After Easter of the year of the Lord 1172, the same count came to
>make a tournament in Burgundy between Montbard [ Coast-in Or ]
and Rougemont, with approximately hundred knights with his costs. The
count of Nevers, which had the castle of Rougemont in its field, had
prohibited to make the tournament with all those which would come
and it refused to lodge the count in his castle of Rougemont. But the
count de Hainaut, in spite of this prohibition was made lodge
with the castle. The following day, as the count de Hainaut was on his
side accompanied by five knights of his ground and than on other
side came with the duke from Burgundy [ Hughes III ] much from knights
filled of pride, escorted sergeants with foot, the count de
Hainaut, full with prudence and of courage, made its riders and with its
servants of people of foot, armed them as it could and prepared
them to defend oneself against a great number; it resisted to the
unfavourable, many and strongly organized knights, and pushed
back them. On its return, it made a tournament with Rethel, thus
spending five weeks in comings and goings, with approximately hundred
knights with its costs.
Hugh III of Burgundy (1142 – August 25, 1192, in Acre) was duke of Burgundy between 1162 and 1192. Hugh was the eldest son of duke Odo II and Marie of Champagne, daughter of Theobald and Mathilda of Carinthia.
The rule of Hugh III marked the ending of a period of relative peace in the duchy of Burgundy. Hugh was a belligerent man and soon was involved in conflicts against king Louis VII of France over their borders. When Philip Augustus succeeded Louis in 1180, Hugh seized the opportunity and forced several men to change alliance to Burgundy. Philip II was not happy with the loss of his vassals and invaded the duchy, besieging Châtillon. The town fell and with it, its garrison, commanded by Eudes, Hugh’s heir. A peace was negotiated and Hugh had to pay a high ransom for his son and give up ambitions over French territory.
Hugh then turned his energies to the Holy Land, embarking in the Third Crusade in the retinue of Philip II. He was the most trusted ally of Richard, the Lionheart and fought with him against Saladin. When Philip returned to France, he left Hugh in charge of the French troops. Hugh played a major role in the victory of the battle of Arsuf (September 7, 1191) and the conquest of Acre, where he died in the following year.
In 1187, Hugh transferred the capital of Burgundy to Dijon, and endeavoured to turn the city into a major commercial centre.
 Marriage and issueHe was married twice:
Firstly, in 1165, to Alice of Lorraine (1145–1200), daughter of Matthias I, Duke of Lorraine; he repudiated her in 1183.
Secondly, in 1183, to Béatrice of Albon (1161–1228), Countess of Albon and Dauphine of Viennois, daughter of Guigues, Count of Albon and Dauphin of Viennois.
By his first marriage, he produced:
Marie’s parents’ marriage was annulled in 1152, and custody of Marie and her sister, Alix, was awarded to their father, King Louis. Their mother, Eleanor, married Henry, Count of Anjou and Duke of Normandy, later King Henry II of England, and so left France. In 1160, when her father, King Louis, married Adele of Champagne, he betrothed Marie and Alix to Adele’s brothers. After her betrothal, Marie was sent to the abbey of Avenay in Champagne for her education.
In 1164, Marie married Henry I, Count of Champagne. They had four children:
Henry II of Champagne (1166–1197)
Marie of Champagne (died 1204), married Baldwin I of Constantinople
Theobald III of Champagne (1179–1201)
Scholastique of Champagne (died 1219), married William IV of Macon
Marie was left as Regent for Champagne when Henry I went on pilgrimage to the Holy Land. While her husband was away, Marie’s father died and her half-brother, Philip, became king. He confiscated his mother’s dower lands and married Isabelle of Hainaut, who was previously betrothed to Marie’s eldest son. This prompted Marie to join a party of disgruntled nobles—including Queen Adele and the archbishop of Reims — in plotting against Philip. Eventually, relations between Marie and her royal brother improved. Her husband died soon after his return from the Holy Land. Now a widow with four young children, Marie considered marrying Philip of Flanders, but the engagement was broken off suddenly for unknown reasons.
After Henry I’s death in 1181, Marie acted as regent until 1187 when her son, Henry, came of age. However, Henry II also went on Crusade and so Marie was regent from 1190 to Henry’s death in 1197. She retired to the nunnery of Fontaines-les-Nones near Meaux, and died there in 1198.
Marie is remembered today mainly for her role in the heresy that was the target of the Albigensian Crusade. She was also a patron of literature, including Andreas Capellanus, who served in her court, and Chrétien de Troyes. She was literate in French and Latin and maintained her own library. A deep affection existed between Marie and her half-brother Richard I of England, and his celebrated poem J’a nuns hons pris, lamenting his captivity in Austria, was dedicated to her.
Chrétien de Troyes
Chrétien de Troyes (French pronunciation: [kʁe.tjɛ̃ də.tʁwa]) (Christian) was a French poet and trouvère who flourished in the late 12th century. Chrétien may have named himself Christian of Troyes in contrast to the Rashi, also of Troyes. Little is known of his life, but he seems to have been from Troyes, or at least intimately connected with it, and between 1160 and 1172 he served at the court of his patroness Marie of France, Countess of Champagne, daughter of Eleanor of Aquitaine, perhaps as herald-at-arms (as Gaston Paris speculated). His work on Arthurian subjects represents some of the best regarded of medieval literature. His use of structure, particular in Yvain, the Knight of the Lion, has been seen as a step towards the modern novel.
3.1 Anticipating the modern novel
6 External links
Chrétien’s works include five major poems in rhyming eight-syllable couplets. Four of these are complete; Erec and Enide (c. 1170); Cligès (c. 1176), and Yvain, the Knight of the Lion and Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart, both written simultaneously between 1177 and 1181. Chrétien’s final romance was Perceval, the Story of the Grail, written between 1181 and 1190, but left unfinished, though some scholars have disputed this. It is dedicated to Philip, Count of Flanders, to whom Chrétien may have been attached[clarification needed] in his last years. He finished only 9,000 lines of the work, but four successors of varying talents added 54,000 additional lines in what are known as the Four Continuations. Similarly, the last thousand lines of Lancelot were written by Godefroi de Leigni, apparently by arrangement with Chrétien. In the case of Perceval, one continuer says the poet’s death prevented him from completing the work, in the case of Lancelot, no reason is given. This has not stopped speculation that Chrétien did not approve of Lancelot’s adulterous subject.
To him are also attributed two lesser works: the pious romance Guillaume d’Angleterre (an attribution that is no longer believed), and Philomela, the only one of his four poems based on Ovid’s Metamorphoses that has survived. Chrétien names his treatments of Ovid in the introduction to Cligès, where he also mentions his work about King Mark and Iseult. The latter is presumably related to the Tristan and Iseult legend, though it is interesting that Tristan is not named.
Chrétien’s works are written in vernacular Old French, although it is marked by traits of the regional Champenois dialect (which is still fairly similar to the “standard” French of Paris).
The immediate and specific source for his romances is of deep interest to the student; unfortunately, he has left us in the dark as to what these were. He speaks in the vaguest way of the materials he used, and though Celtic influence is easily detectable in the stories, there is no direct evidence that he had Celtic written sources. Geoffrey of Monmouth or Wace might have supplied some of the names, but neither author mentioned Erec, Lancelot, Gornemant and many others who play an important role in Chrétien’s narratives. One is forced to guess about Latin or French literary originals which are now lost, or upon continental lore that goes back to a Celtic source. It is the same problem that faces the student in the case of Béroul, an Anglo-Norman who wrote around 1150. However, Chrétien found his sources immediately at hand, without much understanding of its primitive spirit, but appreciating it as a setting for the ideal society dreamed of, although not realized, in his own day. And Chrétien’s five romances together form the most complete expression from a single author of the ideals of French chivalry. Though as of yet there has been little critical attention paid to the subject, it is not inaccurate to say that Chrétien was influenced by the changing face of secular and canonical law in the twelfth century. This is particularly relevant for his Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart which makes repeated use of the customary law prevalent in Chrétien’s day. 
He is also known for making famous the phrase, “Du sarcasme est le balai du faible.” Roughly, this translates into “Sarcasm is the broom stick of the weak.”
Chrétien’s writing was very popular, as evidenced by the high number of surviving copies of his romances and their many adaptations into other languages. Three of Middle High German literature’s finest examples, Wolfram von Eschenbach’s Parzival and Hartmann von Aue’s Erec and Iwein, were based on Perceval, Erec, and Yvain; the Three Welsh Romances associated with the Mabinogion, Peredur, son of Efrawg, Geraint and Enid, and Owain, or the Lady of the Fountain are derived from the same trio. Especially in the case of Peredur, however, the connection between the Welsh romances and their source is probably not direct, and has never been satisfactorily delineated. Chrétien also has the distinction of being the first writer to mention the Holy Grail (Perceval) and the love affair between Queen Guinevere and Lancelot (Lancelot), subjects of household recognition even today.
There is a specific Latin influence in Chrétien’s romances the likes of which (The Iliad, The Aeneid, Metamorphoses) were “translated into the Old French vernacular during the 1150s”. Foster Guyer argues that specifically Yvain, the Knight of the Lion contains definite Ovidian influence:
Yvain was filled with grief and showed the Ovidian love symptoms of weeping and sighing so bitterly that he could scarcely speak. He declared that he would never stay away a full year. Using words like those of Leander in the seventeenth of Ovid’s Epistles he said: ‘If only I had the wings of a dove/to fly back to you at will/Many and many a time I would come’.
 Anticipating the modern novel
Chrétien has been termed “the inventor of the modern novel” and Karl Uitti argues:
With [Chrétien’s work] a new era opens in the history of European story telling…this poem reinvents the genre we call narrative romance; in some important respects it also initiates the vernacular novel.
The main quality of the above-mentioned Celtic influences was that of a sort of incompleteness. A “story” could be anything from a single battle scene, to a prologue, to a minimally cohesive tale with little to no chronological layout. Uitti argues that Yvain is Chrétien’s “most carefully contrived romance… It has a beginning, a middle, and an end: we are in no doubt that Yvain’s story is over”. This very method of having a three definite parts including the build in the middle leading to the climax of the story is in large part why Chrétien is seen to be a writer of novels six centuries before novels existed.
Henry II, Count of Champagne
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Henry II of Champagne (or Henry I of Jerusalem) (29 July 1166 – 10 September 1197) was count of Champagne from 1181 to 1197, and King of Jerusalem from 1192 to 1197, although he never used the title of king.
1 Early Life and Family
4 Fictional representations
 Early Life and Family
Henry was the eldest son of Count Henry I of Champagne and Marie of France, a daughter of King Louis VII of France and Eleanor of Aquitaine. His aunt Adèle of Champagne was Queen of France.
In 1171, Henry was betrothed to Isabella of Hainault. When she married Philip II of France instead, his father, aunt and other members of his family were angered. It temporarily made Queen Mother Adèle’s faction hostile to Isabella’s family and so caused tension at the French court.
Henry’s father died in 1181, and his mother ruled as regent until 1187.
In 1190 Henry left for the East, after having his barons swear to recognize his younger brother Theobald as his successor should he fail to return. He joined the Third Crusade, arriving ahead of his uncles, King Philip II of France and King Richard I of England. Initially, he was one of the leaders of the French contingent at the siege of Acre before Philip’s arrival. He is said to have been a member of the group involved in the abduction of Queen Isabella I of Jerusalem, to get her to consent to a divorce from Humphrey IV of Toron so that she could be married to Conrad of Montferrat. Henry was related to Conrad through both his maternal grandparents. According to Baha ad-Din ibn Shaddad, he was wounded at Acre on 15 November.
Later on in the campaign, Henry shifted his allegiances to Richard. In April 1192, King Richard sent Henry as his representative from Acre to Tyre, to inform Conrad of Montferrat of his election as King of Jerusalem. Henry then returned to Acre. A few days later, Conrad was murdered by two Hashshashin. Henry came back to Tyre two days later, ostensibly to help organise Conrad’s coronation, but found that a funeral was being prepared instead. He was immediately betrothed to the newly widowed—and pregnant—Queen Isabella I of Jerusalem. They were married just eight days after Conrad’s death.
Henry I of Champagne (December 1127 – March 17, 1181), known as “the Liberal”, was count of Champagne from 1152 to 1181. He was the eldest son of Count Thibaut II of Champagne (who was also Count Thibaut IV of Blois) and his wife, Matilda of Carinthia.
Henry took part in the Second Crusade under the leadership of Louis VII of France. He carried a letter of recommendation from Bernard of Clairvaux addressed to Manuel I Komnenos, Byzantine Emperor; he is listed among the notables present at the assembly held by Baldwin III of Jerusalem at Acre on 24 June 1148.
On his father’s death, Henry chose to take Champagne, leaving the family’s older holdings (including Blois, Chartres, Sancerre, and Châteaudun) to his younger brothers. At the time this may have been surprising, for the other territories were richer and better developed. Henry must have foreseen the economic possibilities of Champagne, and it is during his rule that the county achieved its high place as one of the richest and strongest of the French principalities.
Henry established orderly rule over the nobles of Champagne, and could fairly reliably count on the aid of some 2,000 vassals, which just by itself made him a power few in France could equal. This order in turn made Champagne a safe place for merchants to gather, and under the count’s protection the Champagne Fairs became a central part of long-distance trade and finance in medieval Europe.
In addition, the count’s court in Troyes became a renowned literary center. Walter Map was among those who found hospitality there. The scholar Stephen of Alinerre was among Henry’s courtiers, becoming chancellor of the county in 1176.
In 1179 Henry went to Jerusalem again with a party of French knights including his relatives Peter of Courtenay (brother of Louis VII) and Philip of Dreux, bishop of Beauvais. Henry returned towards Europe by the land route across Asia Minor, and was captured and held to ransom by Kilij Arslan II, Seljuk sultan of Rüm. The ransom was paid by the Byzantine Emperor and Henry was released, but died soon afterwards.
In 1164, Henry married Marie of France, Countess of Champagne, daughter of Louis VII of France and Eleanor of Aquitaine.
Theobald the Great (French: Thibaut de Blois) (1090–1152) was Count of Blois and of Chartres as Theobald IV from 1102 and was Count of Champagne and of Brie as Theobald II from 1125.
He held Auxerre, Maligny, Ervy, Troyes, and Châteauvillain as fiefs from Eudes II, Duke of Burgundy. He was the son of Stephen II, Count of Blois and Adela of Normandy, and the elder brother of King Stephen of England. Although he was the second son, Theobald was appointed above his older brother William. Several historians have painted William as mentally deficient, but this has never been substantiated. That said, we know that his mother found him stubbornly resistant to control and unfit for wide ranging comital duties. Theobald had no such problems.
Theobald accompanied his mother throughout their realm on hundreds of occasions and, after her retirement to Marcigney in 1125, he administered the family properties with great skill. Adela died in her beloved convent in 1136, the year after her son Stephen was crowned king of England. 
King Louis VII of France became involved in a war with Theobald by permitting Count Raoul I of Vermandois and seneschal of France, to repudiate his wife Eléonore of Blois, Theobald’s sister, and to marry Petronilla of Aquitaine, sister of the queen of France. The war, which lasted two years (1142–1144), was marked by the occupation of Champagne by the royal army and the capture of Vitry-le-François, where many persons perished in the deliberate burning of the church by Louis. French teacher Pierre Abélard, who became famous for his love affair with and subsequent marriage to his student Héloïse, sought asylum in Champagne during Theobald II’s reign. Abelard died at Cluny Abbey in Burgundy, a monastery supported by the Thebaudians for many centuries.
In 1123 he married Matilda of Carinthia, daughter of Engelbert, Duke of Carinthia.
Stephen, Count of Blois
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For the King of England called “Stephen of Blois”, see Stephen of England.
Stephen II, Count of Blois
Seal of Stephen II of Blois
Adela of Normandy
Theobald III of Blois
Garsinde du Maine
19 May 1102(1102-05-19)
Stephen II Henry (in French, Étienne Henri, in Medieval French, Estienne Henri) (c. 1045 – 19 May 1102), Count of Blois and Count of Chartres, was the son of Theobald III, count of Blois, and Garsinde du Maine. He is numbered Stephen II after Stephen I, Count of Troyes. He married Adela of Normandy, a daughter of William the Conqueror around 1080 in Chartres. In 1089, upon the death of his father, he became the Count of Blois and Chartres, although Theobald had given him the administration of those holdings in 1074. He was the father of Stephen of England.
Original coat of arms of the county of Blois.
Count Stephen was one of the leaders of the First Crusade, often writing enthusiastic letters to Adela about the crusade’s progress. Stephen was the head of the army council at the Crusaders’ siege of Nicaea in 1097. He returned home in 1098 during the lengthy siege of Antioch, without having fulfilled his crusading vow to forge a way to Jerusalem. He was pressured by Adela into making a second pilgrimage, and joined the minor crusade of 1101 in the company of others who had also returned home prematurely. In 1102, Stephen was killed at the Second Battle of Ramla at the age of fifty-seven.
 Family and children
Stephen and Adela’s children were:
1. William, Count of Sully (d.1150), Count of Chartres married Agnes of Sulli (d. aft 1104) and had issue.
2. Theobald II, Count of Champagne
3. Odo, died young.
4. Stephen, King of England