There is no record of Christians fighting along side other converts to Judaism for God’s House on the Temple Mount, yet, Evangelicals and their Zionist allies say a war must be fought for the mount to fulfil a religious desire of God. Surely God called to the early Christians to come help defend His temple, and defeat the Roman slave masters. Why did they not hear the call – way back when?
I think they are hearing another call to them.
It is my intention to show lovers of Democracy another way then to follow the path of ruin made by Evangelicals and Israeli Zionists who have taken over the Republican Party founded by my kindred as a Secular, even Socialist Party bent on freeing black slaves brought to America by Sephardic Jews. Forty-Eighters befriended John Fremont and Jessie Benton, and made inroads in founding the secular Socialist State of Israel, which I believe has a right to exist, but not a right to influence our elections by empowering ignorant racist morons who make drunkenness a racist neo-Confederate relgioun down in the red states as they promote hatred of liberals and blacks. That some Israeli leaders employ Dumb Drunken Bubbas in their Zionist backed cultural warfare with elected members of my democracy – will not do! Get out of my families party! I carry on our family traditions for the sake of my country! Get out – you drunken Zionist pigs!
If you have been inflicted with the disease of alcoholism as promoted by racist Tea Party Drunkards who back wealthy bootleggers and bankers, then repent and take the Vow of the Nazarite – and come away from those drunken Roman swine!
The Nazarite Vow is the first Democracy that God made because it allowed men and women to be equal in the eyes of God. This Nazarite Democracy as promoted by John the Baptist was a great threat to the Drunken Roman Dogs who made the enslavement of all the world, a art form, they sending in their priests to corrupt the teaching of the newly conquered people so that they will do the bidding of the fake Shepards, their wolves in sheep’s clothing who bid their flock to drink wine from newly made lead cups that gave lead-poisoning to Roman converts – and drove the Roman world insane!
Helena the Nazarite’s son gave much of his wealth away as a convert to God.
“My fathers stored in a place which can be tampered with, but I have stored in a place which cannot be tampered with… My fathers gathered treasures of money and I have gathered treasures of souls…”
Jon the Nazarite
It is for men and women who want to separate themselves to the Lord.
He shall separate himself from wine and strong drink… he shall not drink vinegar of wine, vinegar of strong drink, liquor of grapes or eat moist grapes or dried grapes all the days of the vow.
He shall eat nothing made from the vine tree, the kernels or the husk.
Monobaz II or Monobaz bar Monobaz was the son of Helena of Adiabene and Monobaz I. Like his younger brother Izates bar Monobaz and his mother, Monobaz became a convert to Judaism. He ruled as king of Adiabene after the death of his brother Izates around 55 CE. The date of his death is unknown but he is known to have been alive and on the throne during the First Jewish-Roman War, when he gave aid to the Jewish rebels against the Roman Empire. The Talmud relates that Monobaz “dissipated all his own hoards and the hordes of his fathers in years of scarcity. His bothers and his father’s household came in a delegation to him and said, ‘Your father saved money and added to the treasures of his fathers, and you are squandering them.’ He replied, ‘My fathers stored up below and I am storing up above… My fathers stored in a place which can be tampered with, but I have stored in a place which cannot be tampered with… My fathers gathered treasures of money and I have gathered treasures of souls…' King Monobaz also donated handsome gifts to the Temple in Jerusalem. “King Monobaz had all the handles of all the vessels used on Yom Kippur made of gold… He also made of gold the base of the vessels, the rims of the vessels, the handles of the vessels, and the handles of the knives…
Monobazus and Kenedaeos
Queen Helen became a Nazirite convert around 30 AD, and she likely met the historical Jesus, who probably returned at that time to Galilee to lead a nascent anti-Roman, Nazirite-Zealot movement with his brother James the Just alongside as the “opposition high priest.” Helen’s sons, King Izates of Adiabene and his brother Monobazus, also became Nazirites. The timing suggests they were cooperating with Jesus’ family if not serving as political-military advisors. Another later Monobazus, and his brother King Kenedaeos, Helen’s grandsons, were killed at the Battle of Beth Horon in 66 AD, fighting against Romans at the beginning of the Great Revolt, where a Jewish rebel force destroyed a Roman army.25/ Eisenman reports that Helen’s grandsonsled the initial assault at the start of the battle.
Eisenman’s discussion of the “MMT” Scroll in connection with Helen’s family (i.e., “MMT as a Jamesian Letter to ‘The Great King of the People Beyond the Euphrates'”) suggests Parthian collusion in courting the interest of anti-Roman Jews in the early first-century AD. In this essay, Eisenman addresses Hippolytus’ version of Josephus’ account of the Essenes, referring to them as “Sicarii,” meaning not only “assassin” but also “the circumciser.” As such, as Eisenman reveals, Sicarii was as an alternate word for “Christian” and “Zealot.”26/ It was used in connection with the brothers of James the Just. Antioch, where Acts says Jewish Christians “were first called Christians,” was adjacent to the Carrhae battlefield (there were four different cities named after Antiochus in the Middle East in those days, just as there were several named after Alexander). As Eisenman points out, this city Antioch was in Osroene, in “the area of Haran, the putative kingdom given Izates by his father [Agbarus],” and it was also known as Edessa-by-Callirhoe.27/ A Parthian client and buffer state, the Kingdom of Adiabene abuts this region and may have included Edessa Osroene at this time. What was important to the Jews was that ancient Haran of Carrhae was regarded as the original home of Abraham. In other words, Jewish Christians were firmly associated with, ensconced in, “a center of national reaction against Hellenism.”28/
In the First Apocalypse of James, we find James casually described as a disciple prior to the crucifixion, and Jesus tells James to pass a letter to Thaddeus (as Eisenman suggests, probably one and the same person with Thomas Judas, Jude, Christ’s brother, possibly his twin) for delivery to King Abgar of Edessa before his crucifixion. As Jeffrey Butz points out (agreeing with Eisenman), Jesus then conveys nothing at all to his followers: “there is no discussion of assigning any final mission to the Twelve as he does at the conclusion of Matthew and Luke.”29/ Instead, James is the one who gives instructions to the others, in complete contradiction of the pro-Roman New Testament.
In the Second Apocalypse of James, James relates the secret information (presumably the same information sent to the pro-Parthian King Abgar) to a Jewish Christian priest called “Mariem” among the “Naassenes.” Butz identifies this priest as Mariamne, probably the Magdalene, and the “Naassenes” as the Nazoreans, the Nazarenes.30 The more significant implications of this Apocalypse put James at or near the same level as Jesus in importance to the group’s leadership, but it also shows Thomas as ambassador to a kingdom connected intimately to the Parthians. One has to see such traveling missionaries, Jesus’ brothers in particular, as organizers of pro-Parthian opposition to Rome.
The evidence for such an anti-Hellenizing mission has been lost in 2000 years of focus on the religious aspects of pro-Roman Christianity, and the real political, anti-Roman essence of “Christian” missionary work has been lost. The Kitos War is an example of what could happen with proto-Christian missionary work. As Eisenman points out, the revolts of the Kitos War broke out “as if on signal” all over the Eastern Mare Nostrum when Trajan got close to Babylon.31/
Here, finally, worth noting is that, just prior to the Battle of Beth Horon, the Romans had been engaged in a long war with the Parthians from 54 to 63 AD. When Vespasian later threatened Jerusalem, the Zealot leader John of Gischala sent a message to Jews in Babylon to ask the Parthians to attack the Romans again in supporting the rebels.32/
This is the original point I want to make explicitly that others do not: Jesus is historically (as opposed to religiously) significant because of this Parthian aim to stir up trouble, once again, for the Romans and the Herods. Although there is no direct link connecting Jesus to Parthian collusion in fomenting rebellion, or to the Parthians themselves aside from the tradition of the Magi, there is a mountain of circumstantial evidence connecting his family to such activity and to the East. The answer to the original question, “Why is there a tradition that Magi bearing riches came from the East to honor Jesus Christ?” is this: The tradition reflects the actual case that the Parthians recruited Jesus as a proxy, as their client “king of the Jews.”
Supervisory Editor, Military Review
Fort Leavenworth, Kansas
Fromm was an assistant professor of philosophy and English for six years at the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, New York. He studied Chinese philosophy at Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana. He also studied at the International Christian University in Tokyo and worked in Japan for the U.S. Government for 12 years. He is a retired Army officer.
Having secured his position, and after a stunning set of victories, Trajan began to dream of greater conquests. Since Alexander the Great, no Emperor had been able to conquer the Parthian Empire. In 114 CE, Roman troops moved towards Armenia, turning It into a Roman province. The Parthian government was terrified and began to make plans to retreat beyond the Tigris river. The Babylonian Exilarch Shlomo ben Hunya (r 90-120CE) realizing that he had no ability to retreat and understanding the threat to the Jewish nation, and its sympathizers, of Roman rule in this region. First, he raised a Jewish militia to harass the Roman troops, boosting moral and rallying the Pathian forces. Second, he called for revolt in Jewish areas already under Roman rule.
From 115-117 CE, the Jews revolted. A revolt which was mainly led by Jews broke out in Cyprus, Egypt and Cyrene on the north coast of Africa. In Cyrene it was led by a Jewish “king” called Lukuas, and in Cyprus by Artemion. After almost a year of fighting, Trajan’s General, Marcius Turbo, succeeded in putting down the rebellion. In all of the cities there was widespread slaughter including the capital of Cyprus, Salamis, much of Alexandria and most of the Island of Cyrene. In Alexandria, the great synagogue and library were destroyed as well. As a result, Jews were forbidden to live in Cyprus. This revolt was known to many historians as the second rebellion against Rome. Rome countered the revolt by destroying Jewish Alexandria over three years.
In 115 CE Trajan occupied Adiabene and southern Mesopotamia. Trajan was the first Roman emperor to dare (after 167 years) to cross the Euphrates with a Roman army, and in the winter of 115-116 CE Rome conquered the capital of Parthia, Ctesiphon. Kitos War raged in Jerusalem, provoked by Roman procurator Lucius Quietus who set an idol up on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. Abgar VII, ruler of Edessa with its large Jewish population switched from the Roman to the Parthian side. Trajan then sent Lucius Quietus, who captured Edessa, sacked it, and killed Abgar VII. Rome annexed Mesopotamia and Assyria and briefly made the Tigris river the eastern boundary of Roman Empire. At this point the Roman Empire reached maximum territorial expansion. In 117 CE, Trajan was struck with a serious illness. The emporer had to abandon the battlefield. He attempted to reach Rome, but died on the way in Selinius, a town in Asia Minor.
Hadrian, cousin of Trajan, was appointed Roman emperor. He was met with chaos and attempted to pacify the Empire. First he abandoned all the recent conquests beyond the Euphrates. He put ruthless Quietus to death and promised policies of peace and compromise to the regions. He even promised the Jews they could rebuild their Temple in Jerusalem. It was in a great measure owing to the revolt of the Babylonian Jews that the Romans did not become masters of Parthia. In recognition of services thus rendered by the Jews of Babylonia, and by the Davidic house especially, the Parthian kings elevated the “princes of the Exile”, who till then had been little more than mere collectors of revenue, to the dignity of real princes.
1. ↑ Anilai and Asinai were two outlaws of Nehardea in Babylonia. They were apprenticed by their widowed mother to a weaver. Having been punished for laziness by their master, they ran away and became freebooters in the marshlands of the Euphrates. There they gathered about them a large number of discontented Jews, organizing troops, and levying forced contributions on the shepherds, and finally established a little robber-state at the forks of the Euphrates. One Sabbath they were surprised by the Parthian ruler of Babylonia, but they determined to fight regardless of the day of rest, and defeated their assailant so completely that the Parthian king Artaban III. (about 10-40), who was just then engaged in putting down a rebellion, resolved to make use of such brave Jews to keep the satraps in check. He concluded an alliance with them, entrusting them with the control of that portion of Babylonia which they already occupied. They then built fortifications, and the little state lasted for fifteen years (about 18-33). Its downfall was brought about by the marriage of Anilai with the widow of a Parthian general, whom he had attacked and killed in battle. He tolerated the idolatry of his foreign wife, and met the religious objections of his people with violence, thus estranging his followers and sowing dissension among them. After Asinai had been poisoned by his brother’s wife for his too frank utterances, Anilai assumed the leadership of his troops. He sought to divert them with wars, and succeeded in capturing Mithridates, governor of Parthyene, and son-in-law of the king. He soon, however, released Mithridates, fearing that Artaban might take vengeance on the Babylonian Jews for his death. Being signally defeated by Mithridates in a subsequent engagement, he was forced to withdraw to the forests, where he lived by plundering the Babylonian villages about Nehardea, until his resources were exhausted and the little robber-state disappeared. Babylonian hatred of the Jews, long restrained from fear of Anilai, now broke forth afresh, and the Jews fled from the persecutions to Seleucia without finding there the desired peace. (Jewish Encyclopedia: Anilai and Asinai)
2. ↑ Under the Persian kings Adiabene seems for a time to have been a vassal state of the Persian empire. Ardashir III. (361-338 B.C.), before he came to the throne, had the title “King of ?adyab” (Nצldeke, “Geschichte der Perser,” p. 70). The little kingdom attained a certain prominence on account of its kings during the first century. Izates became a Jew. His conversion took place before he ascended the throne and while he lived in Charax Spasinu. At about the same time his mother, Helena, was also converted. The times were troublous ones; for Parthian kings and counter-kings followed each other in quick succession. Artaban III. was king of Atropatene. He had succeeded Vonones, who, having been educated entirely at Rome, was unsympathetic toward the Parthians. Artaban soon had to flee to Hyrcania to escape from the rival king, Tiridates III. He returned, however, in 36, and, being afraid of a conspiracy, took refuge at the court of Izates, who was powerful enough to induce the Parthians to reinstate Artaban. For this service certain kingly honors were granted Izates, and the city of Nisibis was added to his dominions. However, in 45, Gotarzes, an adopted son of Artaban, was raised to the throne by the nobles, in preference to Vardanes, his half-brother. In 49 Meherdates (Mithridates V.), a son of Vonones, was sent from Rome by Claudius to take possession of the throne of Parthia. Izates played a double game, though he secretly sided with Gotarzes. A few years later, Vologeses I. set out with the intention of invading Adiabene and of punishing Izates; but a force of Dacians and Scythians had just entered Parthia, and Vologeses had to return home.
It is impossible to tell how far the inhabitants of Adiabene had followed the example of their king and become Judaized. Josephus (“B. J.” preface, § 2) refers to the “Adiabenoi” as Jews. Both Queen Helena and Izates showered presents upon Jerusalem, and the queen took the king’s sons there to be educated. The remains of Helena and Izates were sent by Monobaz II. to Jerusalem for burial. There seems to be no doubt that there were a number of Adiabene Jews in Jerusalem, who probably belonged to the princely household. Josephus knew several, and in”B. J.” ii. 19, § 2 mentions a Kenedeus and a Monobaz as aiding bravely in the defense of Jerusalem against the Romans, and “the sons and brethren of Izates the king . . . were bound . . . and led to Rome, in order to make them hostages for their country’s fidelity to the Romans” (“B. J.” vi. 6, § 4). A certain Jacob ?adyaba is mentioned in B. B. 26b; and also Zuga of ?adyab, or Zawa (Heilprin, “Seder ha-Dorot,” ed. 1882, ii. 115). The Talmud mentions a certain kind of scorpion in Adiabene (Bab. Shab. 121b; in Yer. Shab. xiv. 14b, the reading is incorrect) that might be killed on the Sabbath day because of its venomous character. It also states (Bab. Men. 32b) that the followers of Monobaz (Yer. Meg. iv., end, !) were accustomed to fix the mezuzah upon a staff, and to set the staff upright in any inn in which they happened to pass the night (Tosef., Meg. iv. [iii.] 30; Yer. Meg. iv. 75c). (Jewish Encyclopedia: Adiabene)
THE WARS OF THE JEWS
THE HISTORY OF THE DESTRUCTION OF JERUSALEM.
1. (1) WHEREAS the war which the Jews made with the Romans hath been the greatest of all those, not only that have been in our times, but, in a manner, of those that ever were heard of; both of those wherein cities have fought against cities, or nations against nations; while some men who were not concerned in the affairs themselves have gotten together vain and contradictory stories by hearsay, and have written them down after a sophistical manner; and while those that were there present have given false accounts of things, and this either out of a humor of flattery to the Romans, or of hatred towards the Jews; and while their writings contain sometimes accusations, and sometimes encomiums, but no where the accurate truth of the facts; I have proposed to myself, for the sake of such as live under the government of the Romans, to translate those books into the Greek tongue, which I formerly composed in the language of our country, and sent to the Upper Barbarians; (2) Joseph, the son of Matthias, by birth a Hebrew, a priest also, and one who at first fought against the Romans myself, and was forced to be present at what was done afterwards, [am the author of this work].
2. Now at the time when this great concussion of affairs happened, the affairs of the Romans were themselves in great disorder. Those Jews also who were for innovations, then arose when the times were disturbed; they were also in a flourishing condition for strength and riches, insomuch that the affairs of the East were then exceeding tumultuous, while some hoped for gain, and others were afraid of loss in such troubles; for the Jews hoped that all of their nation which were beyond Euphrates would have raised an insurrection together with them. The Gauls also, in the neighborhood of the Romans, were in motion, and the Geltin were not quiet; but all was in disorder after the death of Nero. And the opportunity now offered induced many to aim at the royal power; and the soldiery affected change, out of the hopes of getting money. I thought it therefore an absurd thing to see the truth falsified in affairs of such great consequence, and to take no notice of it; but to suffer those Greeks and Romans that were not in the wars to be ignorant of these things, and to read either flatteries or fictions, while the Parthians, and the Babylonians, and the remotest Arabians, and those of our nation beyond Euphrates, with the Adiabeni, by my means, knew accurately both whence the war begun, what miseries it brought upon us, and after what manner it ended.
That these calamities of the Jews, who were our Savior’s murderers, were to be the greatest that had ever been sence the beginning of the world, our Savior had directly foretold, Matthew 24:21; Mark 13:19; Luke 21:23, 24; and that they proved to be such accordingly, Josephus is here a most authentic witness.