My kinsman, Senator Thomas Hart Benton, was the proprietor of the Oregon Territory. His daughter, Jessie Benton, married Fremont. Benton is the grandfather of the muralist, Thomas Hart Benton. My kindred, Garth Benton married my famous artistic sister, and is a muralist of renown kin to Thomas. There are murals inside the Eugene Post office that are rendered in the Benton style. These murals are kin to rock and cave paintings of the indigenous people of America, and are a part of of OUR Heritage – that I claim as the Go-el Redeemer of my families historic and creative history! The Vincent Rice Family Trust will redeem this land of our ancestors. I bid others to come forth and redeem the Post Office in your town.
After pitching my tent on this Sacred Ground, I will practice my religion by giving Biblical Lessons on the real Jesus who came to pay the debt of his ancestors, Ruth and Boaz, who owned the threshing floor upon which the temple of Solomon was built. I will prove, that the true prophet named Jesus, under God’s Laws, came to own the temple, and, with whip in hand, drove out the money lenders who put God’s Children in the bonds of slavery. Fremont was a Aboltionist canidate who co-founded the Republican party. This is why I regiestered as a Republican three years ago. Get out of my insfolk party ye false prophets! Get out!
Proof that Jesus did this, lies in the story of the Woman at the Well. Only I, with the guidance of God, have figured out why this woman calls Jesus a great prophet, who has come to restore the Jubilee, because he is God’s kinsfolk Redeemer – and he knows the laws of the widow taking a husband that go with the rules of Redeemer. This woman was the wife of brothers who died without baring children. Were they crucified? Jesus dies on the cross without baring children, and puts his mother in the care of his disciple – who is his kidred! However, this could be proof Jesus was married.
This is very complex, and needs to be studied on the grounds of the Post Office because this is a Public Place where our Founding Fathers bid We the People come and share our ideas – by posting them to our elected leaders. Religious ideas were freely sent in the mail since 1776. for this reason every Republican leader should do all they can to remove the Debt Burden they imposed to bring ruin to the Post Office so their billionaire friends cand PURCHASE what belongs – TO ALL OF US! Put up, or shut up – ye false prophets! You speak a good game of God, but what spew out your mouth is hatred for half the people in America – especially the poor widow and hungry children.
I will also be sending the United Nations thirty coins for the purchase of the temple mount so it will be a forum unto all prophets of all religions! God can stand the questioning!
Jon Presco ‘The Goel Redeemer’
by Chuck Missler
And there were in the same country shepherds abiding in the field, keeping watch over their flock by night. – Luke 2:8
The book of Ruth, a traditional reading at harvest time during the Feast of Weeks (Shavuot), is a book of only four brief chapters that is both a classic love story and also an essential book of prophecy. One cannot understand Revelation Chapter 5 without it. It even has implications for our Christmas season, which is one of the reasons for providing a précis in this issue.
The family of Elimelech, due to a local famine, leaves its home in Bethlehem and immigrates to Moab. The two sons marry local girls, but the father and the two sons subsequently pass away, leaving his wife, Naomi, and her two daughters-in-laws destitute. Hearing that things are now better back home, Naomi decides to return to her native Bethlehem. She urges the two young girls to remain in their homeland and begin new lives, but Ruth refuses and insists on accompanying Naomi.1
The Law of Gleaning
One of the values of this book is to highlight the operation of the laws of ancient Israel. As a landowner, you were permitted to reap on one pass only: what was missed, or left behind, was available to be “gleaned” by the widows or the destitute.2
Naomi and Ruth are, of course, in that situation, and Ruth, in her support of the household, goes out to glean after the reapers and “happens”3 onto the field of Boaz, one of the wealthy landowners and the hero of our story. Boaz arranges for his reapers to drop “handfuls on purpose” to assure Ruth an abundant gathering. When Noami learns of Ruth’s good fortune, she is especially delighted since it turns out that Boaz is a kinsman of the family, and that leads to the opportunity that is the crux of the tale.
To properly understand what follows, it is necessary to be familiar with several other laws operative from the Torah.
The Law of Redemption
When property is sold in our culture, title is usually passed “in fee simple,” in perpetuity to the buyer. However, Israel’s land was granted, in the days of Joshua, to the tribes to be retained within the family. (That’s one of the reasons genealogies were so important.)
When someone “sold” a property—to pay debts, or whatever—the transaction was what we would view as a lease: there were provisions for the land to eventually return to the family.4 A “title deed” included the terms that a kinsman of the family could perform to “redeem” the property to the family.5
The Law of Levirate Marriage
There was also an unusual procedure to assure the continuation of a family in the event of the death of a husband without issue. If a widow had no son, she could request the next of kin to take her and raise children to continue the family bloodline.6
It is from this background that we understand Naomi’s opportunity in Ruth Chapter 3. She realizes that Boaz is a kinsman; therefore, there was an opportunity to regain the family properties lost by her deceased husband 10 years earlier and also a chance for Ruth to have a new life. Naomi instructs Ruth on how to proceed.
The Threshing Floor
The harvest included winnowing the wheat at a “threshing floor,” a parcel of ground where there was a prevailing wind. The grain was tossed into the air and the grain would fall downwind a small distance; the chaff, being lighter, would be carried further downwind. When done properly, two piles would result: the furthest would be burned as trash; the closer one would be bagged for the marketplace.
The harvest was, of course, also a time for celebration, and the evenings were accompanied by festivities for having made payroll another season, etc. After the celebration, the owners typically would sleep near the grain to preclude theft. Ruth is instructed by Naomi to approach Boaz privately at the threshing floor. What follows is widely misunderstood by the uninitiated reader.
Ruth approaches Boaz while he is sleeping and requests him to “spread his skirt over her as he is a near kinsman.” This is not the kind of proposition many people assume it to be.
The shul (“skirt”), or hem, was the emblem of rank or authority in Israel, much like the stripes on the sleeve of a naval officer or airline pilot in our culture. (This insight is essential to really understand David’s cutting Saul’s hem,7 or why the woman with the issue of blood touched Christ’s hem,8 etc.)
Ruth was asking Boaz to put the authority of his house over her. She is invoking her right under the laws of Israel for him to take her to wife. Boaz was delighted to accommodate her, but there remained an obstacle to be overcome.
A Nearer Kinsman?
It seems that there is a nearer kinsman who would have to first step aside for Boaz to assume his role. This is a cloud over the otherwise joyous proceedings. Boaz takes on the task of confronting this nearer kinsman, in front of the city council, to force the issue.
When a widow requested the next of kin to perform the role of the goel, or kinsman-redeemer, he wasn’t forced to. In fact, there were three conditions to be met:
1. He had to be qualified as a kinsman;
2. He had to be able to perform;
3. He had to be willing.
There were two issues at stake: the redeeming of the land for Naomi and the taking of Ruth to wife. As far as the land is concerned, the man appears to be willing. But for some undisclosed reason, he is unable to perform where Ruth is concerned. That clears the way for our hero, Boaz, to fulfill his role as the goel.
The giving of the shoe needs an explanation. If the nearer kinsman declined the responsibility, he would have to yield one of his shoes and could also suffer the indignity of being spit upon. When he declined, he performed the traditional gesture by yielding his shoe to Boaz. The shoe was intended to be a symbol of disgrace, but to Boaz it was a marriage license!
(It may seem remarkable that Boaz, a wealthy Jew, would take a Gentile to wife. Remember who his mother was: Rahab, the harlot of Jericho.9 Both Rahab and Ruth are in Christ’s genealogy.10)
A Closer Look
This elegant love story is a classic in literature, and it also gives us some interesting insights into the life of ancient Israel.
But if we look more closely, we will discover that it is much more than that. The plan of God appears to be hidden among its colorful symbols and roles. The Bible frequently deals in symbols, models, or “types.”11 As we examine the role of Boaz as the goel, or kinsman-redeemer, we can easily see how he, in some ways, pre-figures our own kinsman-redeemer, Jesus Christ. Through his act of redemption, Boaz returns Naomi (Israel) to her land, and also takes Ruth (a Gentile) as his bride. This suggests a parallel with the Church as the Gentile bride of Christ.
The parallels between Boaz, Naomi, and Ruth with Christ, Israel, and the Church have been widely recognized, and it is remarkable to notice how many additional details of the story are consistent with this viewpoint.
The Unnamed Servant
Who first introduces Boaz to Ruth? An unnamed servant.12 This is suggestive of the role of the Holy Spirit, and it is interesting that in every example that the Holy Spirit is viewed in such a role, He is always the “unnamed servant.” In Genesis 24, Abraham, as the Father, sent his “eldest servant” to gather a bride for his son Isaac. This unnamed servant seems to be mentioned elsewhere13 as Eliezer, which means “Comforter.” Why does the Holy Spirit always appear as the unnamed servant? Because Jesus said “He would never testify of Himself.”14
It is interesting that, no matter how much Boaz wanted Ruth, as a gentleman there was nothing he could do until she declared herself. It was her move. No matter how much Jesus loves us, He awaits our response. How about you? Have you asked your Goel to do His “kinsman-redeemer” part for you?
The Nearer Kinsman
What does the “nearer kinsman” symbolize? Most scholars view him as the Law. What the Law could not do, Jesus has already done for us. It is also significant that at the confrontation with the “nearer kinsman,” it was Ruth’s position to confront the nearer kinsman; however, Boaz stood in Ruth’s place and took the entire burden upon himself.
This Christmas season we will, of course, think of those shepherds who were visited by the angels announcing the birth of the Son of David in Bethlehem. It is interesting to reflect on the possibility that these shepherds were tending their flocks in the very fields that had belonged to Boaz and Ruth so long before.
We note that this love story climaxes with Boaz “purchasing” his (Gentile) bride.15 Jesus also has purchased us: it was with His blood on a wooden cross two thousand years ago. May His richest blessings attend you and yours during this special holiday season!
Appendix: The Strange Toast
As they celebrated the wedding of Ruth and Boaz at the end of Ruth Chapter 4, we encounter a rather strange remark in verse 12: “May your house be like Perez…” If you understand the sordid tale of Judah and Tamar,16 which leads to the illegitimate birth of Perez, you might be inclined to think, “Same to you, fella!” What kind of a “toast” or blessing is that?
To understand what lies behind this unusual prophecy, we need to remember that in the case of an illegitimate son, there could be no inheritance for ten generations.17 Appended to the Book of Ruth is the genealogy from Perez, and ten generations leads us to David, anointed King over Israel!
When Israel clamored for a king and Samuel anointed Saul,18 we often get the impression that David was an “afterthought” when Saul didn’t work out. Not so. Here, as early as the time of the Judges, is a prophecy that David was God’s destined choice for King. Perhaps that is why Samuel had to go to the tribe of Benjamin, rather than the royal tribe of Judah19 for his selection: the curse on Perez’s line hadn’t run out yet.
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This article is about the Jewish legal institution. For the Indian community, see Goel (India).
Goel (go’el) is a Hebrew term which comes from the word gal’al (“to redeem”), hence meaning “redeemer”, which in the Bible and the rabbinical tradition denotes a person who as the nearest relative of another is charged with the duty of restoring the rights of another and avenging his wrongs. In the Authorized King James Bible, it is rendered “kinsman”, “redeemer”, and “avenger”.
In the book of Isaiah God is called the redeemer of Israel, as he redeems his people from captivity; the context shows that the redemption also involves moving on to something greater. In Christianity, the title goel is applied to Christ, who redeems us from all evil by the payment of a ransom.
1 Duties of the goel
2 See also
4 External links
 Duties of the goel
The obligations of the goel include the duty to redeem the relative from slavery, if the latter had been obliged to sell himself into serfdom (Leviticus 25: 48-49); to repurchase the property of a relative who had had to sell it because of poverty; to avenge the blood of his relative; to marry his brother’s widow in order to have a son for his brother, in case the brother had not got any son to pass his name forth (Deuteronomy 25:5-6); and to receive the restitution if the injured relative had died (Numbers 5:8).
Numbers 35:9-30 regulates the duties of the goel. The congregation has to judge the case before it puts a murderer in the hands of a goel. More than one witness is needed for conviction. In case of accidental manslaughter, the slayer can save his life by fleeing to a “city of refuge” and staying there for the term of the high priest (who is appointed for his lifetime). Ransom is not accepted for murder. Revenge cannot be taken on the offender’s children or parents (Deuteronomy 24:16). Leviticus 25:48-49 gives the order in which the nearest relative is considered the goel in the case of redeeming a slave: brother, uncle, male cousin and then other relatives. The same order was probably observed in the other cases, except in marrying a sister-in-law.
Jewish tradition has also ascribed to the blood avenger the role performed in modern times by a prosecuting attorney, who thus pleads on behalf of the victim the case against the criminal. Thus, he is responsible for bringing the offender to court, finding evidence against him, presenting the case to the court, and collecting damages from the offender. It is also his task to argue against any attempts to pardon the sinner.
Yibbum (pronounced “yee-boom”), or levirate marriage, in Judaism, is one of the most complex types of marriages mandated by Torah law (Deuteronomy 25:5-10) by which, according to the law, the brother of a man who died without children has an obligation to marry the widow. However, if either of the parties refuses to go through with the marriage, both are required to go through a ceremony known as halizah, involving a symbolic act of renunciation of their right to perform this marriage. Jewish law (halakha) has seen a gradual decline of yibbum in favor of halizah, to the point where in most contemporary Jewish communities the former is strongly discouraged.
The concept of yibbum is not unique to Judaism. Known as levirate marriage (when the marriage is to the deceased’s brother) or widow inheritance (when it is to any surviving male relative), it has been practiced by other societies with a strong clan structure. It is or was known in societies including the Punjabis, Jats, Huns (Chinese “Xiongnu”, “Hsiong-nu”, etc.), Mongols, and Tibetans.
Another example of an analogous arrangement to yibbum is recounted in the Book of Ruth. After the death of her husband, Ruth is noticed and welcomed by her husband’s kinsman, Boaz. After Ruth is rejected by an anonymous Ploni Almoni who performs halizah, Boaz marries her. In this case as well, the kin in question would not have been subject to the biblical levirate marriage obligation, as neither Ploni Almoni nor Boaz were brothers of Ruth’s late husband.
 Laws of yibbum and halizah
Halakha (Jewish law) has a rich tradition around yibbum. These laws were first recorded in the Mishna and Talmud in Yevamot, and were later codified by Maimonides in the Mishneh Torah. The subject is considered one of the most intricate in Jewish law, partly because of the complication that arise from multiple brothers and multiple wives.
Reference: “The Romance of Redemption”, by Chuck Missler
The Temple in Jerusalem over the threshing floor which is presently under the Al Kas fountain.
1. Solomon built the temple on the threshing floor David bought. The Dome of the rock is the highest point of the temple mount. Threshing floors were never built on hills, but in curved valleys, like directly under the Al Kas Fountain. Under the dome of the Rock, was where the Fortress of Antonia stood. In 135 AD, Hadrian filled in about 50 feet of earth over top of where the temple stood and enlarged the temple mount and built a temple of Jupiter where we see the Dome of the rock today. In 325 AD Constantine tore down the Temple of Jupiter and assumed Hadrian built the temple of Jupiter on top of the spot where the temple of Solomon once stood. Constantine built an octagon church on the site. In 700 AD the Muslims found the foundations of Constantine’s octagon church and built the dome of the Rock we see today.
2. “On the Temple Mount he (Hadrian) erected a temple to Jupiter with an equestrian statue of himself in front of it.” (The temple of Jerusalem, Joan Comay, 1975, p199)
3. Where was the threshing floor on the temple mount?
4. Tuvia Sagiv’s theory focuses on Hadrian building a Temple of Jupiter on the temple mount in 135 AD. Hadrian had built many large scale projects including the Jupiter on the Temple in Baalbek, Lebanon, that is still standing to this day. Sagiv, being an architect by trade, noticed that both the Temple of Jupiter in Baalbek and the Islamic buildings we see on the temple mount today, were almost an exact match in both design and scale. The similarity between a hexagon shaped Jupiter “Forecourt” with the Dome of the Rock and the Jupiter Temple with the Al-Aqsa mosque is nothing short of stunning.
16 He told her, “Go, call your husband and come back.”
17 “I have no husband,” she replied.
Jesus said to her, “You are right when you say you have no husband. 18 The fact is, you have had five husbands, and the man you now have is not your husband. What you have just said is quite true.”
19 “Sir,” the woman said, “I can see that you are a prophet. 20 Our ancestors worshiped on this mountain, but you Jews claim that the place where we must worship is in Jerusalem.”
Ann Woodruff Murray is a local artist of the Springfield area who has extensive experience in painting stage sets for theater, film, and television productions.
The mural captures all of the encounters ans scenes the pioneers came upon during their difficult endeavor and has special lighting allowing it to be seen day or night.
The Oregon Trail Mural, painted on the East wall of Emerald Art Center, is the largest of all nine murals in downtown known as Art Alley.
The Mural is 120 feet long, 32 feet high, and was meant to be read from right to left.
The project started on July 7, 1993, and was finished seven months later on February 3, 1994.
18.) Pioneers meeting a tribe of Plains Indians on the open prairie.
19.) Courthouse and Jailhouse Rocks on the North Platte River, in Nebraska.
20.) The 500 foot Chimney Rock along the North Platte River, in Nebraska.
21.) Eagle Rock at Scotts Bluff, Nebraska.