in person)
Tabbo, 85-130 (? Malorix)
According to the Frisia seu de viris rebusque illustribus.
Asconius, 130-173 (title downgraded to duke as a Roman client)
Titus Boiocalus, 187-240
Haron Ubbo, 299-335
Udolphus Haron, 360-392
According to the Frisia seu de viris rebusque illustribus (and Merovingian chronicles).
Richardus, Uffo, 392-435 (? Finn Folcwalding)
Odilbaldus, 435-470 (? Sibbelt)
Richoldus, 470-533 (? Ritzard)
Beroaldus, 533-590 (? Audulf)
Adgillus I, 590-672 (Aldegisel, ?-680)
Radbodus I, 672-723 (Radbod I, 680-719)
(Poppo, 719-734) (not listed in the rebusque)
Adgillus II, 723-737 (Aldegisel II)
Gondobaldus, 737-749 (Gundebold, or Aldegisel III)
Radbodus II, 749-775 (Radbod II)
Old Frisian is a West Germanic language spoken between the 8th and 16th centuries in the area between the Rhine and Weser on the European North Sea coast. The Frisian settlers on the coast of South Jutland (today’s Northern Friesland) also spoke Old Frisian but no medieval texts of this area are known
More than forty years later, beginning in 1922, Dutch völkisch philologist Herman Wirth revived the issue. Wirth published a German translation of what he dubbed the “Nordic Bible” in 1933, as Die Ura Linda Chronik.
A panel discussion on Wirth’s book at the University of Berlin on 4 May 1934 was the immediate impulse for the foundation of the Ahnenerbe Nazi “think tank” by Himmler and Wirth, together with Richard Walther Darré. Because of the infatuation of Himmler’s with the Oera Linda Book and its consequent association with Nazi occultism, it became known as “Himmler’s Bible”. Wirth’s book was by no means universally acclaimed among the Nazi era Nordicist academics, and the 1934 panel discussion was steeped in heated controversy. Alfred Rosenberg and his circle rejected it. Gustav Neckel had praised Wirth’s work before publication, but upon seeing its content published a dismayed recension.
Themes running through the Oera Linda Book include catastrophism, nationalism, matriarchy, and mythology. The text alleges that Europe and other lands were, for most of their history, ruled by a succession of folk-mothers presiding over a hierarchical order of celibate priestesses dedicated to the goddess Frya, daughter of the supreme god Wr-alda and Irtha, the earth mother. The claim is also made that this Frisian civilization possessed an alphabet which was the ancestor of the Greek and Phoenician alphabets.
Between 1679-1702, Rudbeck dedicated himself to contributions in historical-linguistics patriotism, writing a 3,000-page treatise in four volumes called Atlantica (Atland eller Manheim in Swedish) where he purported to prove that Sweden was Atlantis, the cradle of civilization, and Swedish the original language of Adam from which Latin and Hebrew had evolved.
The Nobel family, including Ludvig Nobel, the founder of Branobel, and Alfred Nobel, the founder of the Nobel Prizes, was a descendant of Rudbeck through his daughter Wendela, who married one of her father’s former students, Peter Olai Nobelius.
In Celtic religion and Irish mythology, Brigit or Brighid (exalted one) is the daughter of the Dagda and one of the Tuatha Dé Danann. She was the wife of Bres of the Fomorians, with whom she had a son, Ruadán. She has been worshiped by the Celtic people as a Saint for over fifteen hundred years, and as a Goddess long before the Roman invasion of Britain and the birth of Christ. Her cult was so powerful that the Celtic Christian Church had to adopt her as a Saint, and the Roman Catholic Church followed suit, for her people would not abandon her. The name ‘Britain’ is a derivation of Brigit’s name. Britain was named for an ancient Celtic tribe, the Brigantes, who worshiped Brigit and were the largest Celtic tribe to occupy the British Isles in pre-Roman times.
She had two sisters, also named Brighid, and is considered a classic Celtic Triple Goddess.[dubious – discuss]
The “Zeno Narrative,” also included the “Zeno Map,” of the North Atlantic. The eastern part of the map shows the outlines of Sweden, Norway and Denmark. Greenland (called Engronelant) is shown with permanent mountain ranges. Iceland (called Islanda) is shown between Norway and Greenland. The northern tip of Scotland is shown on the bottom right-hand corner. The diamond shaped area in the middle is thought to be floating pumice from a volcanic eruption on Iceland. At the bottom left-hand corner is the area thought to be Nova Scotia.
Several islands are also shown, they include Estland, Podalida, Estotialand, Icaria and the most famous Frisland. Why any of these islands were mistakenly drawn remains a mystery. The :Zeno Map,” was first published in the first edition of Girolamo Ruscelli’s “Geographia,” in Venice in 1561.
In the northern islands, and the statement
that he lived fourteen years on the island of Frisland,
four years of the time with his brother Nicolo.
It appears also that one of his descendants, Nicolo
Zeno, born in 1515, when he was a boy, tore up the
papers containing the narrative, the value of which
he did not appreciate. When older, he realized their
importance, collected the fragments, and from these
and some documents which were intact constructed the narrative as it was given to the world. He also
found in the palace a map, half mouldered by age,
upon which the voyages were traced. He made a
drawing of the map and restored the entire narra- tive as well as he could.
Obedient children! When they came to themselves again, they made this high mound and built this citadel upon it, and on the walls they wrote the Tex, and that every one should be able to find it they called the land about it Texland. Therefore it shall remain as long as the earth shall be the earth.
“THESE ARE THE LAWS ESTABLISHED FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE CITADELS
1. Whenever a citadel is built, the lamp belonging to it must be lighted at the original lamp in Texland [Place named in honour of Frya’s laws where a citadel was built and the Tex inscribed upon its walls], and that can only be done by the mother.
2. Every mother shall appoint her own maidens. She may even appoint those who are mothers in other towns.
3. The mother of Texland may appoint her own successor, but should she die without having done so, the election shall take place at a general assembly of the whole nation.
4. The mother of Texland may have twenty-one maidens and seven assistants, so that there may always be seven to attend the lamp day and night. She may have the same number of maidens who are mothers in other towns.
5. If a maiden wishes to marry, she must announce it to the mother, and immediately resign her office, before her passion shall have polluted the light.
6. For the service of the mothers and each of the Burgtmaidens [Literally, ‘borough-maid’. Chief of the Council of Virgins, in charge of twenty-one maidens and seven apprentices, custodians of the eternally-burning lamp] there shall be appointed twenty-one townsmen – seven civilians of mature years, seven warriors of mature years, and seven seamen of mature years.
7. Out of the seven three shall retire every year, and shall not be replaced by members of their family nearer than the fourth degree.
8. Each shall have three hundred young townsmen as defenders.
9. For this service they must study Frya’s Tex and the laws. From the sages they must learn wisdom, from the warriors the art of war, and from the sea-kings the skill required for distant voyages.”
Vine trellising according to the Pfälzer Kammerbau system traditional to the Palatinate, where it was widely used until the 18th century. In an all-wooden version (without the steel wires), this system is supposed to date back to Roman times.
Early history[edit source]
Viticulture in present-day Germany dates back to Ancient Roman times, to sometime from 70 to 270 CE/AD (Agri Decumates). In those days, the western parts of today’s Germany made up the outpost of the Roman empire against the Germanic tribes on the other side of Rhine. What is generally considered to be Germany’s oldest city, Trier, was founded as a Roman garrison and is situated directly on the river Moselle (Mosel) in the eponymous wine region. The oldest archeological finds that may indicate early German viticulture are curved pruning knives found in the vicinity of Roman garrisons, dating from the 1st century AD. However, it is not absolutely certain that these knives were used for viticultural purposes. Emperor Probus, whose reign can be dated two centuries later than these knives, is generally considered the founder of German viticulture, but for solid documentation of winemaking on German soil, we must go to around 370 AD, when Ausonius of Bordeaux wrote Mosella, where he in enthusiastic terms described the steep vineyards on river Moselle.
The wild vine, the forerunner of the cultivated Vitis vinifera is known to have grown on upper Rhine back to historic time, and it is possible (but not documented) that Roman-era German viticulture was started using local varieties. Many viticultural practices were however taken from other parts of the Roman empire, as evidenced by Roman-style trellising systems surviving into the 18th century in some parts of Germany, such as the Kammerbau in the Palatinate.
Almost nothing is known of the style or quality of “German” wines that were produced in the Roman era, with the exception of the fact that the poet Venantius Fortunatus mentions red German wine around AD 570.
From Medieval times to today[edit source]
Before the era of Charlemagne, Germanic viticulture was practiced primarily, although not exclusively, on the western side of Rhine. Charlemagne is supposed to have brought viticulture to Rheingau. The eastward spread of viticulture coincided with the spread of Christianity, which was supported by Charlemagne. Thus, in Medieval Germany, churches and monasteries played the most important role in viticulture, and especially in the production of quality wine. Two Rheingau examples illustrate this: archbishop Ruthard of Mainz (reigning 1089-1109) founded a Benedictine abbey on slopes above Geisenheim, the ground of which later became Schloss Johannisberg. His successor Adalbert of Mainz donated land above Hattenheim in 1135 to Cistercians, sent out from Clairvaux in Champagne, who founded Kloster Eberbach.
Many grape varieties commonly associated with German wines have been documented back to the 14th or 15th century. Riesling has been documented from 1435 (close to Rheingau), and Pinot noir from 1318 on Lake Constance under the name Klebroth, from 1335 in Affenthal in Baden and from 1470 in Rheingau, where the monks kept a Clebroit-Wyngart in Hattenheim. The most grown variety in medieval Germany was however Elbling, with Silvaner also being common, and Muscat, Räuschling and Traminer also being recorded.
For several centuries of the Medieval era, the vineyards of Germany (including Alsace) expanded, and is believed to have reached their greatest extent sometime around 1500, when perhaps as much as four times the present vineyard surface was planted. Basically, the wine regions were located in the same places as today, but more lands around the rivers, and land further upstream Rhine’s tributaries, was cultivated.