Rosamond and the Earls of Orkney

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Christine 1980 Modeling in Hat

Greg 1979 & Wife at their WeddingRosmond Clifford’s ancestors are the Erl’s of Orkney via Hugh de Calvacamp, thus she is kindred to the Sinclairs. However, this link has long been in question. Rosamond’s lover, King Henry Plantgenet, claims he descends from the Kings of Troy. Helen of Troy was captured, her legendary beauty launching a thousand ships that came to her rescue. Some scholars suggest the name Helen means “captured”. Helen is the Queen Mother of my novel ‘Capturing Beauty. King Henry Plantagenet of Anjou allegedly built a labyrinth around Fair Rosamond. When I posted this information, and more, on a Templar yahoogroup, Ian Sinclair tried to get me banned, and succeeded!

The Sinclairs claim they came to America, even discovered it. However, my ex-wife, Mary Ann Tharaldsen, would beg to differ, she kindred to Erik Tharaldsen, better known as Erik the Red. The Sinclair Clan is trying to capture my beautiful America! Get lost!

If you follow the Toeni ancestors of Rosamond Clifford, you arrive at Woden and the Kings of Troy. I suspect Henry married Rosamond after he divorced Eleanore (Helen) in order to unite the world under the three panthers of Angvian Plantagenet family who are leading members of the Priory de Sion – LEGEND! Some members of the Sinclair family claim their ancestors were as powerful as Henry’s family empire. They spread falsehoods! The Sinclairs claim they are kindred to Knights Templar and Masonic secrets. The Benton family were famous Freemasons, and I disocvered the Rougemont Templars by following my mother’s maiden name – ROSAMOND.

Above are two paintings by Rossetti employing the same model. These beautiful women are Fair Rosamund and Helen of Troy. My beautiful sister was the world famous artist known as Rosamond. Our Muse was Rena Cristiansen whose ancestros came from Sweden. Rena’s three sisters were models their beauty captured by a fashion photographers. Consider the Mona Lisa.

Some Sinclairs died battling the Saracens in Spain around 1300. Rosamond’s ancestor, Roger (Ralph) de Toeni, led Normans against Saracens in 1035.
The battle to restore Christianity to Spain, was on. Fair Rosamond in the Queen of Pan’s Labyrinth because Henry built a Troy Town around Rosamond that are associated with the city of Troy. Did he behold Rosamond’s genealogy and thus know she descended from Woden and the Trojans?

The Sinclairs have languished in the Priory of Troy Town long enough, they allowing Pierre Plantard to take all the heat in their place. But, with the revelation that my dear friend, Virginia Hambley, descends from powerful members of the Vichy – evicts all the Sinclairs from the legend that Dan Bown made famous, and puts my Rose of the World at the epicenter; for Plantard was a real member of the Vichy rebirth that spawned a thusand novels.
It is time for the jewel, and the thorn, in the crown.

I want our legend back!
Jon Presco

Copyright 2013

It’s common for modern movements to claim an ancient pedigree, so when the anti-Semitic Vichy sympathizer Pierre Plantard created a new organization in 1956, he called it the Priory of Sion and claimed to be the last heir to the Merovingian dynasty. Plantard claimed that Les Dossiers Secrets linked the modern group with the ancient one. Under oath, he admitted that the documents were forgeries, but this has not stopped authors like Dan Brown from recycling the claims.

The Dossiers Secrets d’Henri Lobineau (“Secret Files of Henri Lobineau”), supposedly compiled by Philippe Toscan du Plantier, is a 27-page document which was deposited in the Bibliothèque nationale de France on 27 April 1967. The document purports to represent a part of the history of the Priory of Sion, and is widely considered to be a forgery created by Pierre Plantard and Philippe de Chérisey. 13 of the 27 pages of the document are taken from another document dating from 1964, also thought to have been authored by Plantard, called Généalogie des Rois Mérovingiens[1] (“Genealogy of the Merovingian Kings”). This document contains genealogy diagrams which apparently show Plantard to be a descendant of the Merovingian king Dagobert II.[2]

Hugh De Calvacamp (son of Malahule Eysteinsson and Maud De Flanders) was born 890 in Calvacamp, Neustria.

Children of Hugh De Calvacamp are:
i. +Ralph De Toeni, b. 940, Normandy, France, d. 1026.

Between 1035 to 1035 he was sent (in company of other Normans) by Henry I of France to the aid of Ferdinand, King of Castile and Leon. He was the first to carry Norman arms into the Spanish Peninsula. He gained a reputation for cruelty and invincibility in Spain, and there also found a wife, Godehildes, or Goodchild, daughter of Raymond Borrell, Count of Barcelona, and his wife Ermensenda.
A popular and controversial myth is circulating about the origins of the Plant bloodline. The plot of the international bestseller, the 2004 book The Da Vinci Code (DVC), by Dan Brown, is derived from the pseudo-history contained in the 1982 book The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail (commonly abbreviated to HBHG) which was written by the British authors Baigent, Leigh, and Lincoln. In turn, much of the plot of HBHG was inspired by the so-called Dossier secrets of the Priory of Sion, which were deposited in 1967 in the National Library of France at Paris. These secrets alleged that living descendants of the Merovingian kings were the Plantard family, with a branch in England called Planta.

In the Dossier secrets, the Plantard family was said to include Bernard Planta-Pilus (Plantevelu). It was said to have descended from the Merovingian king Dagobert II. The family is said to have been exiled to Brittany after a failed uprising against Louis II in 881 such that, by the late 9th century, Merovingian blood had flowed into both Aquitaine (now Western France) and Brittany (now NW France). Though it is true that evidence exists for the Plantard family in Brittany as well for the spelling Plante in Brittany in the 16th to 19th centuries, most academics consider that the Dossier’s genealogy for Plantard and Planta is an elaborate hoax.

The authors of HBHG also made a particularly inept family link between this Plantard genealogy and the Plantagenets. Indeed, there was even a connection of the Dossier secrets to the de Warenne relatives of the Plantagenets, who have been associated with the Plant family. It was alleged that the fifth Grand Master (1336-51) of the Priory of Sion was Jeanne de Barre (1295-1361), who was Edward I’s grand-daughter and Edward II’s niece, and who was betrothed to the last de Warenne earl of Surrey in 1306.

The originating Dossier secrets of Merovingian descent have been associated, by many, with right-wing French nationalism. For the benefit of an English audience, this was embellished with a heresy of Christian notions by the authors of HBHG and in the further book The Messianic Legacy. Though repudiated by Pierre Plantard (1920-2000) of the Priory of Sion, Plantard descent from the Merovingian kings was elaborated in the book HBHG such that it had stemmed from a covered-up marriage between Jesus and Mary Magdalene. A still wider audience has now been reached with Dan Brown’s fiction (DVC), which emphasises the descent to Plantard of the `sacred feminine’ of Jesus’ apostle of the apostles, Mary Magdalene.

http://www.stclairresearch.com/content/storiesJarlHenry.html

Many turf mazes in England were named Troy Town, Troy-town or variations on that theme (such as Troy, The City of Troy, Troy’s Walls, Troy’s Hoy, or The Walls of Troy) presumably because, in popular legend, the walls of the city of Troy were constructed in such a confusing and complex way that any enemy who entered them would be unable to find his way out. Welsh hilltop turf mazes (none of which now exist) were called “Caerdroia”, which can be translated as “City of Troy” (or perhaps “castle of turns”).

W. H. Matthews, in his Mazes and Labyrinths (1922), gives the name as “Troy-town”. More recent writers (such as Adrian Fisher, in The Art of the Maze, 1990) prefer “Troy Town”.

The name “Troy” has been associated with labyrinths from ancient times. An Etruscan terracotta wine-jar from Tragliatella, Italy, shows a seven-ring labyrinth marked with the word TRUIA (Troy). To its left, two armed soldiers appear to be riding out of the labyrinth on horseback, while on the right two couples are shown copulating. The vase dates from about 630 BC.

Contents [hide]
1 Historic “Troy” turf mazes in England

Historic “Troy” turf mazes in England
A seven-ring Classical labyrinth. The “Troy” mazes at Dalby and Somerton are based on this ancient design.
Medieval labyrinthOf the eight surviving historic turf mazes in England, three have “Troy” names. “The City of Troy” is a small but well-maintained roadside maze near the small villages of Dalby, Brandsby, and Skewsby, not far from Sheriff Hutton in the Howardian Hills of North Yorkshire. “Troy”, a beautiful maze in a private garden at Troy Farm, Somerton, Oxfordshire is rather larger, and “Troy Town” maze on St Agnes, the Isles of Scilly, is a small maze of turf and small stones and is reputed to have been laid down in 1729 by the son of a local lighthouse keeper. All three follow the classical labyrinth pattern (as found on coins from ancient Knossos) rather than the medieval variation. Unfortunately it is not known when the first two of these turf mazes were originally constructed.

[edit] Surviving examplesRoadside near Dalby, North Yorkshire: “The City of Troy” (Seven-ring)
Troy Farm, Somerton, near Banbury, Oxfordshire: “Troy” (Fifteen-ring)
Troy Town, St. Agnes, Isles of Scilly: “Troy Town”
[edit] Lost examples(From W.H. Matthews’ Mazes and Labyrinths 1922)

“Troy-town” near Dorchester, Dorset. Although the maze is lost, the place name Troy Town still survives here.
On Hilldown, a hill between Farnham and Guildford, Surrey “Troy-town”
Holderness, between Marfleet and Paull, East Riding of Yorkshire (near Kingston upon Hull) “The Walls of Troy” (this had a unique dodecagonal layout; illustrated 1815)
Pimperne, Dorset “Troy-town” (unique design, roughly triangular, with paths winding apparently at random; described by antiquary John Aubrey in 1686; ploughed up 1730)
In the marshes between Burgh and Rockliffe, Cumbria “The Walls of Troy” (extant 1883) and two other turf mazes (one of them cut in 1815)
Walmer, Kent a “bower” or “Troy-town”
[edit] Parallels in Scandinavia, the Baltic and White Sea coasts
The eleven-ring “Trojeborg” labyrinth, from Visby, Sweden (Illustration from the Nordisk familjebok, 1926)There are also similar labyrinths in northern Europe. Their paths are outlined with stones (unlike the turf-cut mazes of England, and those that formerly existed in Denmark). Stone-lined labyrinths such as these have proved slightly easier to date than turf mazes (which have to be cleaned out regularly to keep their paths clear, thus destroying any archaeological evidence). The stone labyrinths around the Baltic coast have been dated to between the 13th century and modern times, with a peak in the 16th and 17th centuries.

There were once many hundreds, perhaps even thousands, of these labyrinths around the Baltic Sea, throughout Fennoscandia and the Baltic countries, and many of them still survive, particularly in remote areas. There are also similar stone labyrinths in the Kola Peninsula and coasts and islands of the White Sea, such as Stone labyrinths of Bolshoi Zayatsky Island. For some reason these northern labyrinths are almost all close to the sea. Some have suggested that they were markings of seafarers, perhaps even used for navigation. Many of the stone labyrinths around the Baltic coast of Sweden were built by fishermen during rough weather and were believed to entrap evil spirits, the “smågubbar” or “little people” who brought bad luck. The fishermen would walk to the centre of the labyrinth, enticing the spirits to follow them, and then run out and put to sea.

Several similar classical-type labyrinths in Scandinavia have names such as Trojaborg, Trojaburg, Trojborg, Tröborg and Trojienborg, which can all be translated as “City of Troy”. (The place-name Trelleborg, which means “ring fort”, has also been linked with labyrinths.) In Finland such labyrinths are called Jatulintarha (“giant’s guard”) or jättiläisen tie (“giant’s road”).

The term Angevin Empire is a modern term describing the collection of states once ruled by the Angevin Plantagenet dynasty.
The Plantagenets ruled over an area stretching from the Pyrenees to Ireland during the 12th and early 13th centuries, located north of the kingdoms of Navarre and Aragon. This “empire” extended over roughly half of medieval France, all of England, and some of Ireland. However, despite the extent of Plantagenet rule, they were defeated by the King of France, Philip II Augustus of the House of Capet, which left the empire split in two, having lost the provinces of Normandy and Anjou. This defeat, after which the ruling Plantagenets retained their English territories and the French province of Gascony, set the scene for the Saintonge and the Hundred Years’ War.

Ivar Halfdansson Earl Of Norway (son of Halfdan Eysteinsson) was born 775 in Oppland, Norway, and died 850. He married Eysteinsdatter, daughter of Eystein Glumra Hognasson.

Notes for Ivar Halfdansson Earl Of Norway:
The Scandinavian Earls of Orkney trace their descent from the noblest and most heroic of the ruling dynasties of the north. Ivar, Prince of the Uplands in Norway, who claimed a descent from the deified hero Thor, was father of Eystein. [Sir Bernard Burke, Dormant, Abeyant, Forfeited, and Extinct Peerages, Burke’s Peerage, Ltd., London, 1883, p. 492, Sinclair, Earl of Orkney]

Children of Ivar Halfdansson Earl Of Norway and Eysteinsdatter are:
+Eyestein Glumra Ivarsson, b. 800, Maer, Nord-Trondelag, Norway, d. Abt. 865, Maer, Norway.

Halfdan Olafsson (son of Olaf (Tree-Hewer) Injaldsson and Solveig Halfdansdatter) was born 704 in Romerike, Buskerud, Norway, and died 800. He married Asa Eyesteinsdottir, daughter of Eyestein Haardrade Throndsson and Solveig Halfdansdatter.

 Notes for Halfdan Olafsson:
OLAFSSON, Halfdan ‘White Leg’ (King of the Uplanders) He was born about 704 in Romerlike, Norway when his mother was about 19 years old and died ? in Vermaland, Norway; member of the Pagan church. He was the son of Olaf ‘Tree-hewer’ Ingjaldsson (King of Vermaland) and Solveig Halfdansdottir, the daughter of Halfdan ‘Gold Tooth’ of SWEDEN; married Asa EYSTEINSDOTTIR (the daughter of Eystein ‘The Severe’ of the Uplands (King of the Uplanders) and Sloveig Halfdansdottir). Children: i. Eystein of Vestfold ‘The Fart’ HALFDANSSON (King in Raumarlike) i. Gudrod ‘The Magnificent’ HALFDANSSON (King, Vestfold&Roumarlike) 27.
Notes: Founded the pagan temple at Skiringssal.

Halfdan the Bounteous

Halvdan was the son of the Swedish King Olav Tretelja Ingjaldsen (King Olav the Tree-Hewer) and his wife Solveig Gultandsdtr..

More About Halfdan Olafsson:
Date born 2: 704, Romerike, Buskerud, Norway.

Children of Halfdan Olafsson and Asa Eyesteinsdottir are:
i. +Eystein Halfdansson, b. 722, Norway, d. 780, Norway.

Olaf (Tree-Hewer) Injaldsson (son of Ingjald “Ill Ruler” Braut-Onundson) was born 682 in Varmland, Sweden, and died 710. He married Solveig Halfdansdatter.

 Notes for Olaf (Tree-Hewer) Injaldsson:
Nickname: The Wood Cutter “Tree-Hewer”
Name Prefix: King of Vermaland
Note: died as a sacrifice.

Sacrificed to Woden by his own people during the famine 710? Fled west after his father’s death, went to deep forest of Vaermland. Earned his nickname after cutting down trees with great energy, he upset people who thought that he should have provided them with more food & was sacrificed to their god – Odin.

According to Knut Am. Gulsvik’s research King Olav was descended from Froy Ingversen who was b. ca. 65 B.C. and d. 10 B.C. and who lived 22 generations earlier. Froy was King of Svearne (Sweden) and Uppsala and married Gerd Gymnedtr.

Children of Olaf (Tree-Hewer) Injaldsson and Solveig Halfdansdatter are:
i. +Halfdan Olafsson, b. 704, Romerike, Buskerud, Norway, d. 800.

Yrsa Helgasdottir (daughter of Olaf “The Mighty” Halfdansson and Helgi Halfdansdottir) was born 565 in Denmark.

 Notes for Yrsa Helgasdottir:
Beautiful daughter of King Helge and Queen Alof who as wife of King Audils was captured by King Helge and carried off to Denmark where the Danish king took her as his wife. When her mother Queen Alof, wife of King Gierthiof, told her she was hers and Helge’s daughter, she left Helge and returned to her first husband. She and Helge had a son, Rolf Krake. [WBH – Sweden]

Rolf’s Mother and sister

Children of Yrsa Helgasdottir are:
i. +Eystein Adilsson King Of Sweden, b. 594, Sweden.

Frodi The Valiant Fridleifsson was born 479 in Denmark, and died 548.

 Notes for Frodi The Valiant Fridleifsson:
Son of Fridleif Frodasson; father of:
1. Ingjald Frodasson
2. Halfdan Frodasson who m. Sigris
3. Frodi Frodasson

Children of Frodi The Valiant Fridleifsson are:
i. +Ingjald Frodasson, b. 501, Denmark.
ii. +Halfdan “The Valiant” Frodasson, b. 503, Denmark.

Odin (Woden,Woutan) De Asgard

Sceaf (Seskef)

Munon King Of Troy

Laomedon
(-)

Placida
(-)

Hyperion
(-)

Theia
(-)

Tithonus Prince Of Troy
(-)

Eos
(-)

Munon King Of Troy
(Abt 300 B.C.-)

http://www.jbdaedal.com/shannon/4/1413.htm

http://www.jbdaedal.com/shannon/4/1373.htm

http://familytreemaker.genealogy.com/users/h/e/l/Patricia-Hellerud-/WEBSITE-0001/UHP-1422.html

http://gailstapestry.com/id114.htm

http://www.mathematical.com/fitzthorfinbardolf1090.html

*Bardolf Thorfinsson
born before 1058 Orkney, Scotland

father:
*Thorfinn II “the Black” “the Mighty” Sigurdsson Jarl of Orkney
born 0989 Of Orkney, Scotland
died 1064 Christ’s Kirk, Birdsey, Scotland

mother:
*Ingeborg Finnsdatter
born Abt 1021 Of Osteraat, Yrje, Norway
died Abt 1066
married Bef 1038

siblings:
*Paal Thorfinnsson Jarl of Orkney & Caithness
born about 1040 Orkney, Orkney Islands, Scotland
died 1103 Bergen, Hordaland, Norway
*Erland II Thorfinnsson Jarl of Orkney & Caithness born about 1057 Orkney Islands, Scotland
died 1098 Nidaros (Trondheim), Norway

spouse:
unknown

children:
*Akaris Fitzbardolf
born abt 1090 England

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snorri_Thorfinnsson

Snorri Thorfinnsson (Old Norse and Icelandic: Snorri Þorfinnsson, rarely Snorri Karlsefnisson,[1] probably born between 1004 and 1013, and died c. 1090) was the son of the explorer Þorfinnr Karlsefni and Guðríðr Eiríksdóttir. He is considered to be the first ethnic European born in the Americas, and one of the most important figures regarding the Christianization of Iceland.[2]

Contents
 [hide] 
1 Name
2 Family
3 Christianization of Iceland
4 Legacy
5 Genealogy
6 References
7 External links
[edit] Name
Snorri is an Old Norse name derived from the word snerra, meaning “a fight.” Þorfinnsson is a patronymic, meaning “son of Þorfinnr”, (see Icelandic naming conventions). Snorri was named for his great-grandfather, Snorri Þórðarson[3] (sometimes mentioned as Þorbrandsson).[4]
[edit] Family
There is speculation about the birthdate of Snorri Thorfinnsson. Birth years such as 1005, 1009, and 1012 have been postulated, but all agree that he was born between 1005 and 1013.[5] According to the Vinland sagas, when Snorri was 3 years old, his family left Vinland because of hostilities with Native Americans (called Skrælings by the settlers, which is the Old Norse equivalent of the English term “barbarians”). The family returned to the Glaumbær farm in Seyluhreppur.[6] [5][7]
Snorri Thorfinnsson had two children; a daughter named Hallfrid, and a son named Thorgeir. Hallfrid was the mother of Thorlak Runolfsson, bishop of Skalholt in the south of Iceland. One of the descendants of Snorri’s brother Thorbjorn, Bjorn Gilsson, was also a bishop of Hólar. Thorgeir was the father of Yngvild who was the mother of Brand Sæmundarsson, bishop of Hólar.[8] The sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen claimed descent from Snorri Thorfinnsson in the 19th century.[5]
[edit] Christianization of Iceland
In the 13th century texts Snorri Thorfinnsson and Snorri Thorrgrimsson are considered the two main figures responsible for the early Christianisation of Iceland. Consequently they were portrayed by various writers of the 13th and 14th century as “Christian chieftain models”.[2] According to Grœnlendinga saga, Snorri had built the first church of Glaumbaer, which would later increase Christian influence in the area. His descendants became the first Bishops of Iceland, and published the first Christian Code of Iceland.[9]
[edit] Legacy
Snorri Thorfinnsson was purported to be born in Vinland, (Newfoundland), making him the first European known to be born in the Americas, provided that Greenland is defined as being outside America.[5][10] About 560 years would pass until the next birth of a child of European descent in America, Martín de Argüelles, who was born in the Spanish settlement of St. Augustine, Florida.[11]
In 2002 American archaeologists discovered the remains of a thousand-year-old longhouse located on Iceland’s northern coast. It is believed that it was Snorri Thorfinnsson’s farmhouse.[12] The longhouse was found near the Glaumbaer Folk Museum, outside the coastal village of Saudarkrokur. The museum was once thought to have been built on the site of Snorri’s farmhouse. According to archaeologists it was “a classic German fortress longhouse like the Great Hall of Beowulf”.[13]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_and_Erlend_Thorfinnsson

Paul Thorfinnsson (died after 1098) and Erlend Thorfinnsson (died after 1098) ruled together as Earls of Orkney.
Paul and Erlend Thorfinnsson were the sons of Thorfinn Sigurdsson and Ingibiorg Finnsdottir. Through Ingibiorg’s father Finn Arnesson and his wife, the family was related to the Norwegian Kings Olav II and Harald II.
Their lives and times are recounted in the Orkneyinga Saga. The first mention of the brothers is when they accompanied the Norwegian king Harald Hardrade and Tostig Godwinson on the ill-fated expedition to England in 1066. Paul and Erlend were with Harald’s son Olaf Kyrre, guarding the ships, when the battle of Stamford Bridge was fought. Along with Olaf they were allowed to leave by the English king Harold Godwinson. Olaf overwintered on Orkney with them and left on good terms with the Thorfinssons.
The saga says that Paul and Erlend were on good terms until their children grew to adulthood, after which the disputes between their sons led to a quarrel and open hostility between the brothers. As the disputes between the descendants of Paul and Erlend loomed large in the affairs of 12th century Orkney, the saga goes into some detail on their family relationships.
Paul was married to an unnamed daughter of Norwegian earl Hakon Ivarsson. Two sons and four daughters are named. Of these, Hakon played the greatest part in events.
Erlend married Thora, daughter of one Sumarlidi Ospaksson, and they had two sons and two daughters, while Erlend had a third, illegitimate daughter as well. Erlend’s son Magnus appears in the saga as earl, martyr and saint. The troubles between the earls began with rivalry between Hakon Paulsson and Magnus’s brother Erling. Both are described as quarrelsome, arrogant men, and talented too. Erland’s daughter Gunnhild’s was married to Kol Kalison and Rognvald Kali Kolsson was their son.
Magnus III of Norway took possession of the islands in 1098, deposing Erlend and Paul. Paul’s son, Haakon Paulsson, then became regent on behalf of the Norwegian prince, the future King Sigurd I of Norway, who made Haakon earl in 1105

In Greek mythology, Helen of Troy (in Greek, Ἑλένη, Helénē), also known as Helen of Sparta, was the daughter of Zeus and Leda (or Nemesis), step-daughter of King Tyndareus, wife of Menelaus and sister of Castor, Polydeuces and Clytemnestra. Her abduction by Paris brought about the Trojan War.

The etymology of Helen’s name has been a problem for scholars until the present. Georg Curtius related Helen (Ἑλένη) to the moon (Selene Σελήνη). Émile Boisacq considered Ἑλένη to derive from the noun ἑλένη meaning “torch”.[1] It has also been suggested that the λ of Ἑλένη arose from an original ν, and thus the etymology of the name is connected with the root of Venus. Linda Lee Clader, however, says that none of the above suggestions offers much satisfaction.[2]
If the name has an Indo-European etymology, it is possibly a suffixed form of a root *wel- “to turn, roll”,[3] or of *sel- “to flow, run”.[4] The latter possibility would allow comparison to the Vedic Sanskrit Saraṇyū, a character who is abducted in Rigveda 10.17.2. This parallel is suggestive of a Proto-Indo-European abduction myth. Saraṇyū means “swift” and is derived from the adjective saraṇa (“running”, “swift”), the feminine of which is saraṇā; this is in every sound cognate with Ἑλένα, the form of her name that has no initial digamma.[5] The possible connection of Helen’s name to ἑλένη (“torch”), as noted above, may also support the relationship of her name to Vedic svaranā (“the shining one”).[6][7]

Two Athenians, Theseus and Pirithous, thought that since they were both sons of gods, both of them should have divine wives; they thus pledged to help each other abduct two daughters of Zeus. Theseus chose Helen, and Pirithous vowed to marry Persephone, the wife of Hades. Theseus took Helen and left her with his mother Aethra or his associate Aphidnus at Aphidnae or Athens. Theseus and Pirithous then traveled to the underworld, the domain of Hades, to kidnap Persephone. Hades pretended to offer them hospitality and set a feast, but, as soon as the pair sat down, snakes coiled around their feet and held them there. Helen’s abduction caused an invasion of Athens by Castor and Pollux, who captured Aethra in revenge, and returned their sister to Sparta.[23]
In most accounts of this event, Helen was quite young; Hellanicus of Lesbos said she was seven years old and Diodorus makes her ten years old.[24] On the other hand, Stesichorus said that Iphigeneia was the daughter of Theseus and Helen, which obviously implies that Helen was of childbearing age.[25] In most sources, Iphigeneia is the daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra, but Duris of Samos and other writers followed Stesichorus’ account.[26]
Ovid’s Heroides give us an idea of how ancient and, in particular, Roman authors imagined Helen in her youth: she is presented as a young princess wrestling naked in the palaestra; an image alluding to a part of girls’ physical education in classical (and not in Mycenaean) Sparta. Sextus Propertius imagines Helen as a girl who practices arms and hunts with her brothers:[27]
[…] or like Helen, on the sands of Eurotas, between Castor and Pollux, one to be victor in boxing, the other with horses: with naked breasts she carried weapons, they say, and did not blush with her divine brothers there.

Henry I Sinclair, Earl of Orkney, Baron of Roslin (c. 1345 – c. 1400) was a Scottish and a Norwegian nobleman. Sinclair held the title Earl of Orkney under the King of Norway (see Earl of Orkney: Scottish Earls under the Norwegian Crown). He is sometimes identified by another spelling of his surname, St. Clair. He was the grandfather of William Sinclair, 1st Earl of Caithness, the builder of Rosslyn Chapel. He is best known today because of a modern legend that he took part in explorations of Greenland and North America almost 100 years before Christopher Columbus. William Thomson, in his book The New History of Orkney,[1] wrote: “It has been Earl Henry’s singular fate to enjoy an ever-expanding posthumous reputation which has very little to do with anything he achieved in his lifetime.”[2]

http://sinclair.quarterman.org/ian.html

New light shed on the legacy of the Vikings
Scientists at the Department of Molecular Medicine and the Institute of Biological Anthropology, in an international collaboration with a team from Reykjavik, have published research that casts new light on the genetic legacy of the Vikings of Iceland and the Scottish Isles.
The findings, which appeared in the March issue of the American Journal of Human Genetics, are the result of research carried out by Agnar Helgason and Professor Ryk Ward of the Institute of Biological Anthropology, Professor Bryan Sykes, Dr Eileen Hickey and Dr Sara Goodacre of the Oxford Genetic Atlas Project at the University’s Institute of Molecular Medicine, and scientists from deCODE Genetics in Iceland.

Archaeologists have told us that Vikings from western Norway dominated the north Atlantic from the eighth to eleventh centuries, raiding Scottish monasteries, and occasionally settling permanently with local women. The study, which detects the genetic echo of these events in the modern population, has provided a far clearer picture of the extent to which these two populations mixed than was previously known. Using DNA taken from more than 1,600 volunteers in Scandinavia, Orkney, the Western Isles, and the Isle of Skye, the team analysed the gene known as mitochondrial DNA, which is inherited exclusively down the maternal line. This allowed them to developed a new method to estimate the Gaelic affinity of each sample.

Findings have shown that a high proportion of Icelanders (60 per cent), trace their maternal ancestry back to Scotland rather than Scandinavia. This suggests either that Vikings who had previously settled with Scottish wives in Scotland returned to settle in Iceland, or that Icelandic Vikings raided Scotland and took Scottish women back to Iceland with them. The study also revealed the contribution of Viking women to the ancestors of the modern population of Orkney (35 per cent) the Western Isles (12 per cent) and the Isle of Skye (12 per cent).

While there may be archaeological evidence and the Mi’kmaq Natives confirm certain stories of such contact, the question is whether or not DNA can verify such stories. There are only a few ways this can be achieved and we’re looking for, and in some cases finding, the evidence –
• If we find genetic matches between our family and the Native Mi’kmaq peoples living today. To date, we have found some unusual things, but can’t yet use DNA to prove, unequivocally, a match with a Mi’kmaq person. .
• If we find genetic matches between those families known to have gone on the voyage, such as the Gunn family and Native Mi’kmaq peoples living today.
• Even proof of certain intermarriages between families like the Zeno’s with the Sinclairs might help to point to the likelihood of such a voyage. We have no matches with the Gunn family, for instance.  
• Finding other genetic evidence of early trans-Atlantic contact adds credence to the possibility that overcoming the Atlantic Ocean was not so difficult and lays the groundwork for such a trip by our Prince Henry. Several such pieces of evidence have been found and they were startling when discovered. 
If Prince Henry St. Clair were here, he or his men may have left children behind with Native women. Native North Americans have a very different set of DNA markers known collectively as Haplogroup Q3. Western Europeans show very little of the Q and none of the Q3. Instead they and the Sinclair family are almost overwhelmingly Haplogroup R1b. In testing Martin Carriere, a native leader, we found him to be Haplogroup R1b1c but not a close to any Sinclair lineage after the 37 marker results came in.

King Frodi Havarsson

Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (French: Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England (1154–89) and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany. Henry was the son of Geoffrey of Anjou and Matilda, who was the daughter of King Henry I and took the title of Empress from her first marriage. He became actively involved by the age of 14 in his mother’s efforts to claim the throne of England, and was made the Duke of Normandy at 17. He inherited Anjou in 1151 and shortly afterwards married Eleanor of Aquitaine, whose marriage to the French king Louis VII had recently been annulled. King Stephen agreed to a peace treaty after Henry’s military expedition to England in 1153, and Henry inherited the kingdom on Stephen’s death a year later. Still quite young, he now controlled what would later be called the Angevin empire, stretching across much of western Europe.
Henry was an energetic and sometimes ruthless ruler, driven by a desire to restore the lands and privileges of his royal grandfather, Henry I. During the early years of the younger Henry’s reign he restored the royal administration in England, re-established hegemony over Wales and gained full control over his lands in Anjou, Maine and Touraine. Henry soon came into conflict with Louis VII and the two rulers fought what has been termed a “cold war” over several decades. Henry expanded his empire, often at Louis’s expense, taking Brittany and pushing east into central France and south into Toulouse; despite numerous peace conferences and treaties no lasting agreement was reached. Although Henry usually worked well with the local hierarchies of the Church, his desire to reform England’s relationship with the Church led to conflict with his former friend Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury. This controversy lasted for much of the 1160s and resulted in Becket’s death in 1170.

René II, Duke of Lorraine

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René II, Duke of Lorraine

René II of Lorraine
Spouse(s)
Phillipa of Guelders
Noble family
House of Vaudémont
Father
Frederick II of Vaudémont
Mother
Yolande of Lorraine
Born
(1451-05-02)2 May 1451
Angers
Died
10 December 1508(1508-12-10) (aged 57)
Fains
René II (2 May 1451 – 10 December 1508) was Count of Vaudémont from 1470, Duke of Lorraine from 1473, and Duke of Bar from 1483 to 1508. He claimed the crown of the Kingdom of Naples and the County of Provence as the Duke of Calabria 1480–1493 and as King of Naples and Jerusalem 1493–1508. He succeeded his uncle John of Vaudémont as Count of Harcourt in 1473, exchanging it for the county of Aumale in 1495. He succeeded as Count of Guise in 1504.

Contents
 [hide] 
1 Life
2 Family and children
3 See also
4 Sources
[edit] Life
He was born in Angers, the son of Yolande of Lorraine and Frederick, Count of Vaudémont.
René spent his youth in the court of his grandfather René I of Anjou between Angers and Provence, succeeding to his father in Vaudémont in 1470 and, three years later, to his uncle as captain of Angers, senechal and governor of Anjou. In the same year he became Duke of Lorraine, which was at the time under the pressure of both Louis XI of France and Charles the Bold of Burgundy, with whom he initially allied. When the latter began to establish garrisons in Lorraine, however, René secretly allied with Louis (1474). Charles invaded the duchy and René was forced to quit Nancy (30 November 1475). He regained the city on 5 October the following year and moved to Switzerland to hire an army of Swiss mercenaries; with this force René defeated Charles at the Battle of Nancy (5 January 1477). In 1476, upon the death of his grandmother, he became sole Count of Harcourt and Baron of Elbeuf.
Later, René got to bad terms with Louis, who had taken most of his heritage. He moved to Italy and defeated the Duke of Ferrara in the Battle of Adria as an ally of the Republic of Venice.
When his mother Yolande died in 1483, he succeeded as Duke of Bar, and in her claims to the kingdoms of Naples and Jerusalem.

René married Phillipa of Guelders, daughter of Adolf, Duke of Guelders, in Orléans on 1 September 1485 and had the following children:
Charles (b. 17 August 1486, Nancy), d. young
François (5 July 1487, Pont-à-Mousson) (died at birth)
Antoine, Duke of Lorraine (1489–1544)
Nicholas (9 April 1493, Nancy), d. young
Claude, Duke of Guise (1496–1550), first Duke of Guise
John, Cardinal of Lorraine and Bishop of Metz (1498–1550)
Louis, Count of Vaudémont (1500–1528)
Francis, Count of Lambesc (1506–1525)
Anne (19 December 1490, Bar-le-Duc – 1491)
Isabelle (2 November 1494, Lunéville – bef. 1508)
Claude and Catherine (twins) (24 November 1502, Bar-le-Duc), d. young

http://sexualfables.com/the_woman_in_the_bower.php

http://www.robertabarresi.com/mazeslabyrinthcap19.html

“It was widely known at the time, throughout both England and France, that Henry was having an affair with young Rosamond de Clifford.  Eleanor’s spies reported the goings-on to her in her castle at Poitiers, to which she had now retired.  It seems that as the affair persisted, she became angrier, since Henry’s past affairs had never lasted long and this new infatuation appeared to be growing more intense.  Eleanor decided to act, stealing into England with her knights, headed for Woodstock, where Henry had his mistress hidden away.
The palace was deep in the forest and its approaches were constructed like a labyrinth designed to foil Eleanor, should she ever decide to do what she was doing now.  Alas for Rosamond, a silk thread had become detached from a needlework chest that the King had given her for embroidery.  Once the Queen discovered it, she was able to follow it to the heart of the labyrinth and surprise the young woman.”

“It was widely known at the time, throughout both England and France, that Henry was having an affair with young Rosamond de Clifford.  Eleanor’s spies reported the goings-on to her in her castle at Poitiers, to which she had now retired.  It seems that as the affair persisted, she became angrier, since Henry’s past affairs had never lasted long and this new infatuation appeared to be growing more intense.  Eleanor decided to act, stealing into England with her knights, headed for Woodstock, where Henry had his mistress hidden away.
The palace was deep in the forest and its approaches were constructed like a labyrinth designed to foil Eleanor, should she ever decide to do what she was doing now.  Alas for Rosamond, a silk thread had become detached from a needlework chest that the King had given her for embroidery.  Once the Queen discovered it, she was able to follow it to the heart of the labyrinth and surprise the young woman.”

Rosamond De Clifford (b. 1136, d. 1176)
Rosamond De Clifford (daughter of Walter De Clifford and Margaret De Toeni) was born 1136 in Clifford Castle, Herefordshire, England, and died 1176. She married Henry II Curtmantle, son of Geoffrey V Of Anjou Plantagenet and Empress Matilda Beauclerc.

 Notes for Rosamond De Clifford:
Rosamond, so well known as “Fair Rosamond,” the celebrated mistress of Henry II, by whom she was the mother of William Longespée, Earl of Salisbury. [Sir Bernard Burke, Dormant, Abeyant, Forfeited, and Extinct Peerages, Burke’s Peerage, Ltd., London, 1883, p. 122, Clifford, Earls of Cumberland and Barons Clifford].[JohnFaye (8 Jun 05).FTW]

More About Rosamond De Clifford:
Date born 2: 1136

Children of Rosamond De Clifford and Henry II Curtmantle are:
i. +William Longespee, b. 1176, Woodstock Manor, England, d. 07 Mar 1225, Salisbury Castle, Wiltshire, England.

http://familytreemaker.genealogy.com/users/h/e/l/Patricia-Hellerud-/WEBSITE-0001/UHP-0999.html

WALTHEO, son of SIWARD, EARL OF NORTHUMBERLAND, by Ælfled, daughter of ALDRED of Bernicia, became EARL OF HUNTINGDON and EARL OF NORTHAMPTON when Tostig was banished in October 1065. He is not known to have opposed the Conqueror in 1066, but was taken to Normandy the following year. In 1069 he joined the Danes in their descent on Yorkshire, distinguishing himself in the attack on the city of York. When the Danes left England he submitted himself to William, in January 1070, and was restored to his Earldom, and to his father’s Earldom of Northumberland in 1072. While attending the wedding of Ralph de Gael, Earl of Norfolk, at Exning in the spring or summer of 1075, he was enticed to join the conspiracy of the Earls of Norfolk and Hereford to seize England for themselves. He quickly repented, and by Lanfranc’s advice went to Normandy and asked pardon of the King, who treated the matter lightly at the time; but at Christmas Waltheof was brought to trial at Westmminster, his wife Judith being a witness. He was imprisoned at Winchester, where on the resumption of the trial in May he was condemned and beheaded on St. Giles’s Hill, 31 May 1076, and hastily buried .

He married, in 1070, Judith, daughter of Lambert, COUNT OF LENS, by Adelaide or Adeliz, sister of the Conqueror. He died as aforesaid, 31 May 1076, and a fortnight later the Abbot Ulfketel, at Judith’s request and by the King’s permission, removed his body to Crowland, where it was honourably entombed.(g) His widow, who as “Judith the Countess” is recorded in Domesday Book to have held estates in many counties in 1086, most of them apparently gifts from the King, her uncle, held Huntingdon in dower. She founded the Nunnery of Elstow, near Bedford. [Complete Peerage VI:638-40, (transcribed by Dave Utzinger)]

[g] Many miracles are recorded, for Waltheof was by many regarded as a saint. An epitaph was written for the tomb by Orderic. Other epitaphs are in the Vita. He is described as strong in person and of great repute as a warrior, pious had learnt the psalter in his youth, was liberal to the clergy and the poor, and a benefactor in particular to Jarrow and Crowland. To the former he gave Tynemouth. The chief stain on his memory is his part in a family bloodfeud, for he ordered the murder of the sons of one Carl, who had killed Earl Ealdrcd, Walthcof’s grandfather.

Death: 31 MAY 1076 in Executed for treason
Burial: Crowland Abbey
Note: He avenged his forefathers by massacring a number of Carl’s sons.

More About Waltheof II Siwardsson:
Date born 2: 1046, Northumberland, England.

Children of Waltheof II Siwardsson and Judith De Lens are:
i. +Queen Of Scotland Maud Of Huntington, b. 1072, Huntington, England, d. 23 Apr 1130, Perthshire, Scotland.
ii. +Alice Adeliza Huntington, b. 1085, Herefordshire, England, d. 1126.

Countess Huntington Queen Of Scotland Maud Of Huntington (b. 1072, d. 23 Apr 1130)
Queen Of Scotland Maud Of Huntington (daughter of Waltheof II Siwardsson and Judith De Lens) was born 1072 in Huntington, England, and died 23 Apr 1130 in Perthshire, Scotland. She married (1) King Of Scotland David, son of III Malcolm King Of Scotland and Queen Of Scotland Saint Margaret. She married (2) Simon St. Liz.

 Notes for Queen Of Scotland Maud Of Huntington:
Matilda Of Huntingdon

More About Queen Of Scotland Maud Of Huntington:
Date born 2: 1072, Huntingdonshire, England.
Died 2: 23 Apr 1131, Scotland.

Children of Queen Of Scotland Maud Of Huntington and King Of Scotland David are:
i. +Earl Of Huntington Henry II, b. 1110, Scotland, d. 12 Jun 1152, Roxburghshire, Scotland.

Children of Queen Of Scotland Maud Of Huntington and Simon St. Liz are:
i. +Matilda De St. Liz, b. 1095, Hampshire, England, d. 1140.

Waltheof II Siwardsson

Alice Adeliza Huntington (daughter of Waltheof II Siwardsson and Judith De Lens) was born 1085 in Herefordshire, England, and died 1126. She married Ralph De Toeni, son of Ralph De Toeni and Isabel De Montfort.

Children of Alice Adeliza Huntington and Ralph De Toeni are:
i. +Roger De Toeni, b. 1104, Herefordshire, England, d. 1160.
ii. +Margaret De Toeni, b. 1118, Herefordshire, England, d. 1185.

Isabel De Montfort (daughter of Simon De Montfort) was born 1056 in Herefordshire, England. She married Ralph De Toeni, son of Roger De Toeni.

 Notes for Isabel De Montfort:
Brøderbund WFT Vol. 14, Ed. 1, Tree #3302, Date of Import: Jan 26, 1999]

Marched into battle in full armor; “she was high spirited, loquacious and of gracefull figure, she ruled her husband and lorded it over her inferiors.” She & Helvisa, Countess d’Evereux were responsible for the “Guerre des Belles Dames”

Children of Isabel De Montfort and Ralph De Toeni are:
i. +Ralph De Toeni, b. 1079, Herefordshire, England, d. 1126.

Roger De Toeni (son of Ralph De Toeni II) was born 990 in Normandy, France, and died 1040.

 Notes for Roger De Toeni:
BIOGRAPHY: Roger de Toeni was a typical leader among the Norman nobles, proud of his connection with the Dukes of Normandy, contemptuous of the base-born Duke William, quarrelsome among his peers, ready to engage in far distant expeditions for fame or booty, and careless of the sufferings of others. He was a powerful and haughty man, and a hereditary banner-bearer of all Normandy. He built a fortress at Vieux-Conches (about a mile west of the present town of Conches), the remains of which are to be seen today, and there the family resided until 1204. In 1035 he founded the Benedictine Abbey of St. Peter and St. Paul at Chatillon, and that of Conches, which he endowed with his manor of Dieppe. Between 1035 to 1035 he was sent (in company of other Normans) by Henry I of France to the aid of Ferdinand, King of Castile and Leon. He was the first to carry Norman arms into the Spanish Peninsula. He gained a reputation for cruelty and invincibility in Spain, and there also found a wife, Godehildes, or Goodchild, daughter of Raymond Borrell, Count of Barcelona, and his wife Ermensenda. Roger and Godehildes’ children were Helbert, Elinance, Ralph, Robert (who received Stafford Castle in England from William the Conqueror, became the ancestor of the Stafford family, and owned 81 manors in Stafford, 26 in Warwick, and others, amounting to 131in all), and Adelina or Adeliza (who married William FitzOsborne). When Roger returned to Normandy, he was furious to learn that the boy William had succeeded his father in the Duchy, declaring that a bastard ought not to rule over him and other Normans. Accordingly he rebelled and ravaged the lands of his neighbours, particularly those of Humphrey de Vieilles; whose son Roger de Beaumont marched against him. In the battle which followed, Roger de Toeni and two of his sons (Helbert and Elinance) were slain while resisting William’s claims.After Roger’s death, Godehildes married Richard, Count of Evereux, grandson of Richard I, Duke of Normandy.

Children of Roger De Toeni are:
i. +Ralph De Toeni, b. 1029, Herefordshire, England, d. 24 Mar 1102.
ii. +Robert De Toeni, b. 1035, Normandy, France, d. Aug 1088.

Ralph De Toeni II (son of Ralph De Toeni) was born 970 in Normandy, France, and died 1045.

 Notes for Ralph De Toeni II:
BIOGRAPHY: Ralph II was one of the forty Normans who went to try their fortunes in Italy and are mentioned at Capra in 1012. He was entrusted by Duke Richard II for the defense of Castle Tillieres against Odo Of Chartres, the Duke’s brother in law, who had revolted.

Children of Ralph De Toeni II are:
i. +Roger De Toeni, b. 990, Normandy, France, d. 1040.

Ralph De Toeni (son of Hugh De Calvacamp) was born 940 in Normandy, France, and died 1026.

Children of Ralph De Toeni are:
i. +Ralph De Toeni II, b. 970, Normandy, France, d. 1045.

Hugh De Calvacamp (son of Malahule Eysteinsson and Maud De Flanders) was born 890 in Calvacamp, Neustria.

Children of Hugh De Calvacamp are:
i. +Ralph De Toeni, b. 940, Normandy, France, d. 1026.

Malahule Eysteinsson (son of Eyestein Glumra Ivarsson and Ascrida Ragnaldsdatter) was born 845 in Maer, Nord Trondelag, Norway, and died 911. He married Maud De Flanders, daughter of Pepin De Senlis.

Children of Malahule Eysteinsson and Maud De Flanders are:
i. +Richard De St. Sauveur, b. 880, St. Sauveur, France.
ii. +Hugh De Calvacamp, b. 890, Calvacamp, Neustria.

Eyestein Glumra Ivarsson (son of Ivar Halfdansson Earl Of Norway and Eysteinsdatter) was born 800 in Maer, Nord-Trondelag, Norway, and died Abt. 865 in Maer, Norway. He married Ascrida Ragnaldsdatter, daughter of Ragnald Olafsson and Thora Sigurdsdottir.

 Notes for Eyestein Glumra Ivarsson:
Glumra ‘Eysteinn The Noisy’

Children of Eyestein Glumra Ivarsson and Ascrida Ragnaldsdatter are:
i. +Ragnvald Eyesteinsson, b. 830, Maer, Norway, d. 894, Orkney, Orkney Islands, Scotland.
ii. +Malahule Eysteinsson, b. 845, Maer, Nord Trondelag, Norway, d. 911.
iii. +Swanhilda Eyesteinsdottir Queen Of Norway, b. 855, Maer, Nord, Trondelag, Norway.

Ivar Halfdansson Earl Of Norway (son of Halfdan Eysteinsson) was born 775 in Oppland, Norway, and died 850. He married Eysteinsdatter, daughter of Eystein Glumra Hognasson.

 Notes for Ivar Halfdansson Earl Of Norway:
The Scandinavian Earls of Orkney trace their descent from the noblest and most heroic of the ruling dynasties of the north. Ivar, Prince of the Uplands in Norway, who claimed a descent from the deified hero Thor, was father of Eystein. [Sir Bernard Burke, Dormant, Abeyant, Forfeited, and Extinct Peerages, Burke’s Peerage, Ltd., London, 1883, p. 492, Sinclair, Earl of Orkney]

Children of Ivar Halfdansson Earl Of Norway and Eysteinsdatter are:
i. +Eyestein Glumra Ivarsson, b. 800, Maer, Nord-Trondelag, Norway, d. Abt. 865, Maer, Norway.

Halfdan Eysteinsson (son of Eystein Halfdansson) was born 768 in Oppland, Norway, and died 802 in Borre, Vestfold, Norway.

 Notes for Halfdan Eysteinsson:
Halfdan “The Aged” SVEIDASSON”The Gentle”

Halfdan “the Stingy” was said to be generous with his money, but stingy with his food. He supposedly lived in the 8th century.

More About Halfdan Eysteinsson:
Date born 2: 768, Norway.

Children of Halfdan Eysteinsson are:
i. +Ivar Halfdansson Earl Of Norway, b. 775, Oppland, Norway, d. 850.
ii. +King of Vestfold Gudrod, b. 790, Vestfold, Norway, d. 821, Vestfold, Norway.

Eystein Halfdansson (son of Halfdan Olafsson and Asa Eyesteinsdottir) was born 722 in Norway, and died 780 in Norway.

 Notes for Eystein Halfdansson:
“The Fart”

Children of Eystein Halfdansson are:
i. +King Of Haithabu Halfdan, b. 750, d. 810.
ii. +Halfdan Eysteinsson, b. 768, Oppland, Norway, d. 802, Borre, Vestfold, Norway.

Halfdan Olafsson (son of Olaf (Tree-Hewer) Injaldsson and Solveig Halfdansdatter) was born 704 in Romerike, Buskerud, Norway, and died 800. He married Asa Eyesteinsdottir, daughter of Eyestein Haardrade Throndsson and Solveig Halfdansdatter.

 Notes for Halfdan Olafsson:
OLAFSSON, Halfdan ‘White Leg’ (King of the Uplanders) He was born about 704 in Romerlike, Norway when his mother was about 19 years old and died ? in Vermaland, Norway; member of the Pagan church. He was the son of Olaf ‘Tree-hewer’ Ingjaldsson (King of Vermaland) and Solveig Halfdansdottir, the daughter of Halfdan ‘Gold Tooth’ of SWEDEN; married Asa EYSTEINSDOTTIR (the daughter of Eystein ‘The Severe’ of the Uplands (King of the Uplanders) and Sloveig Halfdansdottir). Children: i. Eystein of Vestfold ‘The Fart’ HALFDANSSON (King in Raumarlike) i. Gudrod ‘The Magnificent’ HALFDANSSON (King, Vestfold&Roumarlike) 27.
Notes: Founded the pagan temple at Skiringssal.

Halfdan the Bounteous

Halvdan was the son of the Swedish King Olav Tretelja Ingjaldsen (King Olav the Tree-Hewer) and his wife Solveig Gultandsdtr..

More About Halfdan Olafsson:
Date born 2: 704, Romerike, Buskerud, Norway.

Children of Halfdan Olafsson and Asa Eyesteinsdottir are:
i. +Eystein Halfdansson, b. 722, Norway, d. 780, Norway.

King Of Sweden Ingvar “The Tall” Eyesteinsson (son of Eystein Adilsson King Of Sweden) was born 616 in Sweden.

Children of King Of Sweden Ingvar “The Tall” Eyesteinsson are:
i. +Braut-Onund Ingvarsson, b. 636, Sweden.

Raymond Borrel (Catalan: Ramon Borrell, Spanish: Ramón Borrell) (972-1017), was count of Barcelona, Girona, and Ausona from 992. Son of Borrell II of Barcelona and Letgarda de Rouergue. He was associated with his father from 988.
In 993 he married Ermesinde of Carcassonne with whom he had three children, Borrell Ramon (died young before 1017) Berengar Raymond (c.1006) and Estefania/Adelaide, wife of Roger I of Tosny.
Between 1000 and 1002 he had to deal with a number of incursions by Al-Mansur. However Al-Mansur was killed in Battle of Calatañazor by Navarran and Leon forces. Seeing an opportunity Raymond counter-attacked in 1003 leading an expedition to Lleida. However this prompted a new raid on the County of Barcelona by Al-Mansur’s son, Abd al-Malik. This was defeated by an alliance of Christian forces at the Battle of Torà.[1] Ramon was also present at the Battle of Albesa shortly thereafter.
In 1010, with the Cordoban Caliphate crumbling into civil war Raymond saw another opportunity. He organised a campaign against the Caliphate, with Armengol I of Urgell, Bernard I of Besalú, and joined forces with Muhammad II of Córdoba. The army destroyed the forces of Caliph Sulayman II and sacked Córdoba. As a result Catalonia remained free from further Moorish dominion. Armengol died in battle on September 1 at Córdoba. On 2 June of 1010, Borrell participated in the Battle of Aqbat al-Bakr on the side of the Muslim rebels as part of the Andalusian civil wars or the Fitna of al-Ándalus.
In 1015 and 1016 Raymond made further expeditions to the Rivers Ebro and Segre. The treasure obtained in these campaigns maintained the loyalty of his barons.
In the County of Barcelona he ensured the repopulation of the Segarra, Conca de Barberà and Camp de Tarragona. He began the construction of the cathedral in Barcelona. He was also the first Catalan ruler to mint his own coinage.
At his death in 1017, he was succeeded by his son Berengar Raymond under the regency of his mother. He was buried at Barcelona Cathedral, but his grave was lost.

Andrew reports the battle in terms as if describing a holy war. The Muslims, whose numbers he puts at 17,000, are “new Philistines”. Bernard of Besalú he quotes as reasoning that if the saints Peter and Michael and the Virgin Mary each kill 5,000 Muslims, there will be a manageable number left for the soldiers. Bernard recalls that the Muslims are often slain before they have a chance to retreat. According to Andrew, after the battle the Virgin Mary miraculously brought news of the Christian victory to as far away as Monte Sant’Angelo. Despite the theme of religious warfare, Spanish historians have not picked up on Andrew’s account.[1]

Recent years have seen this fairly unremarkable Orkney earl linked with the Knights Templar, the Holy Grail, the Freemasons and a pre-Columbian transatlantic voyage.

n Brown’s 2003 bestselling thriller, The Da Vinci Code, ensured that this piece of Scottish lore would continue to thrill audiences into the twenty-first century by featuring various strains of Sinclair legend into his book’s plotline. Rosslyn Chapel, which features prominently in The Da Vinci Code, has long been rumoured to hide secrets of the Knights Templar. It was founded by William Sinclair, 1st Earl of Caithness, 3rd Earl of Orkney, and grandson to Henry Sinclair, in 1456, and took over forty years to complete. Master stonemasons carved elaborate and complex symbolic details into the chapel’s entire structure – details that would link it to Henry Sinclair’s trans-Atlantic expedition and even to the legendary Holy Grail.
The historical connections between the Sinclairs, the Crusades, and the Masonic symbolism built into Rosslyn Chapel provided fodder for legends revolving around the Holy Grail and the Knights Templar. Some legends of modern invention assert that the Templars sent the Grail to Scotland for safe-keeping when the Order was formally disbanded in the early 1300s, knowing that Robert the Bruce would be slow to enforce the Papal Edict ordering the closure of Templar monasteries. Other traditions maintain that the Templars took the Holy Grail to northern Spain, protecting it there until the surviving members of Sir James Douglas’s party brought it back to Scotland.

Seal of the Knights Templar

Rosslyn Chapel

The Kirkwood Scroll
When popular associations with the Knights Templar began to merge with Freemasonry, Rosslyn Chapel provided the perfect backdrop for legend. According to one tradition, William Sinclair, 1st Earl of Caithness, founded Freemasonry to protect the secrets of the Knights Templar, guardians of the Holy Grail, after the Order was disbanded. He began construction of Rosslyn Chapel to safeguard the Templar’s legacy, while other Masons incorporated their secret symbols and puzzles into the Chapel’s physical details. Burial vaults below the chapel are known to contain the remains of ten Barons of Roslin in full armour – and are rumoured to hide the Holy Grail itself.
Another Masonic connection: an 18.6″ x 5.6″ scroll, made of three pieces of linen or sailcloth, hangs in Lodge Kirkwall Kilwinning No. 38(2) in Orkney. The centre strip of cloth displays one hundred Masonic symbols, while the outer two panels display world maps. This scroll was gifted to the lodge by one William Graham, a painter, in 1796, for use as a ceremonial floor-cloth. The outside world paid little attention to it until 2000, when Andrew Sinclair, a writer and pseudo-historian, brought it to the Oxford University’s Accelerator Laboratory for carbon-dating. Two tests yielded wildly differing results, suggesting that the scroll could be as old as six hundred years or as recent as the eighteenth century.
Sinclair seized the intriguing possibilities of pseudo-history and claimed that the Kirkwall Scroll was an ancient relic of Freemasonry filled with Templar images that linked it to the Sinclair family and Rosslyn Chapel. The word “sultcrinea” in the third panel, he concluded, was an anagram of “St. Cler” and “Vina,” a nod to Henry St. Clair’s fourteenth century voyage to the Americas (vina being an abbreviation for Vinland, the Viking name for Newfoundland).

The legendary exploits of Henry Sinclair have grown to incur this unremarkable fourteenth century Orkney earl a reputation that has very little to do with his actual accomplishments. Beneath centuries of legend, mythology, and pseudo-history, the historically uninteresting Henry Sinclair has been supplanted with a character famed for his associations with the Knights Templar, the Holy Grail, a Freemason conspiracy, and a trans-Atlantic voyage.
To understand the mysteries surrounding Henry Sinclair, Earl of Orkney, we must first examine the origins of his family. The St. Clairs trace their origins back to Rognvold “The Mighty,” a ninth century Norse chief whose son, Rollo, made war with King Charles of France. The treaty they signed in 912 at St. Clair-sur-Epte, from which the family takes its name, made Rollo the 1st Duke of Normandy. William “the Seemly” St. Clair, descendant of Rollo and founder of the Scottish Sinclair clan, came to England with his first cousin, William the Conqueror, and fought alongside him at the Battle of Hastings in 1066. Two years later, he accompanied Margaret, a Saxon princess, from her refuge in the Hungarian royal court to Scotland, where she married King Malcolm III. On the journey, St. Margaret carried with her the Holy Rood, a relic of the True Cross. For these acts, William St. Clair was granted the Barony of Roslin in 1070. (The name derives from the combination of the Gaelic words ros, or rock, and lyn, or waterfall.) William’s son and heir, Sir Henry St. Clair, 2nd Baron of Roslin, fought in the First Crusade.
Henry Sinclair’s ancestry was a mixture of Norman, French, Norwegian, and Scottish. The first Sinclair known in what is now the United Kingdom had arrived with William the Conqueror in 1066. Sinclair’s grand-father, a friend of Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland, died fighting the Saracens in Spain in 1330.

About Royal Rosamond Press

I am an artist, a writer, and a theologian.
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2 Responses to Rosamond and the Earls of Orkney

  1. Ben Toney says:

    Hi Greg. I don’t know if I have pointed out the fact that Henry II King of England and Rosamond were distant cousins. They were both descended from Godehilde, mother of Ralph III de Toney. They were also descended from Simon de Montfort l’Amaury. On another level, I do not believe Godehilde was a daughter of Ramon Borrell of Catalonia. I believe she was the daughter of Hugh III, Count of Maine.

  2. Reblogged this on rosamondpress and commented:

    I was going to use Belle Burch to continue the Pre-Raphaelite vision that had come to America and was perpetuated by Joaquin Miller and his daughter. Trinity Rose James is a model. I would have liked to have done a painting of her. Too bad we have Big Nurses running the show.

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