The Changlings of Moy Mell

My late sister, Christine Rosamond Benton, was born in Vallejo Caiifornia on October 24, 1947, she would be sixty five years of age,today, if she had not been swept into the sea on March 26, 1994.

If Christine were alive when my sixteen year old daughher came into my life in 2001, she would have been shocked and angry to learn how her niece was hidden from her and her family – and put in the arms of bruatal San Quninton convict and Con Man who was convicted twice of impersonating Bob Weir of the Grateful Dead, a truly magical human being, whose band made magical music for the Fairy Folk of the Height Ashbury. Randall Delpiano threatened to kill me with a basball bat and is found in Dead lore. Randy terrorized Patrice’s two sons by other men. No doubt these boys felt like Changlings, also.

If the famous artist, Rosamond, were alive today, she would be outraged to learn her niece, Heather Hanson, bonded with a violent and agressive drunk – born on her drunken father’s birthday – and put my grandson in Bill Cornwell’s arms so he could raise Tyler up to be of his ilk, a warlike destructive troll as described by Tolkien.

Christine’s funeral fell on her first sober birthday, and thus she is an Aries in Sobriety. My sober birthday is April 7th. I have twenty five years of sobriety. Christine would have had eighteen. Both Christine and I believed we were, and are, Changlings, for how could two beautiful and creative children, be born to the destructive drunken monsters who claimed they were our parents? As fate would have it, Heather was born on our mother’s birthday. This is not an accident. There is a long attack being launched by the Dark One in order that he capture the Gifts of God, and His Nazarite Prophets that have been seperated and concecrated to Him – who are set appart from His other children in the wilderness – so that they may be tempted by God’s Adversary, the Fallen Angel who wants his own children……………..”Get behind me Satan!”

As fate would have it, my siblings named their children after me, gave them names that are a form of John that means ‘The Gift of God’. I discovered this in 1990, and wrote my sibling a long letter pleading with them to get their children back. I did not know at the time, I had a child. Getting Heather back was suposed to be the beautiful end to OUR beautiful and crestive story, but, here he come, the Troll of Trolls who can not concieve a child, like Delpiano could not concieve a child.

To see Patrice Hanson claim all the creative magic for herself, and covertly move her daughter close to my dead sister in order to claim the Rose ofthe World and put her in her dark family pile, was pure evil, only surpassed by Heather and Bill Cornwell’s succesful attmept to rip Tyler Hunt from me and his destiny. Tyler, the Creative Changling, will be raised as a wild and distructive Orc, a drunkern troll in love with war and gaslone engines that race agressivly aginst other drunken trolls who worship Moonshiners, lawless distillers of rot-gut booze.

To my beloved grandson, Tyler Hunt, always remember this;

“All’s well, that ends well.”

The Fairy Folk of Moy Mell are coming for you. They will never forget you, or forsake you. You are one with them.
Papa

Meher Baba visited the Dunites who lived in flimsy shelters in the sand dunes at Pismo Beach California. Here lived poets and philosophers of another Back to Basics and the Earth Movement where materialism and the worship of money was frowned upon. Baba declared his mission in America was to destroy our love of materialism. This morning I found an article that concludes what I concluded four years ago, that Prosperity theology led Christians to buy homes they could not afford, thus causing the Mortgage Meltdown.
Five years ago I concluded Jesus was born in a Sukkot booth, and not a manger. These booths were temporary shelters wherein the Exodus from slavery is celebrated. This is a return to the wilderness and humble roots. Jesus goes into the wilderness and is tempted, he offered kingdoms and gold. He turns his Advisary down, and begins his ministry, which is to restore the Jubilee.
When Cyrus, the king of Persia, allowed the Jews to return to the Promised Land, he encouraged them to set up Sukkot Booths and revive lost rituals that were once centered around the temple. The Jews title Cyrus ‘Messiah’ for instigating the second Exodus, and for allowing the building of a new Temple. However, I believe a sect of Jews continued to worship God from the ritual of the Sukkot Booth, and Jesus did build one in the wilderness.
Before Jesus was born, the Persian Magi foretold via the stars, that he was coming ‘The Son of David’ who would have the wisdom of Solomon, who may have been King Cyrus. Jesus was ‘The Good Shepherd’ who appear in Ecclesiastes, along with the Son of David – Son of God!
When Jesus enters Jerusalem on a donkey, the people recognize him as ‘The Son of David’ who was an unidentied king – who did not teach a tale of an afterlife, but taught;
“All is vanity!”
Meher Baba descends from the Persian Magi. He made it his mission to contact the Mast, the homeless mystics, whom he personally bathed. Consider Newt Gingrich appealing to the Lucky & Wealthy Evangelical heresy.
“Every dog has his day.”
Evangelical Vanity has brought our nation to the brink of ruin. It has corrupted our political system, and declared war on the poor.
On this day I found the AMERICAN TENTMAKERS OF AMERICA. This is both a Secular and Religious organization based upon the Jublilee and the lost cosmology of the Nazarites that made a home within for the Holy Spirit. the ATA will model itself after the Chautauqua Tents that my grandfather mention in his story ‘Camping On Anacapa’. Royal Rosamond took Lillian to visit the Dunites of Oxnard.
“It was a glorious summer morning at the Chautauqua at Ventura-by-the-sea.”
I offer a religious umbrella to the Occupy Tents. I founded a Nazarite Church in 1997. I am the Minister of that church.
I see large ATA Tents in all major cities wherein the homeless work making white hand-stitched canvas tents for sale. There will be traveling ATA Tents wherein folks perform music, read poetry, and hold seminars on how to live a humble non-materialistic Arcadian Life, as promoted by Royal’s freinds, Homer Croy and Otto Rayburn.
Royal met with Croy about publishing his novel ‘Bound In This Clay’. Croy wrote ‘They Had To See Paris’ starring the humorist Will Rogers who championed the Poor, and demonized the Bankers during the Great Depression.
Let us raise our Tents in the Wilderness – and take back America from the false prophets. Let there be a New Dawn, and a revived pertinence in America!
Jon Presco
Whence comest thou, maiden?” said Connla.
“I come from the Plains of the Ever Living,” she said, “there where there is neither death nor sin. There we keep holiday alway, nor need we help from any in our joy. And in all our pleasure we have no strife. And because we have our homes in the round green hills, men call us the Hill Folk.”
On the journey he was interviewed on behalf of the Associated Press, which quoted him describing his trip as a “new crusade . . . to break down all religious barriers and destroy America’s materialism and amalgamate all creeds into a common element of love”.[46] His intention, according to the resulting article, was to convert thousands of Americans from sin. Describing Baba as “The Messiah,” the article also claims he listed miracles he had performed, and said that a person who becomes one with the truth can accomplish anything, but that it is a weakness to perform miracles only to show spiritual power. However, another description of the interview states that when Baba was asked about the miracles attributed to him, he replied “The only miracle for the Perfect Man to perform is to make others perfect too. I want to make the Americans realize the infinite state which I myself enjoy.”[47]
Hollywood and the “Dunites,” 1934
Meher Baba returned to Hollywood in 1934, avoiding publicity and instead working with a number of screenwriters and filmmakers on proposed film projects. During the earlier 1932 visit he had met a spiritual seeker named Sam Cohen, a Theosophist and resident of a loosely knit freethinkers’ community named “Moy Mell” nestled among the dunes on the beach at Oceano, California. The benefactor of this group of intellectuals, spiritual seekers, artists and social misfits was Chester Alan Arthur III, grandson of the 21st President, who went by the name of Gavin. For a time Gavin published a magazine called the Dune Forum, which included articles by such notables as Stuart Edward White (author of the spiritualist classic, The Unobstructed Universe), and photographic contributions by Ansel Adams and Edward Weston (whose dune photographs are well-known).
Gavin would frequently entertain the intellectual and artistic elite of America at his cabin in the dunes. Although accounts differ somewhat, it appears that Baba sent disciple Meredith Starr and his wife to Moy Mell in 1932, and that they stayed on for a period of time (this was approximately a year and a half before Meredith’s defection). When Baba returned to Hollywood in 1934, he agreed to visit the “Dunite” community. On the evening of Christmas day (accounts different as to the exact days), Baba arrived with eighteen of his followers, including Norina Matchabelli, wife of Georges Matchabelli, known for the popular perfume brand. Norina had previously arranged for a special cabin to be built for Baba, but he chose instead to stay in Gavin’s cabin. Gavin was not in Moy Mell at the time, and it was decided that he wouldn’t mind.
There was also a Theosophical center called the Temple of the People in nearby Halcyon, founded in 1904 with the intent of preparing for the arrival of the next incarnation of the Avatar, but there is no record of Baba visiting it.(21)
L-R: Sam Cohen, Meher Baba, Hugo Sellig, John Doggett
Baba and his group stayed overnight and spent the following day visiting with Sam Cohen and other Dunites, many of whom were eccentric characters and spiritual seekers who gave little importance to social convention. Hugo Seelig was a seeker of truth from an early age, who, after his father’s suicide, roamed the coast of California meeting other seekers and visiting places where they could be found. At Stanford University, he met a resident of Halcyon who told him about Oceano and the little dune colony there. When WWI broke out and America entered the war, Hugo went to live in the dunes and became part of the community, pursuing his writing.
‘Tis a glorious place, forsooth, that Connla holds among shortlived mortals awaiting the day of death. But now the folk of life, the ever-living ones, beg and bid thee come to Moy Mell, the Plain of Pleasure, for they have learnt to know thee, seeing thee in thy home among thy dear ones.Trolls with the changeling they have raised, John Bauer, 1913.A changeling is a creature found in Western European folklore and folk religion. It is typically described as being the offspring of a fairy, troll, elf or other legendary creature that has been secretly left in the place of a human child. Sometimes the term is also used to refer to the child who was taken. The apparent changeling could also be a stock or fetch, an enchanted piece of wood that would soon appear to grow sick and die. The theme of the swapped child is common among medieval literature and reflects concern over infants afflicted by as-then unknown diseases, disorders, or developmental disabilities.

Mithril has produced many of the evil Orcs and Trolls that inhabit Middle-earth.

In J. R. R. Tolkien’s universe of Middle-earth, Orcs (also referred to as Goblins) are human-like but much uglier and crueler, who loved to destroy rather than create anything. They excel in weapons of war.

Originally they were supposed to have been captured Elves that were twisted and tortured by Melkor into their current state. They dwell in caves and in dark places, hating the sunlight. They are bound to service by Sauron, controlled by fear and pain, which is all they understand.

The race of Uruk-hai, described as large black orcs of great strength, are rumored to have been the prodigy of orcs crossbred with humans, to better enable them to withstand the sun. Sauron and Saruman both made use of these warriors to further their aims.

Trolls were giant creatures, maybe 12 feet high, extremely strong but very slow witted. Most trolls also turned to stone in sunlight. They were therefore found in the depths of caves or mines and would hunt at night in the open.

Sauron however had bred Olag-hai trolls, which resisted sunlight and were much more intelligent than normal trolls. It could be that they were huge Orcs instead of Trolls.

Other allies include Wargs, which are large evil and intelligent wolves, that allow orcs to ride them.

A human child might be taken due to many factors: to act as a servant, the love of a human child, or malice.[1] Most often it was thought that fairies exchanged the children. Some Norwegian tales tell that the change was made to prevent inbreeding: to give trolls and humans new blood, humans were given children with enormous strength as a reward. In some rare cases, the very elderly of the Fairy people would be exchanged in the place of a human baby, and then the old fairy could live in comfort, being coddled by its human parents.[2] Simple charms, such as an inverted coat or open iron scissors left where the child sleeps, were thought to ward them off; other measures included a constant watch over the child.[3]

Perhaps the changeling myths of this time period reflect the feudal political structure, where inheritance is the only real way to gain personal or political power. A monarch gave the throne to his first surviving son at his own death. When there was any doubt to the legitimacy of the child, the power of the very state could be called into question and a fight for political power could arise. This inherent fear of war caused by political strife could have been mythologized.

The devil steals a baby and leaves a changeling behind, early 15th century, detail of “The legend of St. Stephen” by Martino di BartolomeoContents [hide]
1 Purpose of a changeling
2 Changelings in medieval folklore
2.1 Cornwall
2.2 Ireland
2.3 Lowland Scotland and Northern England
2.4 Malta
2.5 Scandinavia
2.6 Spain
2.7 Wales
3 “Changelings” in the historical record
4 Changelings in other countries
5 Changelings in the modern world
5.1 Neurological differences
5.2 In Nature
6 Changelings in popular culture
6.1 Literary uses
6.2 Drama
6.3 Comics and games
6.4 Film and TV
7 See also
8 References
9 External links

[edit] Purpose of a changelingSome people believed that trolls would take unbaptized children. Once children had been baptized and therefore become part of the Church, the trolls could not take them. One belief is that trolls thought that being raised by humans was something very classy, and that they therefore wanted to give their own children a human upbringing.

Beauty in human children and young women, particularly blond hair, attracted the fairies.[4]

In Scottish folklore, the children might be replacements for fairy children in the tithe to Hell;[5] this is best known from the ballad of Tam Lin.[6] Also, according to common Scottish myths, a child born with a caul (head helmet) across their face is a changeling, and of fey birth.

Some folklorists believe that fairies were memories of inhabitants of various regions in Europe who had been driven into hiding by invaders. They held that changelings had actually occurred; the hiding people would exchange their own sickly children for the healthy children of the invaders.[7]

In other folklore, the changelings are put in place of the child to feed off of the mother of the child. The kidnapped child then becomes food for the changeling’s mother. This is done for the survival of their kind. Once the changeling mother and the changeling have drained the life from the human mother and child, the changeling and its mother begin to search for a new suitable food source. Other sources[2] say that human milk is necessary for fairy children to survive. In these cases either the newborn human child would be switched with a fairy babe to be suckled by the human mother, or the human mother would be taken back to the fairy world to breastfeed the fairy babies. It is also thought that human midwives were necessary to bring fairy babes into the world.

Some changelings might forget they are not human and proceed to live a human life. Changelings which do not forget, however, may later return to their fairy family, possibly leaving the human family without warning. As for the human child that was taken, he or she may often stay with the fairy family forever.

[edit] Changelings in medieval folklore[edit] CornwallThe Mên-an-Tol stones in Cornwall are supposed to have a fairy or pixie guardian who can make miraculous cures. In one case a changeling baby was put through the stone in order for the mother to get the real child back. Evil pixies had changed her child and the ancient stones were able to reverse their evil spell.[8]

[edit] IrelandIn Ireland, looking at a baby with envy – “over looking the baby” – was dangerous, as it endangered the baby, who was then in the fairies’ power.[9] So too was admiring or envying a woman or man dangerous, unless the person added a blessing; the able-bodied and beautiful were in particular danger. Women were especially in danger in liminal states: being a new bride, or a new mother.[10]

Putting a changeling in a fire would cause it to jump up the chimney and return the human child, but at least one tale recounts a mother with a changeling finding that a fairy woman came to her home with the human child, saying the other fairies had done the exchange, and she wanted her own baby.[9] The tale of surprising a changeling into speech – by brewing eggshells – is also told in Ireland, as in Wales.[11]

Belief in changelings endured in parts of Ireland until as late as 1895, when Bridget Cleary was killed by her husband who believed her to be a changeling.

Changelings, in some instances, were regarded not as substituted fairy children but instead old fairies brought to the human world to die.

[edit] Lowland Scotland and Northern EnglandIn the Anglo-Scottish border region it was believed that elves (or fairies) lived in “Elf Hills” (or “Fairy Hills”). Along with this belief in supernatural beings was the view that they could spirit away children, and even adults, and take them back to their own world (see Elfhame).[12][13] Often, it was thought, a baby would be snatched and replaced with a simulation of the baby, usually a male adult elf, to be suckled by the mother.[12] The real baby would be treated well by the elves and would grow up to be one of them, whereas the changeling baby would be discontented and wearisome.[13] Many herbs, salves and seeds could be used for discovering the fairy-folk and ward off their designs.[13] In one tale a mother suspected that her baby had been taken and replaced with a changeling, a view that was proven to be correct one day when a neighbour ran into the house shouting “Come here and ye’ll se a sight! Yonder’s the Fairy Hill a’ alowe.” To which the elf got up saying “Waes me! What’ll come o’ me wife and bairns?” and made his way out of the chimney.[12] At Byerholm near Newcastleton in Liddesdale sometime during the early 19th century, a dwarf called Robert Elliot or Little Hobbie o’ The Castleton as he was known, was reputed to be a changeling. When taunted by other boys he would not hesitate to draw his gully and dispatch them, however being that he was woefully short in the legs they usually out-ran him and escaped. He was courageous however and when he heard that his neighbour, the six-foot three-inch (191 cm) William Scott of Kirndean, a sturdy and strong borderer, had slandered his name, he invited the man to his house, took him up the stairs and challenged him to a duel. Scott beat a hasty retreat.[13]

Child ballad 40, The Queen of Elfan’s Nourice, depicts the abduction of a new mother, drawing on the folklore of the changelings. Although it is fragmentary, it contains the mother’s grief and the Queen of Elfland’s promise to return her to her own child if she will nurse the queen’s child until it can walk.[14]

[edit] MaltaThe ritual impurity[15] of the parturient mother and her child exposed them, according to traditional Maltese belief, to unusual danger especially during the first few days after birth. A changeling child (called mibdul, “changed”) was taken to St Julian’s Bay,[16] where a statue of the saint stands, and given a sand-bath. A cordial was also administered, in attempts to return the being.[17]

[edit] ScandinaviaSince most beings from Scandinavian folklore are said to be afraid of iron, Scandinavian parents often placed an iron item such as a pair of scissors or a knife on top of an unbaptized infant’s cradle. It was believed that if a human child was taken in spite of such measures, the parents could force the return of the child by treating the changeling cruelly, using methods such as whipping or even inserting it in a heated oven. In at least one case, a woman was taken to court for having killed her child in an oven.[18]

Painting by John Bauer of two trolls with a human child they have raisedIn one Swedish changeling tale,[19] the human mother is advised to brutalize the changeling so that the trolls will return her son, but she refuses, unable to mistreat an innocent child despite knowing its nature. When her husband demands she abandon the changeling, she refuses, and he leaves her – whereupon he meets their son in the forest, wandering free. The son explains that since his mother had never been cruel to the changeling, so the troll mother had never been cruel to him, and when she sacrificed what was dearest to her, her husband, they had realized they had no power over her and released him.

In another Swedish fairy tale[20] (which is depicted by the image), a princess is kidnapped by trolls and replaced with their own offspring against the wishes of the troll mother. The changelings grow up with their new parents, but both find it hard to adapt: the human girl is disgusted by her future bridegroom, a troll prince, whereas the troll girl is bored by her life and by her dull human future groom. Upset with the conditions of their lives, they both go astray in the forest, passing each other without noticing it. The princess comes to the castle whereupon the queen immediately recognizes her, and the troll girl finds a troll woman who is cursing loudly as she works. The troll girl bursts out that the troll woman is much more fun than any other person she has ever seen, and her mother happily sees that her true daughter has returned. Both the human girl and the troll girl marry happily the very same day.

[edit] SpainIn Asturias (North Spain) there is a legend about the Xana, a sort of nymph who used to live near rivers, fountains and lakes, sometimes helping travellers on their journeys. The Xanas were conceived as little female fairies with supernatural beauty. They could deliver babies, “xaninos,” that were sometimes swapped with human babies in order to be baptized. The legend says that in order to distinguish a “xanino” from a human baby, some pots and egg shells should be put close to the fireplace; a xanino would say: “I was born one hundred years ago, and since then I have not seen so many egg shells near the fire!”.

[edit] WalesIn Wales the changeling child (plentyn cael (sing.), plant cael (pl.)) initially resembles the human it substitutes, but gradually grows uglier in appearance and behaviour: ill-featured, malformed, ill-tempered, given to screaming and biting. It may be of less than usual intelligence, but again is identified by its more than childlike wisdom and cunning.

The common means employed to identify a changeling is to cook a family meal in an eggshell. The child will exclaim, “I have seen the acorn before the oak, but I never saw the likes of this,” and vanish, only to be replaced by the original human child. Alternatively, or following this identification, it is supposedly necessary to mistreat the child by placing it in a hot oven, by holding it in a shovel over a hot fire, or by bathing it in a solution of foxglove.[21]

[edit] “Changelings” in the historical recordChildren were thought taken to be changelings by the superstitious, and therefore abused or murdered.

Two 19th century cases reflected the belief in changelings. In 1826, Anne Roche bathed Michael Leahy, a four-year-old boy unable to speak or stand, three times in the Flesk; he drowned the third time. She swore that she was merely attempting to drive the fairy out of him, and the jury acquitted her of murder.[22]

In the 1890s in Ireland, Bridget Cleary was killed by several people, including her husband and cousins, after a short bout of illness (probably pneumonia). Local storyteller Jack Dunne accused Bridget of being a fairy changeling. It is debatable whether her husband, Michael, actually believed her to be a fairy – many believe he concocted a “fairy defence” after he murdered his wife in a fit of rage. The killers were convicted of manslaughter rather than murder, as even after the death they claimed that they were convinced they had killed a changeling, not Bridget Cleary.[23]

[edit] Changelings in other countriesThe ogbanje (pronounced similar to “oh-BWAN-jeh”) is a term meaning “child who comes and goes” among the Igbo people of eastern Nigeria. When a woman would have numerous children either stillborn or die early in infancy, the traditional belief was that it was a malicious spirit that was being reincarnated over and over again to torment the afflicted mother. One of the most commonly-prescribed methods for ridding one’s self of an ogbanje was to find its iyi-uwa, a buried object that ties the evil spirit to the mortal world, and destroy it.

Many scholars now believe that ogbanje stories were attempting to explain children with sickle-cell anemia, which is endemic to West Africa and afflicts around one-quarter of the population. Even today, and especially in areas of Africa lacking medical resources, infant death is common for children born with severe sickle-cell anemia.

The similarity between the European changeling and the Igbo ogbanje is striking enough that Igbos themselves often translate the word into English as “changeling”.

Aswangs, a kind of ghoul from Filipino folklore, are also sometimes said to leave behind duplicates of their victims made of plant matter. Like the stocks of European fairy folklore, the Aswang’s plant duplicates soon appear to sicken and die.

[edit] Changelings in the modern world[edit] Neurological differencesThe reality behind many changeling legends was often the birth of deformed or developmentally disabled children. Among the diseases with symptoms that match the description of changelings in various legends are spina bifida, cystic fibrosis, PKU, progeria, Down syndrome, homocystinuria, Williams syndrome, Hurler syndrome, Hunter syndrome, regressive autism, Prader-Willi Syndrome, and cerebral palsy. The greater proneness of boys to birth defect correlates to the belief that boy babies were more likely to be taken.[24]

As noted, it has been hypothesized that the changeling legend may have developed, or at least been used, to explain the peculiarities of children who did not develop normally, probably including all sorts of developmental delays and abnormalities. In particular, it has been suggested that children with autism would be likely to be labeled as changelings or elf-children due to their strange, sometimes inexplicable behavior. This has found a place in autistic culture. Some autistic adults have come to identify with changelings (or other replacements, such as aliens) for this reason and their own feeling of being in a world where they do not belong and of practically not being the same species as the other people around them.[25]

[edit] In NatureParasitic cuckoo birds regularly practice brood parasitism, or non-reciprocal offspring-swapping. Rather than raising their young on their own, they will lay their egg in another’s nest, leaving the burden on the unsuspecting parents which are of another species altogether. More often than not, the cuckoo chick hatches sooner than its “stepsiblings” and grows faster, eventually hogging most nourishment brought in and may actually “evict” the young of the host species by pushing them off their own nest.

About Royal Rosamond Press

I am an artist, a writer, and a theologian.
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