John Astor – Drug Pusher

astor7

astor9

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astoria6I just called the Oregon Historic Society and tried to find out why some folks are saying the ‘My Oregon – You’re Oregon’ exhibit is “controversial”. I suspect it is because it doesn’t include any white-washed romantic notions from Christians, and promotes Rock and Roll via posters and guitars. Then there is that homeless man – with basket! Is he on drugs? Is he an addict, and thus he is homeless? Does he love Rock music too much? Is he a parasite on society? Is he anti-American?

The Christian-right backs the very rich who bank in the Cayman Islands and fly what looks like a British flag on their yachts. Republicans accuse our President of being an anti-Capitalist, and anti-Big Business. Jonh Jacob Astor was America’s first Big Business Man. He made millions delivering opium to Chinese addicts with the help of the British we fought our War of Independence against over the taxation of tea. When the Emperor of China tried to legalize opium so it could be taxed, the British invaded and forced Chinese citizens to consume a narcotic. Many Chinese people could not go to work and became parasites on their society.

Meanwhile, back at the ranch, Washington Irving is creating a Emporic Drug Culture of Western Conquest. His book ‘Astoria’ is about his good buddies raping of the American Wilderness. The city of Astoria Oregon is named after John. The hippie drug culture only lasted ten years before it wiped out. The Opium Wars lasted over a hundred years.

“Just say no!” did not work with very wealthy men who employed politicians in order to get their way. It appears China is mimicking this conquest of the world. Senator Thomas Hart Benton in his Manifest Destiny suggests the white man should mate with Chinese women, and have children

“Make love, not war!”

Jon Presco
John Jacob Astor: New York’s first drug dealer

German immigrant John Jacob Astor, who arrived in Manhattan dirt poor in 1784, made his first fortune (about $5 million) trading furs with native tribes, eventually shipping the pelts all over the world.

But in 1816, opportunistic, ruthless salesman Astor got into another lucrative new business: smuggling opium.

He had already been selling furs to China, bringing skins from the Pacific Northwest to warehouses in New York, where they were then shipped to Canton.

So it was easy for Astor to join the booming worldwide narcotics trade.

He purchasing thousands of pounds of Turkish opium and shipped it to China—illegally, as China had banned opium in 1799, according to this PBS/Frontline opium timeline.

Astor snagged a lucrative slice of the drug biz before quitting after a few years and putting his millions in another sometimes slimy venture: New York real estate. Astor Place, Astoria, and Astor Row in Harlem all bear his name.

Opium has been known in China since the 7th century and for centuries it was used for medicinal purposes. It was not until the 17th century that the practice of mixing opium with tobacco for smoking was introduced into China by Europeans.[1]

The import of Opium into China stood at 200 chests (annual) in 1729,[1] when the first anti-opium edict was promulgated.[2][3] This edict was weakly enforced,[3] and by the time Chinese authorities reissued the prohibition in starker terms in 1799,[4] the figure had leaped; 4,500 chests were imported in the year 1800.[1] The decade of the 1830s witnessed a rapid rise in opium trade,[5] and by 1838 (just before the first Opium War) it climbed to 40,000 chests.[1][5] The rise continued on after the Treaty of Nanking that concluded the war.[a] (See #Growth of opium trade below).

The opium trafficked into China had come from East India Company’s operations in Bengal, British India, produced at its two factories in Patna and Benares.[7] In the 1820s, opium from Malwa in the non-British controlled parts of India became available, and as prices fell due to competition, production was stepped up.[7]

These commodities were carried by British merchants to the coast of China, where they sold for a good profit.

With the drain of silver and the growing number of the people becoming victims of the drug, the Daoguang Emperor demanded action. Officials at the court who advocated legalization of the trade in order to tax it, were defeated by those who advocated suppression. In 1838, the Emperor sent Lin Zexu to Guangzhou, where he quickly arrested Chinese opium dealers and summarily demanded that foreign firms turn over their stocks. When they refused, Lin stopped trade altogether and placed the foreign residents under virtual siege, eventually forcing the merchants to surrender their opium to be destroyed.

In response, the British government sent expeditionary forces from India, which ravaged the Chinese coast and dictated the terms of settlement. The Treaty of Nanking not only opened the way for further opium trade, but ceded territory including Hong Kong, unilaterally fixed Chinese tariffs at a low rate, granted extraterritorial rights to foreigners in China (which were not offered to Chinese abroad), a most favored nation clause, and diplomatic representation. When the court still refused to accept foreign ambassadors and obstructed the trade clauses of the treaties, disputes over the treatment of British merchants in Chinese ports and on the seas led to the Second Opium War and the Treaty of Tientsin.[8]

These treaties, soon followed by similar arrangements with the United States and France, later became known as the Unequal Treaties, and the Opium Wars represented the start of China’s “Century of humiliation”.

Washington Irving

Born

April 3, 1783
New York City, New York

Literary movement

Washington Irving (April 3, 1783 – November 28, 1859) was an American author, essayist, biographer, historian, and diplomat of the early 19th century. He is best known for his short stories “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow” and “Rip Van Winkle”, both of which appear in his book The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. His historical works include biographies of George Washington, Oliver Goldsmith and Muhammad, and several histories of 15th-century Spain dealing with subjects such as Christopher Columbus, the Moors, and the Alhambra. Irving served as the U.S. ambassador to Spain from 1842 to 1846.

He made his literary debut in 1802 with a series of observational letters to the Morning Chronicle, written under the pseudonym Jonathan Oldstyle. After moving to England for the family business in 1815, he achieved international fame with the publication of The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. in 1819-20. He continued to publish regularly—and almost always successfully—throughout his life, and completed a five-volume biography of George Washington just eight months before his death, at age 76, in Tarrytown, New York.

Irving, along with James Fenimore Cooper, was among the first American writers to earn acclaim in Europe, and Irving encouraged American authors such as Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and Edgar Allan Poe. Irving was also admired by some European writers, including Walter Scott, Lord Byron, Thomas Campbell, Francis Jeffrey, and Charles Dickens. As America’s first genuine internationally best-selling author, Irving advocated for writing as a legitimate profession, and argued for stronger laws to protect American writers from copyright infringement.

Contents
[hide] 1 Biography 1.1 Early years
1.2 First major writings
1.3 Life in Europe 1.3.1 The Sketch Book
1.3.2 Bracebridge Hall and Tales of a Traveller
1.3.3 Spanish books
1.3.4 Secretary to the American legation in London

1.4 Return to America
1.5 Minister to Spain
1.6 Final years and death

2 Legacy 2.1 Literary reputation
2.2 Impact on American culture
2.3 Memorials

3 List of works
4 References 4.1 Notes
4.2 Bibliography

5 External links

Biography [edit]

Early years [edit]

Washington Irving’s parents were William Irving, Sr., originally of Quholm, Shapinsay, Orkney, and Sarah (née Sanders), Scottish-English immigrants. They married in 1761 while William was serving as a petty officer in the British Navy. They had eleven children, eight of whom survived to adulthood. Their first two sons, each named William, died in infancy, as did their fourth child, John. Their surviving children were: William, Jr. (1766), Ann (1770), Peter (1772), Catherine (1774), Ebenezer (1776), John Treat (1778), Sarah (1780), and Washington.[1]

The Irving family settled in Manhattan, New York City, and was part of the city’s small, vibrant merchant class when Washington Irving was born on April 3, 1783,[1] the same week city residents learned of the British ceasefire that ended the American Revolution; Irving’s mother named him after the hero of the revolution, George Washington.[2] At age six, with the help of a nanny, Irving met his namesake, who was then living in New York after his inauguration as president in 1789. The president blessed young Irving,[3] an encounter Irving later commemorated in a small watercolor painting, which still hangs in his home today.[4] The Irvings lived at 131 William Street at the time of Washington Irving’s birth. The family later moved across the street to 128 William St.[5] Several of Washington Irving’s older brothers became active New York merchants, and they encouraged their younger brother’s literary aspirations, often supporting him financially as he pursued his writing career.

An uninterested student, Irving preferred adventure stories and drama and, by age fourteen, was regularly sneaking out of class in the evenings to attend the theater.[6] The 1798 outbreak of yellow fever in Manhattan prompted his family to send him to healthier climes upriver, and Irving was dispatched to stay with his friend James Kirke Paulding in Tarrytown, New York. It was in Tarrytown that Irving became familiar with the nearby town of Sleepy Hollow, with its quaint Dutch customs and local ghost stories.[7] Irving made several other trips up the Hudson as a teenager, including an extended visit to Johnstown, New York, where he passed through the Catskill mountain region, the setting for “Rip Van Winkle”. “[O]f all the scenery of the Hudson”, Irving wrote later, “the Kaatskill Mountains had the most witching effect on my boyish imagination”.[8]

The 19-year old Irving began writing letters to the New York Morning Chronicle in 1802, submitting commentaries on the city’s social and theater scene under the name of Jonathan Oldstyle. The name, which purposely evoked the writer’s Federalist leanings,[9] was the first of many pseudonyms Irving would employ throughout his career. The letters brought Irving some early fame and moderate notoriety. Aaron Burr, a co-publisher of the Chronicle, was impressed enough to send clippings of the Oldstyle pieces to his daughter, Theodosia, while writer Charles Brockden Brown made a trip to New York to recruit Oldstyle for a literary magazine he was editing in Philadelphia.[10]

Concerned for his health, Irving’s brothers financed an extended tour of Europe from 1804 to 1806. Irving bypassed most of the sites and locations considered essential for the development of an upwardly mobile young man, to the dismay of his brother William. William wrote that, though he was pleased his brother’s health was improving, he did not like the choice to “gallop through Italy… leaving Florence on your left and Venice on your right”.[11] Instead, Irving honed the social and conversational skills that would later make him one of the world’s most in-demand guests.[12] “I endeavor to take things as they come with cheerfulness”, Irving wrote, “and when I cannot get a dinner to suit my taste, I endeavor to get a taste to suit my dinner”.[13] While visiting Rome in 1805, Irving struck up a friendship with the American painter Washington Allston,[11] and nearly allowed himself to be persuaded into following Allston into a career as a painter. “My lot in life, however”, Irving said later, “was differently cast”.[14]

First major writings [edit]

Irving returned from Europe to study law with his legal mentor, Judge Josiah Ogden Hoffman, in New York City. By his own admission, he was not a good student, and barely passed the bar in 1806.[15] Irving began actively socializing with a group of literate young men he dubbed “The Lads of Kilkenny”.[16] Collaborating with his brother William and fellow Lad James Kirke Paulding, Irving created the literary magazine Salmagundi in January 1807. Writing under various pseudonyms, such as William Wizard and Launcelot Langstaff, Irving lampooned New York culture and politics in a manner similar to today’s Mad magazine.[17] Salmagundi was a moderate success, spreading Irving’s name and reputation beyond New York. In its seventeenth issue, dated November 11, 1807, Irving affixed the nickname “Gotham”—an Anglo-Saxon word meaning “Goat’s Town”—to New York City.[18]

The fictional “Diedrich Knickerbocker” from the frontispiece of A History of New-York, a wash drawing by Felix O. C. Darley

Portrait of Washington Irving by John Wesley Jarvis, from 1809
In late 1809, while mourning the death of his seventeen-year-old fiancée Matilda Hoffman, Irving completed work on his first major book, A History of New-York from the Beginning of the World to the End of the Dutch Dynasty, by Diedrich Knickerbocker (1809), a satire on self-important local history and contemporary politics. Prior to its publication, Irving started a hoax akin to today’s viral marketing campaigns; he placed a series of missing person adverts in New York newspapers seeking information on Diedrich Knickerbocker, a crusty Dutch historian who had allegedly gone missing from his hotel in New York City. As part of the ruse, Irving placed a notice—allegedly from the hotel’s proprietor—informing readers that if Mr. Knickerbocker failed to return to the hotel to pay his bill, he would publish a manuscript Knickerbocker had left behind.[19]

Unsuspecting readers followed the story of Knickerbocker and his manuscript with interest, and some New York city officials were concerned enough about the missing historian that they considered offering a reward for his safe return. Riding the wave of public interest he had created with his hoax, Irving—adopting the pseudonym of his Dutch historian—published A History of New York on December 6, 1809, to immediate critical and popular success.[20] “It took with the public”, Irving remarked, “and gave me celebrity, as an original work was something remarkable and uncommon in America”.[21] Today, the surname of Diedrich Knickerbocker, the fictional narrator of this and other Irving works, has become a nickname for Manhattan residents in general.[22]

After the success of A History of New York, Irving searched for a job and eventually became an editor of Analectic Magazine, where he wrote biographies of naval heroes like James Lawrence and Oliver Perry.[23] He was also among the first magazine editors to reprint Francis Scott Key’s poem “Defense of Fort McHenry”, which would later be immortalized as “The Star-Spangled Banner”, the national anthem of the United States.[24]

Like many merchants and New Yorkers, Irving originally opposed the War of 1812, but the British attack on Washington, D.C. in 1814 convinced him to enlist.[25] He served on the staff of Daniel Tompkins, governor of New York and commander of the New York State Militia. Apart from a reconnaissance mission in the Great Lakes region, he saw no real action.[26] The war was disastrous for many American merchants, including Irving’s family, and in mid-1815 he left for England to attempt to salvage the family trading company. He remained in Europe for the next seventeen years.[27]

Life in Europe [edit]

The Sketch Book [edit]

The front page of The Sketch Book (1819)
Irving spent the next two years trying to bail out the family firm financially but eventually had to declare bankruptcy.[28] With no job prospects, Irving continued writing throughout 1817 and 1818. In the summer of 1817, he visited Walter Scott, beginning a lifelong personal and professional friendship.[29] Irving continued writing: he composed the short story “Rip Van Winkle” overnight while staying with his sister Sarah and her husband, Henry van Wart in Birmingham, England, a place that also inspired other works.[30] In October 1818, Irving’s brother William secured for Irving a post as chief clerk to the United States Navy, and urged him to return home.[31] Irving turned the offer down, opting to stay in England to pursue a writing career.[32]

In the spring of 1819, Irving sent to his brother Ebenezer in New York a set of short prose pieces that he asked be published as The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. The first installment, containing “Rip Van Winkle”, was an enormous success, and the rest of the work would be equally successful; it was issued in 1819–1820 in seven installments in New York, and in two volumes in London (“The Legend of Sleepy Hollow” would appear in the sixth issue of the New York edition, and the second volume of the London edition).[33]

Like many successful authors of this era, Irving struggled against literary bootleggers.[34] In England, some of his sketches were reprinted in periodicals without his permission, a legal practice as there was no international copyright law at the time. To prevent further piracy in Britain, Irving paid to have the first four American installments published as a single volume by John Miller in London. Irving appealed to Walter Scott for help procuring a more reputable publisher for the remainder of the book. Scott referred Irving to his own publisher, London powerhouse John Murray, who agreed to take on The Sketch Book.[35] From then on, Irving would publish concurrently in the United States and Britain to protect his copyright, with Murray being his English publisher of choice.[36]

Irving’s reputation soared, and for the next two years, he led an active social life in Paris and Britain, where he was often feted as an anomaly of literature: an upstart American who dared to write English well.[37]

Bracebridge Hall and Tales of a Traveller [edit]

Portrait of Irving in about 1820, attributed to Charles Robert Leslie
With both Irving and publisher John Murray eager to follow up on the success of The Sketch Book, Irving spent much of 1821 travelling in Europe in search of new material, reading widely in Dutch and German folk tales. Hampered by writer’s block—and depressed by the death of his brother William—Irving worked slowly, finally delivering a completed manuscript to Murray in March 1822. The book, Bracebridge Hall, or The Humorists, A Medley (the location was based loosely on Aston Hall, occupied by members of the Bracebridge family, near his sister’s home in Birmingham) was published in June 1822.

The format of Bracebridge was similar to that of The Sketch Book, with Irving, as Crayon, narrating a series of more than fifty loosely connected short stories and essays. While some reviewers thought Bracebridge to be a lesser imitation of The Sketch Book, the book was well-received by readers and critics.[38] “We have received so much pleasure from this book,” wrote critic Francis Jeffrey in the Edinburgh Review, “that we think ourselves bound in gratitude . . . to make a public acknowledgement of it.”[39] Irving was relieved at its reception, which did much to cement his reputation with European readers.

Still struggling with writer’s block, Irving traveled to Germany, settling in Dresden in the winter of 1822. Here he dazzled the royal family and attached himself to Mrs. Amelia Foster, an American living in Dresden with her five children.[40] Irving was particularly attracted to Mrs. Foster’s 18-year-old daughter Emily, and vied in frustration for her hand. Emily finally refused his offer of marriage in the spring of 1823.[41]

He returned to Paris and began collaborating with playwright John Howard Payne on translations of French plays for the English stage, with little success. He also learned through Payne that the novelist Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley was romantically interested in him, though Irving never pursued the relationship.[42]

In August 1824, Irving published the collection of essays Tales of a Traveller—including the short story “The Devil and Tom Walker”—under his Geoffrey Crayon persona. “I think there are in it some of the best things I have ever written,” Irving told his sister.[43] But while the book sold respectably, Traveller was dismissed by critics, who panned both Traveller and its author. “The public have been led to expect better things,” wrote the United States Literary Gazette, while the New-York Mirror pronounced Irving “overrated.”[44] Hurt and depressed by the book’s reception, Irving retreated to Paris where he spent the next year worrying about finances and scribbling down ideas for projects that never materialized.[45]

Spanish books [edit]

While in Paris, Irving received a letter from Alexander Hill Everett on January 30, 1826. Everett, recently the American Minister to Spain, urged Irving to join him in Madrid,[46] noting that a number of manuscripts dealing with the Spanish conquest of the Americas had recently been made public. Irving left for Madrid and enthusiastically began scouring the Spanish archives for colorful material.[47]

The palace Alhambra, where Irving briefly resided in 1829, inspired one of his most colorful books.
With full access to the American consul’s massive library of Spanish history, Irving began working on several books at once. The first offspring of this hard work, A History of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus, was published in January 1828. The book was popular in the United States and in Europe and would have 175 editions published before the end of the century.[48] It was also the first project of Irving’s to be published with his own name, instead of a pseudonym, on the title page.[49] The Chronicles of the Conquest of Granada was published a year later,[50] followed by Voyages and Discoveries of the Companions of Columbus in 1831.[51]

Irving’s writings on Columbus are a mixture of history and fiction, a genre now called romantic history/historical fiction. Irving based them on extensive research in the Spanish archives, but also added imaginative elements aimed at sharpening the story. The first of these works is the source of the durable myth that medieval Europeans believed the Earth was flat.[52] (See Myth of the Flat Earth.)

In 1829, Irving moved into Granada’s ancient palace Alhambra, “determined to linger here”, he said, “until I get some writings under way connected with the place”.[53] Before he could get any significant writing underway, however, he was notified of his appointment as Secretary to the American Legation in London. Worried he would disappoint friends and family if he refused the position, Irving left Spain for England in July 1829.[54]

Secretary to the American legation in London [edit]

Arriving in London, Irving joined the staff of American Minister Louis McLane. McLane immediately assigned the daily secretary work to another man and tapped Irving to fill the role of aide-de-camp. The two worked over the next year to negotiate a trade agreement between the United States and the British West Indies, finally reaching a deal in August 1830. That same year, Irving was awarded a medal by the Royal Society of Literature, followed by an honorary doctorate of civil law from Oxford in 1831.[55]

Following McLane’s recall to the United States in 1831 to serve as Secretary of Treasury, Irving stayed on as the legation’s chargé d’affaires until the arrival of Martin Van Buren, President Andrew Jackson’s nominee for British Minister. With Van Buren in place, Irving resigned his post to concentrate on writing, eventually completing Tales of the Alhambra, which would be published concurrently in the United States and England in 1832.[56]

Irving was still in London when Van Buren received word that the United States Senate had refused to confirm him as the new Minister. Consoling Van Buren, Irving predicted that the Senate’s partisan move would backfire. “I should not be surprised”, Irving said, “if this vote of the Senate goes far toward elevating him to the presidential chair”.[57]

Return to America [edit]

Washington Irving arrived in New York, after seventeen years abroad, on May 21, 1832. That September, he accompanied the U.S. Commissioner on Indian Affairs, Henry Leavitt Ellsworth, along with companions Charles La Trobe[58] and Count Albert-Alexandre de Pourtales, on a surveying mission deep in Indian Territory.[59] At the completion of his western tour, Irving traveled through Washington, D.C. and Baltimore, where he became acquainted with the politician and novelist John Pendleton Kennedy.[60]

Frustrated by bad investments, Irving turned to writing to generate additional income, beginning with A Tour on the Prairies, a work which related his recent travels on the frontier. The book was another popular success and also the first book written and published by Irving in the United States since A History of New York in 1809.[61] In 1834, he was approached by fur magnate John Jacob Astor, who convinced Irving to write a history of his fur trading colony in the American Northwest, now known as Astoria, Oregon. Irving made quick work of Astor’s project, shipping the fawning biographical account titled Astoria in February 1836.[62] In 1835 Irving, Astor and a few others founded the Saint Nicholas Society in the City of New York.

During an extended stay at Astor’s, Irving met the explorer Benjamin Bonneville, who intrigued Irving with his maps and stories of the territories beyond the Rocky Mountains.[63] When the two met in Washington, D.C. several months later, Bonneville opted to sell his maps and rough notes to Irving for $1,000.[64] Irving used these materials as the basis for his 1837 book The Adventures of Captain Bonneville.[65]

These three works made up Irving’s “western” series of books and were written partly as a response to criticism that his time in England and Spain had made him more European than American.[66] In the minds of some critics, especially James Fenimore Cooper and Philip Freneau, Irving had turned his back on his American heritage in favor of English aristocracy.[67] Irving’s western books, particularly A Tour on the Prairies, were well-received in the United States,[68] though British critics accused Irving of “book-making”.[69]

Irving acquired his famous home in Tarrytown, New York, known as Sunnyside, in 1835.
In 1835, Irving purchased a “neglected cottage” and its surrounding riverfront property in Tarrytown, New York. The house, which Irving named Sunnyside in 1841,[70] would require constant repair and renovation over the next twenty years. With costs of Sunnyside escalating, Irving reluctantly agreed in 1839 to become a regular contributor to The Knickerbocker magazine, writing new essays and short stories under the Knickerbocker and Crayon pseudonyms.[71]

Irving was regularly approached by aspiring young authors for advice or endorsement, including Edgar Allan Poe, who sought Irving’s comments on “William Wilson” and “The Fall of the House of Usher”.[72] Irving also championed America’s maturing literature, advocating stronger copyright laws to protect writers from the kind of piracy that had initially plagued The Sketch Book. Writing in the January 1840 issue of Knickerbocker, he openly endorsed copyright legislation pending in the U.S. Congress. “We have a young literature”, Irving wrote, “springing up and daily unfolding itself with wonderful energy and luxuriance, which… deserves all its fostering care”. The legislation did not pass.[73]

Irving at this time also began a friendly correspondence with the English writer Charles Dickens, and hosted the author and his wife at Sunnyside during Dickens’s American tour in 1842.[74]

Minister to Spain [edit]

In 1842, after an endorsement from Secretary of State Daniel Webster, President John Tyler appointed Irving as Minister to Spain.[75] Irving was surprised and honored, writing, “It will be a severe trial to absent myself for a time from my dear little Sunnyside, but I shall return to it better enabled to carry it on comfortably”.[76]

While Irving hoped his position as Minister would allow him plenty of time to write, Spain was in a state of perpetual political upheaval during most of his tenure, with a number of warring factions vying for control of the twelve-year-old Queen Isabella II.[77] Irving maintained good relations with the various generals and politicians, as control of Spain rotated through Espartero, Bravo, then Narvaez. However, the politics and warfare were exhausting, and Irving—homesick and suffering from a crippling skin condition—grew quickly disheartened:

I am wearied and at times heartsick of the wretched politics of this country. . . . The last ten or twelve years of my life, passed among sordid speculators in the United States, and political adventurers in Spain, has shewn me so much of the dark side of human nature, that I begin to have painful doubts of my fellow man; and look back with regret to the confiding period of my literary career, when, poor as a rat, but rich in dreams, I beheld the world through the medium of my imagination and was apt to believe men as good as I wished them to be.[78]

With the political situation in Spain relatively settled, Irving continued to closely monitor the development of the new government and the fate of Isabella. His official duties as Spanish Minister also involved negotiating American trade interests with Cuba and following the Spanish parliament’s debates over slave trade. He was also pressed into service by the American Minister to the Court of St. James’s in London, Louis McLane, to assist in negotiating the Anglo-American disagreement over the Oregon border that newly elected president James K. Polk had vowed to resolve.[79]

Final years and death [edit]

Washington Irving’s headstone, Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Sleepy Hollow, New York.
Returning from Spain in 1846, Irving took up permanent residence at Sunnyside and began work on an “Author’s Revised Edition” of his works for publisher George Palmer Putnam. For its publication, Irving had made a deal that guaranteed him 12 percent of the retail price of all copies sold. Such an agreement was unprecedented at that time.[80] On the death of John Jacob Astor in 1848, Irving was hired as an executor of Astor’s estate and appointed, by Astor’s will, as first chairman of the Astor library, a forerunner to the New York Public Library.[81]

As he revised his older works for Putnam, Irving continued to write regularly, publishing biographies of the writer and poet Oliver Goldsmith in 1849 and the 1850 work about the Islamic prophet Muhammad. In 1855, he produced Wolfert’s Roost, a collection of stories and essays he had originally written for The Knickerbocker and other publications,[82] and began publishing at intervals a biography of his namesake, George Washington, a work which he expected to be his masterpiece. Five volumes of the biography were published between 1855 and 1859.[83] Irving traveled regularly to Mount Vernon and Washington, D.C. for his research, and struck up friendships with Presidents Millard Fillmore and Franklin Pierce.[82]

He continued to socialize and keep up with his correspondence well into his seventies, and his fame and popularity continued to soar. “I don’t believe that any man, in any country, has ever had a more affectionate admiration for him than that given to you in America”, wrote Senator William C. Preston in a letter to Irving. “I believe that we have had but one man who is so much in the popular heart”.[84] By 1859, author Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. noted that Sunnyside had become “next to Mount Vernon, the best known and most cherished of all the dwellings in our land”.[85]

On the night of November 28, 1859, at 9:00 pm, only eight months after completing the final volume of his Washington biography, Washington Irving died of a heart attack in his bedroom at Sunnyside at the age of 76. Legend has it that his last words were: “Well, I must arrange my pillows for another night. When will this end?”[86] He was buried under a simple headstone at Sleepy Hollow cemetery on December 1, 1859.[87]

Irving and his grave were commemorated by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in his 1876 poem, “In The Churchyard at Tarrytown”, which concludes with:

How sweet a life was his; how sweet a death!
Living, to wing with mirth the weary hours,
Or with romantic tales the heart to cheer;
Dying, to leave a memory like the breath
Of summers full of sunshine and of showers,
A grief and gladness in the atmosphere.[88]

Legacy [edit]

Literary reputation [edit]

Bust of Washington Irving in Irvington, New York, not far from Sunnyside
Irving is largely credited as the first American Man of Letters, and the first to earn his living solely by his pen. Eulogizing Irving before the Massachusetts Historical Society in December 1859, his friend, the poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, acknowledged Irving’s role in promoting American literature: “We feel a just pride in his renown as an author, not forgetting that, to his other claims upon our gratitude, he adds also that of having been the first to win for our country an honourable name and position in the History of Letters”.[89]

Irving perfected the American short story,[90] and was the first American writer to place his stories firmly in the United States, even as he poached from German or Dutch folklore. He is also generally credited as one of the first to write both in the vernacular, and without an obligation to the moral or didactic in his short stories, writing stories simply to entertain rather than to enlighten.[91] Irving also encouraged would-be writers. As George William Curtis noted, there “is not a young literary aspirant in the country, who, if he ever personally met Irving, did not hear from him the kindest words of sympathy, regard, and encouragement.”[92]

Some critics, however—including Edgar Allan Poe—felt that while Irving should be given credit for being an innovator, the writing itself was often unsophisticated. “Irving is much over-rated”, Poe wrote in 1838, “and a nice distinction might be drawn between his just and his surreptitious and adventitious reputation—between what is due to the pioneer solely, and what to the writer”.[93] A critic for the New-York Mirror wrote: “No man in the Republic of Letters has been more overrated than Mr. Washington Irving.”[94] Some critics noted especially that Irving, despite being an American, catered to British sensibilities and, as one critic noted, wrote “of and for England, rather than his own country”.[95]

In Prospect Park (Brooklyn)
Other critics were inclined to be more forgiving of Irving’s style. William Makepeace Thackeray was the first to refer to Irving as the “ambassador whom the New World of Letters sent to the Old”,[96] a banner picked up by writers and critics throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. “He is the first of the American humorists, as he is almost the first of the American writers”, wrote critic H.R. Hawless in 1881, “yet belonging to the New World, there is a quaint Old World flavor about him”.[97]

Early critics often had difficulty separating Irving the man from Irving the writer—”The life of Washington Irving was one of the brightest ever led by an author”, wrote Richard Henry Stoddard, an early Irving biographer[98]—but as years passed and Irving’s celebrity personality faded into the background, critics often began to review his writings as all style, no substance. “The man had no message”, said critic Barrett Wendell.[99] Yet, critics conceded that despite Irving’s lack of sophisticated themes—Irving biographer Stanley T. Williams could be scathing in his assessment of Irving’s work[100]—most agreed he wrote elegantly.

Impact on American culture [edit]

Irving popularized the nickname “Gotham” for New York City, later used in Batman comics and movies, and is credited with inventing the expression “the almighty dollar”.

The surname of his Dutch historian, Diedrich Knickerbocker, is generally associated with New York and New Yorkers, and can still be seen across the jerseys of New York’s professional basketball team, albeit in its more familiar, abbreviated form, reading simply Knicks. In Bushwick, Brooklyn, a neighborhood of New York City, there are two parallel streets named Irving Avenue and Knickerbocker Avenue; the latter forms the core of the neighborhood’s shopping district.

One of Irving’s most lasting contributions to American culture is in the way Americans perceive and celebrate Christmas. In his 1812 revisions to A History of New York, Irving inserted a dream sequence featuring St. Nicholas soaring over treetops in a flying wagon—a creation others would later dress up as Santa Claus. In his five Christmas stories in The Sketch Book, Irving portrayed an idealized celebration of old-fashioned Christmas customs at a quaint English manor, that depicted harmonious warm-hearted English Christmas festivities he experienced while staying in Aston Hall, Birmingham, England, that had largely been abandoned.[101] He used text from The Vindication of Christmas (London 1652) of old English Christmas traditions, he had transcribed into his journal as a format for his stories.[102] The book contributed to the revival and reinterpretation of the Christmas holiday in the United States.[103]

John Quidor’s painting The Headless Horseman Pursuing Ichabod Crane, inspired by Washington Irving’s work.
The Community Area of Irving Park in Chicago was named in Irving’s honor. The Irving Trust Corporation (now the Bank of New York Mellon Corporation) was named after him. Since there was not yet a federal currency in 1851, each bank issued its own paper and those institutions with the most appealing names found their certificates more widely accepted. His portrait appeared on the bank’s notes and contributed to their wide appeal.

In his biography of Christopher Columbus,[104] Irving introduced the erroneous idea that Europeans believed the world to be flat prior to the discovery of the New World.[105] Borrowed from Irving, the flat-Earth myth has been taught in schools as fact to many generations of Americans.[106][107]

The American painter John Quidor based many of his paintings on scenes from the works of Irving about Dutch New York, including such paintings as Ichabod Crane Flying from the Headless Horseman (1928), The Return of Rip Van Winkle (1849), and The Headless Horseman Pursuing Ichabod Crane (1858).[108][109]

Memorials [edit]

Washington Irving, postage stamp,1940
Washington Irving’s home, Sunnyside, is still standing, just south of the Tappan Zee Bridge in Tarrytown, New York. The original house and the surrounding property were once owned by 18th-century colonialist Wolfert Acker, about whom Irving wrote his sketch Wolfert’s Roost (the name of the house). The house is now owned and operated as a historic site by Historic Hudson Valley and is open to the public for tours. The Washington Irving Memorial by Daniel Chester French stands near the entrance to Sunnyside in the village of Irvington, which renamed itself from Dearman in his memory, and visitors to Christ Episcopal Church in nearby Tarrytown, where he served as a vestryman in the last years of his life, can see his pew. West, over the Catskills and in the Finger Lakes, Cornell University’s oldest continuous student-run organization, The Irving Literary Society, is named for Washington Irving. His name is also frequently mentioned in Joseph Heller’s novel Catch-22 in a recurring theme where his name is signed by other people to documents which triggers several military investigations as to who Washington Irving is. Throughout the United States, there are many schools named after Irving or after places in his fictional works. A Washington Irving Memorial Park and Arboretum exists in Oklahoma.

The city of Irving, Texas gives credit to Washington Irving for the town’s name. It is believed by local historians that Irving co-founders Otis Brown and J.O. Schulze decided in 1902 to name the city after the favorite author of Otis Brown’s wife, Netta Barcus Brown. Schulze, a graduate engineer from the University of Iowa and member of the Washington Irving Literary Society, also was partial to the name Irving. The Irving City Council officially adopted author Washington Irving as the city’s namesake in 1998. The Chicago, Illinois neighborhood of Irving Park is named after him. The town of Knickerbocker, Texas was founded by two of Irving’s nephews who named the town in honor of their uncle’s literary pseudonym. [110]

List of works [edit]

Title

Publication date

Written As

Genre

Letters of Jonathan Oldstyle

1802

Jonathan Oldstyle

Observational Letters

Salmagundi

1807–1808

Launcelot Langstaff, Will Wizard

Satire

A History of New York

1809

Diedrich Knickerbocker

Satire

The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent.

1819–1820

Geoffrey Crayon

Short stories/Essays

Bracebridge Hall

1822

Geoffrey Crayon

Short stories/Essays

Tales of a Traveller

1824

Geoffrey Crayon

Short stories/Essays

A History of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus

1828

Washington Irving

Biography/History

The Chronicles of the Conquest of Granada

1829

Fray Antonio Agapida[111]

Romantic history

Voyages and Discoveries
of the Companions of Columbus

1831

Washington Irving

Biography/History

Tales of the Alhambra

1832

“The Author of the Sketch Book”

Short stories/Travel

The Crayon Miscellany[112]

1835

Geoffrey Crayon

Short stories

Astoria

1836

Washington Irving

Biography/History

The Adventures of Captain Bonneville

1837

Washington Irving

Biography/Romantic History

The Life of Oliver Goldsmith

1840
(revised 1849)

Washington Irving

Biography

Biography and Poetical Remains
of the Late Margaret Miller Davidson

1841

Washington Irving

Biography

Mahomet and His Successors

1850

Washington Irving

Biography

Wolfert’s Roost

1855

Geoffrey Crayon
Diedrich Knickerbocker
Washington Irving

Biography

The Life of George Washington (5 volumes)

1855–1859

Washington Irving

Biography

About Royal Rosamond Press

I am an artist, a writer, and a theologian.
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One Response to John Astor – Drug Pusher

  1. Reblogged this on rosamondpress and commented:

    Before Thomas Hart Benton became a Senator he was John Astor’s attorney. John was smuggling opium into China. Benton was in charge of the Oregon Territory before it became a State. With the arrival on the tax on legal marijuana, this history is pertinent. Did Astor use monies from opium sales to promote Oregon as a State?

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