The Knights of Jeanne de Rougemont-Ferrette

It was my dream to go to Rougemont Switzerland and attend the Medievale Celebrations of Ferrette, a castle that was owned by Ulrich de Rougemont who had four beautiful daughters, one being, Jeanne de Rougemont who is the Queen Mother of all Habsburgs. Rougemont was spelled Rozemont under Habsburg rule. This dream has been intercepted by the thousands of dollars taken from the legacy my uncle left me by those who were susposed to make my dreams come true. But I will go to Rougemont with my grandson when he turns thirteen. Here is the home of our ancestors who are liken to the Hobbits.

It is alleged that the Habsburgs descend from Jesus and Mary Magdalene, and are a Rex Deus family. Take note of the woman on horseback who named herself after Queen Berenice of Jerusalem. Take note that Etichon-Adalric of Alsace looks like a Jew, even Jesus. Even though his image is a mosaic, the artist went to great length to depict this long regal nose. Consider the Shroud of Turin that was owned by the Counts of Rougemont and Ferrette.

I . . . have roses in my name, and make
All flowers glad to set their colour by.

The illustrious family of the Counts of Ferrette was the first dynasty to have marked the Sundgau and all its surrounding regions, including Montbéliard in Franche-Comté, and Porrentruy and Basle in Switzerland. The founder of this branch, Louis IV of Mousson and Bar (who died in 1065) was a Romance-language-speaking noble, born in the castle of Mousson (now in ruins) on the hills of Pont-à-Mousson, between Nancy and Metz in Lorraine. Historians suppose that the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire gave him the strategic territory of the Burgundy Gate (Sundgau, Ajoie and Pays de Montbéliard) as a gift.

The emperor’s intentions in doing so was to position a reliable man on the geographic gap in order to thwart the plans of his rival, the Duke of Burgundy. So, thanks to this imperial act Louis de Mousson added the Pays de Montbéliard and the Sundgau, which are situated on the most exposed points between the Germanic and Latin worlds, to his existing territories of Bar and Lorraine.

On the death of Louis’ son, Thierry I, in 1125 his possessions were shared among his four sons.
Frederic I thus became the first Count of Ferrette (1125-1160). He and his fellow counts of Bar and Montbéliard shared a common coat of arms, featuring two fish.

Thierry II, Count of Montbéliard, had a castle built at the top of a steep hill above the Savoureuse River. He named this castle “Belfort”.

The territory of Frederic I, the Count of Ferrette, extended to the hill, facing Belfort castle. So he in turn decided to erect his own castle which he named “Montfort”, on the current site of the “Tour de la Miotte” (Miotte Tower).

From this point onwards the two related families shared a long common history of both happy events and conflicts of interest.

In examining the life of Frederic II, Count of Ferrette (1197-1232), there are obvious parallels between this unscrupulous, violent and arrogant man and the cruel customs and mysterious intrigues of the Middle Ages. Of all the Counts of Ferrette throughout the ages, Frederic II’s government was by far the most troubled, with the Count never ceasing to wage war against his neighbour Richard de Montfaucon, Count of Montbéliard.

A few days after having been scorned by his other rival, the Bishop of Basle, Frederic II was mysteriously assassinated in his Ferrette castle. Public rumour implicated his son, Louis the Fierce, as the agent of the crime, and as such he was immediately excommunicated by the Pope and banished, leaving the possession of the county to his brother Ulrich. But it was reported in the cold, dark halls of the castle that on Ulrich’s death he made a deathbed confession to having been the real perpetrator of the crime!

If the counts of Ferrette possessed the majority of the Sundgau, the ‘Sundgauvian’ territories of the north-east had long since belonged to the Habsburg dynasty, a wealthy local family whose heritage also includes Swiss lands. Moreover, the Habsburgs had passed on the honorary title of Landgrave of Upper Alsace (Sundgau) from father to son for centuries.
To seal the alliance, after Ulrich’s death Jeanne immediately married Albert II of Habsburg at Masevaux. By legitimate process the Sundgau became an entirely Austrian territory and remained so until 1648. However, according to documents of the time, this marriage of political interest seemed to quickly transform into one of love. Albert II and Jeanne de Ferrette settled in Vienna, from where their offspring would later extend their possessions into central and Eastern Europe.
The Sundgau quickly became a Habsburg bastion: a base for the dynasty which would later seek to conquer Europe and the rest of the world.

Two elements allow us to understand why the Austrian influence was so strong in Upper Alsace and why the Sundgau is different from other countries which, willingly or unwillingly, were conquered by the future Austrian empire:

1. ✤The Sundgauvians’ deep loyalty towards the House of Austria, which they considered to be born of their country.
2. ✤The establishment of the capital of Anterior Austria (Vorderösterreich) in Ensisheim in Upper Alsace. Anterior Austria included the Habsburgs’ personal possessions, from the Vosges to the Arlberg Pass to Tyrol, passing by Bade and northern Switzerland.
It was further complicated by the intervention by France, which had long been hostile to the ambitions of the House of Austria in Europe. During the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648), Belfort was coveted by each side and was thus considered a sort of Gibraltar of the East. But King Louis XIV of France’s victories forced the Habsburgs to surrender Upper Alsace to him. The Habsburgs withdrew from the other side of the Rhine and made Freiburg-im-Breisgau the new capital of the rest of their possessions in Anterior Austria.

On the 24th October 1648 the Habsburgs signed the Treaty of Westphalia, stipulating the transfer of the Sundgau to France. However, public protests against the new French authority in the Sundgau were felt until the Treaty of Rijswijk (1697) and, it seems, until the beginning of the 18th century.
From 1648 the Sundgau was ruled by France and remained under its national colours until 1871, despite the Austrian desire to win back the Sundgau. By the Westphalia Treaty, the Sundgau was snatched from Anterior Austria, causing it to lose much of its strategic value. Nevertheless, the Habsburgs continued to hang onto the Rhine since they still, with difficulty, held the key town of Breisach, the “Gate to Germany”.

During the French Revolution (1789), Alsace and the Sundgau were administratively reorganised. From December 1789 to February 1790, the Constituante completely reorganised the French administration. The former provinces (Lorraine, Normandy, Alsace, Burgundy, Provence, etc) gave way to départements, which were themselves divided into several districts (or arrondissements). The province of Alsace was thus divided into two départements: the Bas-Rhin to the north and the Haut-Rhin to the south, with their respective administrative centres of Strasbourg and Colmar. Belfort, Mulhouse and Altkirch became the three sub-prefectures of the Haut-Rhin.

In 1806, in the Napoleonic period, the rest of Anterior Austria still under the direct power of the Habsburgs was shared between the duchy of Bade and Switzerland. From then on, Vienna became the epicentre of an empire which was more and more turned towards Eastern Europe: the romantic banks of the Rhine were eclipsed by those of the beautiful blue Danube.
1871 was a year that would go down in the Sundgau’s history, as it symbolises the defeat of the French army by the Prussian army. In 1870, Belfort sustained a memorable siege for 103 days, personified and symbolised by the statue of the Lion erected in 1880 by Bartholdi (a Colmar native renowned for having designed the Statue of Liberty in New York).

The French were obliged to surrender the territories of Germanic cultures and languages (north-east Lorraine and Alsace) to the victors. The preliminaries of the French-Prussian Treaty which was signed on 26 February, 1871, set the new border to the west of the Haut-Rhin département, however Article 1 stipulates that:

“On the other hand, the town of Belfort and its fortifications will remain French with a radius which will be determined later…”
At the celebration of Austria’s one thousandth anniversary in 1996, Anterior Austria returned to a place of honour. A business of European dimensions was put in place (with the creation of tourist brochures and books, exhibitions, European trades, and popular and cultural festivals) and mobilised the European Union, the Alsace region, Bade-Wurtemburg, Alemanic Switzerland, and of course all of Austria. The recognisable traits of the Habsburgs (the Austrian flag and the two-headed eagle) were henceforth visible in all of Anterior Austria and seem to be the silent witnesses of the common history of these regions… at the very least they remind us, rather curiously, that before being French or German, the Sundgau was completely Austrian!
The flag of the Sundgau is an unofficial design that emerged recently in the local landscape, maybe as an initiative to reinforce a sense of unity and belonging. It does not appear on public buildings (such as town-halls, schools, local councils) alongside the European, French and Alsatian flags. In Altkirch, you can see it as an iron sign of the Sundgau museum and in the neighbouring village of Carspach, featured in the centre of … the village’s roundabout!

Castle of the counts of Ferrette © French Moments
Forest of Hirtzbach, Sundgau © French Moments

This page was originally written in French and translated into English by Alison Walden for French Moments.
During the 14th century the Habsburgs and Ulrich III, the last Count of Ferrette, became very close. Seriously ill and realising that he would not have a male heir; Ulrich undertook several difficult measures in order to save his county from the Bishop of Basle and his ambitions.
A master strategist, Ulrich III was anxious for his daughter, Jeanne de Ferrette, to inherit his county. During the Middle Ages only the Pope had the power to arbitrate exceptionally in his favour. Against all hope, Ulrich received the precious papal consent in 1320.

The Count died on 15 March, 1324 in Basle, having no idea of the incredible destiny reserved for his descendants:

1. ✤His county would become a powerful bastion of Austrian lands.
2. ✤His daughter Jeanne de Ferrette, a direct descendant of Charlemagne, would enable the dynasty of the Habsburgs, future masters of Europe, to continue. Thanks to her, the Habsburgs could claim to be blood descendants of Charlemagne.
In becoming entirely Austrian, the Sundgauvians were not safe from the desires of Austria’s powerful enemies: the influential duchy of Burgundy, the fierce Swiss Confederates and the distant kingdom of France.
The frequent passing of enemy armies due to the Sundgau’s strategic position between the North and Mediterranean Seas, and between the two rivals, Paris and Vienna, did it more harm than good.

Later, in the 16th century, the Sundgau found itself surrounded by powerful Protestant cities: Mulhouse to the north, Basle to the east and Montbéliard to the west. The Habsburgs took a very firm stance against all attempts to introduce the Reform in the Sundgau.

Subsequently, the dynasty was the spearhead of the Counter Reformation, encouraging the introduction of anti-reformist works (particularly monasteries and Jewish schools) in the Sundgau.

However, from the Peace of Augsburg in 1555, Protestantism continued to make progress in Europe.

The Protestant princes of Bohemia refused to recognise the authority of the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (HRE), Ferdinand II (who himself was a Habsburg).

War erupted in 1618 due to the extreme tension between Catholics and Protestants, and the emperor and Protestant princes

. . . . . . . .
I . . . have roses in my name, and make
All flowers glad to set their colour by. (Tragedies, I, 236- 37)

In the book of Hansi, at the foot of the mountain Sainte-Odile, a paragraph always intrigued me. After the fall of Napoleon’s Empire, Russian and Austrian troops invaded Alsace…
…..” During the invasion of the Allies in 1814, Obernai was less abused than other cities of Alsace thanks to a brilliant idea of his pastor. Knowing that the veneration of the Austrian troops for the imperial family extended to the most distant ancestors of the Habsburgs, this worthy priest fit onto the House called Burg a sign that can be seen even today. One reads these simple words: birthplace sainte Odile – Stammhaus der heiligen Odilia. Indeed, this modest yet recent building at that time, City store, shed for the fire pump, was built on the foundations of a sixteenth-century Manor House which itself succeeded a castle destroyed in the thirteenth, which replaced a previous castel who was perhaps built on occupied a few centuries earlier by the large Merovingian farm’s woodthatch and cob of this Duke of Alsace, who according to legend was the father of Sainte Odile.
Having read the sign, the Austrian Commander gave the order to his men to use great respects to the citizens of a town “where were drawn by skilled genealogists, the ancestors of his sovereign.”…
                Was this a legend or even a historical truth? It was gone.
ADALRICH warlord, was appointed Duke of Alsace by CHILDERIC, his father LEUTHARIUS II was Duke of Germany. ADALRICH had a noble wife BERESWINTHE, daughter of SILGELBERT III and daughter of DAGOBERT Ier. A real pleasure that to establish the ancestry of BERESWINTHE, all the archives were opened and open. The descent proved harder until the day or Finally I managed to get a history of Obernai written by Abbé GYSS in which was the outline of the progeny of ADALRICH. Multiple historical research are then used to establish the descent of ADALRICH and marvel at the same time of the erudition of the parish priest of Obernai.
Down all of a King or a hanged man. I’ll let you discover the suite.

Bereswinde d’AUSTRASIE

Born about 635 Julian
Died 1 April 690 Julian , age at death: possibly 55 years old
Consanguinity : 0.39%
Sigebert III Le Jeune ou Saint-Sigebert d’AUSTRASIE, Roi de Metz – d’Austrasie – Roi des Francs ca 620-656
Hymnéchilde DE BURGONDIE, Régente ca 620-ca 670
Spouses and children
Married about 660 Julian to Etichon-Adalric d’ALSACE, Duc ca 635-690 with
Odile Sainte-Odile d’ALSACE ca 662-ca 720
Adalbert Ier d’ALSACE, Duc – Comte ca 665-ca 722
Bathicon d’ALSACE †ca 725
Hugues d’ALSACE
Roswinde d’ALSACE
Ethicon DE NORDGAU, Comte ca 679-ca 723
Dagobert II Saint-Dagobert d’AUSTRASIE, Roi de Metz et Roi des Francs d’Austrasie 640..651-679
Bilichilde d’AUSTRASIE ca 654-ca 675

Titles: Comte

Born about 679 Julian
Died about 723 Julian , age at death: possibly 44 years old
Consanguinity : 3.58%
Etichon-Adalric d’ALSACE, Duc ca 635-690
Bereswinde d’AUSTRASIE ca 635-690
Spouses and children
Married about 714 Julian to Ganna Jeanne x ca 695-ca 735 with
Albéric Ier DE NORDGAU, Comte ca 716-ca 760

Titles: Comte

Born about 1015 Julian
Died about 1083 Julian , age at death: possibly 68 years old
Consanguinity : 2.23%
Hugues IV DE NORDGAU, Comte ca 987-ca 1048
Heilwige DE DAGSBOURG, Comtesse ca 980-ca 1046
Spouses and children
Married to Kuniza ou Rigarda x ca 1040- with
Elwige Hedwige DE NORDGAU, Comtesse ca 1065-1126;p=heilwige;n=de+dagsbourg;p=alberic;n=de+nordgau

Odile of Alsace

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
For persons named Odile, see Odile (given name).
“Odilla” redirects here. For the moth genus, see Odilla (moth).
Saint Odile

Saint Odile in Avolsheim – Alsace
Abbess of Hohenburg
Alsace, France
Alsace, France
Honored in
Roman Catholic Church
13 December
Abbess praying before an altar; woman with a book on which lie two eyes; larkspur
the blind or partially sighted; Alsace, France
St Odile of Alsace, also known as Odilia and Ottilia, born c. 662 – c. 720 at Mont Sainte-Odile), is a saint venerated in the Roman Catholic Church, although according to the current liturgical calendar her feastday (13 December) is not officially commemorated. She is a patroness of good eyesight, and of Alsace.

1 Biography
2 Veneration
3 Cultural representations
4 St. Odile pilgrim’s chapel, near Freiburg
5 Gallery
6 See also
7 References
8 External links
[edit] Biography
Odile was the daughter of Etichon (also known as Athich, Adalrich or Aldaric), Duke of Alsace and founder of the Etichonid noble family. By tradition she was born blind. Her father did not want her because she was a girl and handicapped, so her mother Bethswinda had her brought to Palma (perhaps present day Baume-les-Dames in Burgundy), where she was raised by peasants there.[1]
A tenth century legend relates that when she was twelve, Odile was taken in to a nearby monastery. Whilst there, the itinerant bishop Saint Erhard of Regensburg was led, by an angel it was said, to Palma where he baptised her Odile (Sol Dei), whereupon she miraculously recovered her sight. Her younger brother Hughes had her brought home again, which enraged Etichon so much that he accidentally killed his son. Odile miraculously revived him, and left home again.
She fled across the Rhine to a cave or cavern in one of two places (depending on the source: the Musbach valley near Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany, or Arlesheim near Basel, Switzerland.) Supposedly, the cliff face opened up in order to rescue her from her plight. In the cave, she hid from her father. When he tried to follow her, he was injured by falling rocks and gave up.
When Etichon fell ill, Odile returned to nurse him. He finally gave up resisting his headstrong daughter and founded the Augustine monastic community of Mont Ste. Odile (also known as Hohenburg Abbey) in the Hochwald (Hohwald), Bas-Rhin, where Odile became abbess and where Etichon was later buried. Some years later Odile was shown the site of Niedermünster at the foot of the mountain by St. John the Baptist in a vision. There she founded a second monastery, including a hospital. Here, the head and an arm of St. Lazarus of Marseille were displayed but later transferred to Andlau. The buildings of the Niedermünster burned down in 1542, but the local well is still said to cure eye diseases.
St. Odile died about 720 at the convent of Niedermünster. At the insistent prayers of her sisters she was returned to life, but after describing the beauties of the afterlife to them, she took communion by herself and died again.[1] She was buried at Ste. Odile.
[edit] Veneration

A depiction of St. Odile in Mont Sainte-Odile, Alsace, France.
The cult of St. Odile spread rapidly, and spread outside of France to Germany. She was mentioned in the litanies of Freising, Utrecht and Ratisbon at least from the 9th century. Amongst the common people, pilgrimages to her shrine were popular, and were by no means limited to the masses; from Charlemagne onwards, emperors also conducted pilgrimages in her honour.[2] Indeed, Charlemagne granted immunity to the convent at Hohenberg, which was later officially ratified by Louis the Pious on 9 March 837.[3]
By the 14th century, Odile’s cult had grown so strong that her relics were split and removed to Corbie, Prague and Einsiedeln. She enjoyed especial popularity in Strasbourg. The strength of her cult is supposed to have been a result of her patronage of the blind and partially sighted, which was especially pertinent in a time before the invention of spectacles.
St. Odile was long considered the patron of Alsace, at least since before the 16th century; however, this was made official in 1807 by pope Pius VII. Her feast day is 13 December.

Jump to: navigation, search
The Etichonids were an important noble family, probably of Frankish, Burgundian or Visigothic origin, who rose to dominate the region of Alsace in the Early Middle Ages from the seventh to the tenth centuries.
The earliest accounts record the family’s beginnings in the pagus Attoariensis around Dijon in northern Burgundy. In the mid-seventh century a duke of the region named Amalgar and his wife Aquilina are noticed as major founders and patrons of monasteries. With donations given by the King Dagobert I and his father to recover their loyalty and in compensation for the losses that as supporters of Queen Brunhilde and her grandson Sigebert II they had,and from whom probably their ascendency in Burgundy stemmed originally,they founded a convent at Brégille and an abbey for men at Bèze, installing children in both abbacies. They were succeeded by their third child, Adalrich,[1] who was the father of Adalrich, Duke of Alsace. This second Adalrich was the true founder of the family’s greatness in Alsace, where he secured the ducal title. His cognomen, Eticho, became the name of the family.
Under the Etichonids, Alsace was generally divided into a Nordgau and a Sundgau. These counties, as well as the monasteries of the duchy, were brought under tighter control of the dukes with the rise of the Etichonids. There exists scholarly debate concerning whether or not the Etichonids were in conflict or alliance with the Carolingians, but it is possible that they were both: opponents of the extension of Charles Martel’s authority in the 720s when he first made war on Alemannia, but allies when the Alemanni, under Duke Theudebald invaded Alsace (which had a large Alemannic element in its population) in the early 740s. The last Etichonid duke, Liutfrid, may have died fighting Theudebald on behalf of Pepin the Short.
Among the descendants of the Etichonids, in the female line were Hugh of Tours and his family, including his daughter Ermengard, who was wife to Lothair I and thus mother to three Carolingian kings. In the tenth century the Etichonids remained powerful in Alsace as counts, but their power was circumscribed significantly by the Ottonians and by the eleventh century, Pope Leo IX seems unaware that his ancestors, the lords (or counts) of Dabo and Eguisheim for the previous half century were in fact the direct descendants of the last Etichonids. Many notable European families trace their lineage to the Etichonids, including the Habsburgs.

Adalrich Adalric of Alsace

A-Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Go to: Navigation, Search
For other uses, see Alsace (disambiguation).

Adalrich Adalric of Alsace

Mosaic depicting Adalric in his vault at the Mont Sainte-Odile

Duke of Alsace
(662 – 690)
Duke Boniface
Adalbert of Alsace (690-722 ))
Pagus Attoariensis
20 February 690
Sainte Odile,
Adalbert of Alsace
Adalrich Adalric of Alsace[1] (whose names appear in the texts as Eticho, Aticus Attich, Etih, Chadalricus )[2]), born around 635 in the pagus Attoariensis (on the plateau of Langres), died 20 February 690[3],[4],[5] CastleHohenbourg, Duke of Alsace from 662 to 690[6]is the best-known member of the family of the Etichonides.
Adalrich Adalric is the founder of the Etichonides dynasty and the father of sainte Odile, patron saint ofAlsace. It is perhaps also the ancestor of the Habsburg family[7]the family of the Eguisheim-Dabo, the House of Baden, of the House of Lorraine as well as the counts of Flanders[6].

1 Family
2 Biography
2.1 Debut and his marriage (c. 655)
2.2 Duke of Alsace (662)
2.3 Civil wars (675-687)
2.4 The Castle and the Abbey of Hohenbourg
2.5 The monastic of Adalrich Adalric foundations
2.5.1 The episode of Germain de Moutier-Grandval
2.5.2 Hohenbourg and Ebersmunster
2.5.3 Moyen-Moutier
2.6 The hereditary Duchy
2.7 The end of his life
3 Descent
4 See also
4.1 Bibliography
4.2 Related Articles
5 Notes and references
His family[Edit]
Ancestry[8] of Adalrich Adalric of domain of speculation: it would be the son of Adalric, Duke of the pagus Attoariensis and the descendant of Waldelenus and Aelia Flavia[9]. His mother is perhaps Hultrude of Burgundy, the daughter of Guillebaud, patrice, descendant of several Kings of the Burgundians and the Femme. They have ancestors among the Alamanni, Roman, Frankish, Gallic and Burgundians, sometimes illustrated. His grandfather, the Duke Amalgarde de Dijon and his wife Aquilina of the Jura are already the founders of several monasteries and abbeys. His parents are all relatives of the Frankish Kings, great servants of the various kingdoms. Jean Turckheim, in its Tablets herd of the illustrious House of Dukes of Zähringer[10] However, shows that assumptions about its origins are many and that the offspring of his children except Adalbert and Adalrich II is a mystery.
Historians of the time depict as a human right, sincere, liberal, firm in its resolutions and truly Christian, even if there is sometimes a hard and cruel behavior. History accused of murder by his soudards the Germain Abbot of Moutier-Grandval and some authors even think he participated in the violent death of saint Léger, Bishop ofAutun as well as that of Saint Columbanus[11]
His debut and his marriage (c. 655)[Edit]
This section is empty, not sufficiently detailed or incomplete. Your help is welcome!
In the middle of the VIIe century, Adalric, born of the pagus Attoariensis is a rich owner installed in the Royal villa ofObernai[citation needed]. It is an influential figure in the political and military level in Austrasia.
Around 655, he married Berswinde [12], which, according to the Chronicon Ebersheimense, is the daughter of a sister of saint Léger, Bishop of Autun and the sister of a Queen of the Franks[13]. The only Queen who can match is Chimnechilde[14]wife of Sigebert III, King of Austrasia. On the basis of theOnomastic, some make a full sister to the Seneschal Hugobert[15].
Berswinde is very pious and not taking advantage of its wealth to spread in the bosom of the poor. Every day she withdrew in the most isolated part of his palace, to devote his leisure to the reading of holy books and exercises of piety.
It was only after several years, 662, was born their first daughter, Odile, who is blind.
Duke of Alsace (662)[Edit]
In 662, Adalrich Adalric was appointed Duke of Alsace by King Childéric II, succeeding Duke Boniface.
The territory held Adalrich Adalric of Alsace is smaller than that of Duke Boniface, his predecessor. It is located east of ridges of the Vosges, the Abbey of Surbourg, South of the Sauer (River), to the South of theAbbey of Moutier-Grandval, located in the North of the Jura. It includes part of the Rhine plain across the Rhine and the Breisgau .
The King sent in 663, a second degree of donation to theAbbey of Munster[3].

About Royal Rosamond Press

I am an artist, a writer, and a theologian.
This entry was posted in Uncategorized. Bookmark the permalink.

1 Response to The Knights of Jeanne de Rougemont-Ferrette

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.