Jewish Cemetary – Berlin

There is a Jewish cemetery in Berlin that lay at the end of Berlin Avenue where my Stuttmeister kin owned the home seen in image above. William Stuttmeister built homes in the Fruitvale area of Oakland and named streets after trees. We lived on Berlin Way in a house William built that was probably named after the street in Berlin that was located in the Pankow district where Huguenots and Jews came to dwell in respective Diaspora. The Sephardic Jews, and others, came to believe Berlin was the New Jerusalem. The Stuttmeisters were know by another name that I suspect was Jewish because they were wealthy furriers. The originals name is unknown, however, the Stuttmeister tomb in Dorotheenstadt cemetery is located at the entrance of the Jewish cemetery there. Did they convert from Judaism to the new Evangelical Church of Berlin?

Jon Presco

Copyright 2012

The Jewish cemetery Berlin white lake is 1880 a cemetery put on of the Jewish municipality to Berlin. It is the surface-largest received Jewish cemetery of Europe with 115.000 grave places. Since the 1970’s it stands under monument protection. [1]

Bronze relief on the back of the gravestone for Emil Cohn (1855-1909), a KohenThe cemetery in the citizen of Berlin district Pankow, local part white lake, in the northeast of Berlin has a size of approximately 42 hectares and over 115.000 grave places. The entrance is at the end of the harsh blank tree road, a side road of the citizens of Berlin avenue. A second, 1924 furnished entrance in the today’s Indira Gandhi road is closed. Northeast the Indira Gandhi road limits the cemetery, in the north the road course Chopin /Smetana /Gounod /Puccinistraße (composer quarter) and in the southwest in the extension of the belt route the local part border of white lake, adjacent to an allotment plant. The free area at the main entrance is designated after Markus realm, the founder Israeli tables of the institute for the deaf and dumb.

The grave places cover the largest part of the surface surrounded by the Friedhofsmauer. In the southern and western part representative burial places and mausoleums are in the Friedhofsmauer. The eastern delimitation with burial places of 1940 and 1941 borders directly on the plots of the there allotment colony. Along the Indira Gandhi road (before times Lichtenberger road) 1983 to 1984 a new cemetery enclosure were established. On the concrete elements Menora symbols are to the roadside. Some break-throughs with metal lattices make the symbolic connection possible between cemetery and outside world. The draft for this cemetery delimitation comes from the architect Gerd Pieper. Distributed over the departments are present numerous mausoleums and Grüfte as well as representative burial places on the cemetery.

The burial places for the 1980er years are left behind the mourning hall, here existed also an urn field. A new department lies also left to the Indira Gandhi road at the corner to the Chopinstraße. Here are also graves of Jewish migrants.

The plant of the cemetery as well as most buildings decrease/go back to the draft of the architect Hugo light (1841−1923). The graves are arranged in 120 gitterförmigen grave fields, which have different strictly geometrical forms such as rectangles, triangles or trapezoids. The fields are alphabetical and by numbers characterized, of A1 in the main entrance to P5 in the southern edge. The area of the cemetery is as far as possible existed with trees. Some grave fields in the right cemetery part from the artery are covered particularly with ivy. There are only few ranges without occupied departments. According to the Jewish tradition burial places are not again occupied. Rather the burial places up to the recent court are funeral surfaces.

buildings on the cemetery [Work on]

Entrance to the mourning hallThe building ensemble at the main entrance of the cemetery like also the Friedhofsmauer here are in the style of the Italian Neorenaissance from yellow bricks delighted. The buildings in the input area flanked of zweigeschossigen low rise buildings. In the right the cemetery administration with important archives and on the left of the Taharahaus is accommodated. Both buildings are by arcade courses with one another and with the mourning hall connected. This lies seen from the entrance behind the arcade courses and towers above the other buildings. It is a square Zentralbau with three rectangular cultivations and a semicircular Apsis, which are over-curved by an octagonal Tambour. The buildings mentioned enclose a square yard.

1910 build second mourning hall with auxiliary buildings in the rear part of the cemetery as well as the large cemetery market garden in the Second World War were destroyed. The ruins were cleared away around 1980, a hilly field show the earlier location still.

memorial places [Work on]
Directly at the input area, behind the magnificent wrought-iron portal, a plant is to the memory of the six million victim of the Holocaust. In the center of the Rondells central Gedenkstein of the Jewish municipality stands to Berlin with the following inscription:

„Think of eternal one which us happened. Dedicated the memory of our murdered brothers and sisters 1933 – 1945 and the living person those the legacy of the dead ones to fulfill are. “

– The Jewish municipality to Berlin

Gedenkstein is in a circle surrounded by further lying stones with the names by concentration camps.

Right beside the buildings of the input area begins the honour row so called, which contains graves of special personalities. Here also the gravestone of the resistance fighter stands against the national socialism Herbert Type the corpse of tree for 1949, after its grave had been found and the corpse had been exhumiert, here was bestattet. On the back of the gravestone the names of 27 further members of the harsh blank group of trees are specified, which 1942/43 were executed. The road to the entrance of the cemetery carries the names of Type since 1951.

On the cemetery are also 1650 graves of Jews, who took themselves during the Nazi regime the life. In the department VII an urn field with ashes of Jews murdered in concentration camps exists. Many gravestones witness from the deceased, whose memory can be retained by member here only symbolically, since their true funeral place remained unknown. In the proximity late opened second entrance is there an honour mark for the Jewish falling of the First World War. The grave field with the simple graves was already put on 1914, monumental Gedenkstein however only 1927 was inaugurated.

history [Work on]
emergence [Work on]
In the second half 19. Century it appeared due to the strong growth of the Jewish municipality that the cemetery in the Schönhauser avenue, which Jewish municipality used the citizens of Berlin since 1827 soon would fully be occupied. The municipality acquired therefore a 42 ha large area in the citizen of Berlin at that time suburb white lake. Since the results of a publicized architectural competition satisfying results did not bring 1878, these had to be revised several times, before finally Hugo of light draft for the building of the plant received the addition. The draft contained a layout plan of the entire area, a mourning hall, a Leichenhaus, an office building and the Ummauerung including entry gate. The building took place 1879/80. On 9 September 1880 the cemetery was solemnly inaugurated. _ as the first to 22. September 1880 of Louis tree on the cemetery bury. [2]

Kaiser era and Weimar Republic [Work on]

Mausoleum for Sigmund Aschrott (1826-1915), builds of Bruno SchmitzAlready with the establishment of the cemetery the grave places divided in hereditary funerals, choice and row places. If earlier Jewish cemeteries were characterised by relatively uniform simple graves, also splendour grave mark developed of wealthy Jews of the city in white lake soon after the inauguration, which had adapted to the civil society in the empire. This should come also on the cemetery to the expression, where similar grave marks developed as also on the large Christian cemeteries the city. Beside the Hebrew inscriptions also increasingly, sometimes even exclusively, German inscriptions emerged. Thus the Jewish municipality differed clearly of the orthodox Jews of the municipality Adass Jisroel, which likewise put on 1880 the Adass Jisroel cemetery in white lake at the only two kilometers Wittlicher road lain north. Also fire funerals were possible on the Weißenseer cemetery.

In the proximity of the entrance of the today’s Indira Gandhi road 1914 an honour field were put on, on which in the First World War Jewish soldiers fallen are bestattet. The u-shaped plant developed under the line of the master of building of realms Alexander Beer and is umsäumt of a overpower-high limestone wall. The graves were embedded into the lawn and are with ivy to over-grow, them carry very simple gravestones. Between them poplars and Fliederhecken stand. At this time already intended honour mark was set up only 1927, also this was sketched of Alexander Beer. Thereby high monolith acts out of shelly limestone around a 3 meters, which stands at a diskcovered place of the Abschlussterasse of the honour field.

time of the national socialism [Work on]
Jew pursuit in the time of the national socialism left also its traces on the cemetery. From despair over pursuit and forthcoming deportations many Jewish inhabitants of Berlin took themselves the life, which led to the fact that the number of the funerals reached their high point in the year 1942. Altogether 1907 Jews are buried on the cemetery, who committed suicide between 1933 and 1945. There is also a grave field, on which ashes are buried of 809 Jews, who were murdered in concentration camps. On other gravestones one finds the names of very many more victims of the Holocaust, predominantly to relatives in such a way was thought.

Überwuchertes mausoleumIn the spring 1943 members of the Jewish municipality Berlin hid 583 Thorarollen in the 1910 established new consecration hall in the southeast part of the cemetery. This was strongly damaged by an incendiary bomb in the summer 1943 and could be only partly saved from the rubble. About 90 of the scrolls was so strongly burned or destroyed that them flower-resounded only in direct proximity to at the main entrance will bury could. The remaining Thorarollen up to the end of the war in a cellar under flower-resounds kept and later the synagogues in Berlin, which hands Federal Republic of Germany and other countries over of Europe. Of the destruction of the Jewish records Gedenkstein with a symbolic burying (row A1) reminds:

„Violated Thorarollen lies here “

In the cemetery area after the documents a strip for the continuation of the kneeling pro the route had been kept free northward of funerals. Within this range took place to 1945 funerals of illegaly Jews living in Berlin. The deaths that here Bestatteten did not have to be announced officially at the National Socialist authorities, then the helping were protected against discovery. An exact number of in such a way buried ones was not documented for evident reason.

To beginning of the 1940er years in the cemetery market garden Jews were trained as gardners, in order to be able to develop itself after their intended emigration particularly to Palestine a new existence. In the time of the deportations the cemetery offered temporarily hideout to Jews also submerged. With the bomb attacks on Berlin met in the years 1943 to 1945 a larger number of bombs also the Jewish cemetery. To the 4000 graves were damaged; the cemetery market garden and the new consecration hall were destroyed to a large extent.

after the Second World War [Work on]

Intending hour for the Jewish victims of the national socialism, 1945After the Second World War most Jews of Berlin had emigrated either murdered or. 1955 dedicated the citizens of Berlin Jewish municipality the cemetery at the army route. Thus the Weißenseer cemetery was only used by the small Ost-Berliner municipality. On Jewish cemeteries a grave care does not belong to the tradition, besides there was hardly still living member, the redevelopment demand for the gravestones was become substantial. First no interest in retaining this Jewish inheritance had the Ost-Berliner city administration. 1977 recognized municipal authorities of east Berlin the cemetery as „monument of cultural history “on. In the consequence municipal authorities transferred the personnel expenditure for the care of the cemetery and used the office for city garden. The ways were restored and reorganized grave plants. Groups of students and groups of the action Sühnezeichen helped with the removal of the damage on the cemetery.

Closing up graves. Jewish burial places lie up to the recent day and know no grave decoration with flowers.Beginning of the 1980er years older plans for a road evasion at white lake were again taken up past. Between Artur Becker road (today kneeling pro the route) and Hans branch race traffic leading out of town should be led over an arterial road of center over today still the kept free strip visible in the citizen of Berlin city plan on the cemetery. This range was already originally intended for road construction and no property of the Jewish municipality. Officially it had not been occupied with graves. [3] The building became more urgent additionally by traffic to the large housing estate high beautiful living. The cemetery would have been cut by road construction. The preparations for the building of a high route over the cemetery area were accomplished 1986. The number on this pietätsunbefangenen strip between 1936 and 1945 secretly burying is unknown, but from Jewish tradition the funeral surface for a Jew is up to the recent day sanctified earth. After a letter of Heinz Galinski, the chairman of the Jewish municipality in West Berlin, at the GDR Council of State chairmen Erich Honecker the construction work begun were broken off. [4] Thus the cemetery remained as unit. Since end of the 1990er years the northern part of this cemetery surface is used now for grave putting.

The stronger commitment into the 1980er years like the intensified efforts after the reunification since 1990 are not sufficient, in order to receive to the cemetery a worthy form. If about 200 employees were responsible for the care of the cemetery into the 1920er years, then there were only 16 established ones to the 1980er year. After the turn it became still less, which were supplemented by ABM and MAE forces. The Jewish municipality estimates the financial requirement to the restoration on 40 million euros.

From cause 125. Anniversary of the opening of the cemetery the Jewish municipality addressed an appeal to Berlin in September 2005 to the Federal Government to engage itself more strongly for the receipt of the cemetery and suggested letting it register into the UNESCO Welterbeliste. This demand was supported also of the citizen of Berlin governing mayor Klaus Wowereit.

On the cemetery the last received gravestones and Gedenktafeln of the Jewish cemetery were provisional stored in the large Hamburg road from Berlin-Mitte since 1988. They are since at the end of of 2009 again at the old location at the large Hamburg road. This concerns the oldest received documents of the 1671 created citizens of Berlin municipality, 20 stones developed in the first years since 1672. The baroque monuments had been let in around 1880 into the south wall of the old cemetery and so the destruction of the cemetery 1943 had gotten over. Since 2002 exists the promotion association Jewish cemetery registered association, whose presidency Hermann Simon holds new synagogue of the cent rum Judaicum foundation. [5]

The citizens of Berlin avenue is a road in the local part white lake in the citizen of Berlin district Pankow. It is the extension Greifswalder road toward Bernau and a part of the federal highway 2. besides is it the main street of the local part.

Those about 3.5 kilometers long citizens of Berlin avenue (BA) begins west at the crossing with the belt and Lehderstraße as extension Greifswalder road in the local part Berlin Prenzlauer mountain. She adapts in her process to the white lake and the park at the white lake by a swung guidance. In the northeast, at the inlet of the night album way behind the Darßer road, it changes into the Malchower Chaussee into the local part Berlin Malchow of the district Lichtenberg. The entire road course is a section of B 2.
1877 had opened the new citizens of Berlin horse course company a distance to the transportation of human beings from Berlin to white lake. The avenue will drive on M4, M13, 12 and 27 in the today’s time between the belt route and the course route in sections of the Straßenbahnlinien as well as of the Buslinien 156, 255 and 259 opened.
history [Work on]
The today’s citizens of Berlin avenue northeast already existed in its process since the Middle Ages and served as remote trade route between Berlin and Bernau as well as far direction. White lake was from Berlin the first village, it profited of the trade and the development of the traffic route by the common land. Starting from 1810 the today’s southwest section within the range new white lake got the name king looking lake. The designation agitates from there that this trade route at the citizen of Berlin king gate began as continuation of the king road in the city and/or new king road.
The section in the village center white lake (between today’s Indira Gandhi road and Malchower Chaussee) received the designation citizen of Berlin road starting from at the latest 1884. Before it was called probably directly village route.
Both sections were folded up 1910 and renamed in citizen of Berlin avenue. In these years the local administration decided the building of a new village center around the Kreuzpfuhl, which became to surround as park put on and with completely new land development. The desired meaning did not receive the new area however; the traffic management over the citizens of Berlin avenue remained coining/shaping for the local development. – By 13 June 1953 the road kept the name citizen of Berlin avenue, on this day took place a renaming in Klement Gottwald avenue. Godfather stood for this the Czechoslovakian politician Klement God forest. – After the turn the back designation took place in citizen of Berlin avenue on 1 September 1991.

Dorotheenstadt cemetery From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search
Gravesites in the cemeteryThe Dorotheenstadt cemetery, officially the “Cemetery of the Dorotheenstadt und Friedrichswerder Parishes”, is a landmarked Protestant burial ground located in the Berlin district of Mitte which dates to the late 18th century. The entrance to the 17,000 m2 plot is at 126 Chaussee Straße (next door to the Brecht House, where Bertolt Brecht and Helene Weigel spent their last years, at 125 Chaussee Straße). It is also directly adjacent to the French cemetery (also known as the cemetery of the Huguenots), established in 1780, and is sometimes confused with it.

In the second half of the 18th century, Berlin’s population was growing and there was insufficient land for cemeteries because of pressure to build on vacant land and fear of epidemics. Prussian King Frederick II, “the Great”, donated land outside the Oranienburg Gate of the Berlin Customs Wall for this purpose; 4 cemeteries were established, of which the French cemetery and the Dorotheenstadt cemetery survive.[1][2] The Dorotheenstadt cemetery was established jointly by the two (Protestant) parishes in the early 1760s;[3] burials began in 1770.[4]

Although initially mostly the lower classes were buried in the Dorotheenstadt cemetery, because of its proximity to Berlin University (founded 1810, since 1949 Humboldt University) and several scholarly academies (sciences, arts, architecture, singing), many prominent figures who worked and in many cases lived in Dorotheenstadt and Friedrichswerder have found their last resting place here.

Statue of Johann Gottfried Schadow on his grave, by Heinrich KaehlerAs the social standing of those buried in the cemetery rose, numerous famous 19th-century artists and architects designed grave markers. For example, Johann Gottfried Schadow designed monuments for his second wife and himself. An 1822 statuette of Schadow by his student Heinrich Kaehler was placed on Schadow’s grave in 1851. In 1975, a 1909 marble replica of Schadow’s 1821 statue of Martin Luther for the marketplace in Wittenberg was placed at the end of the main axis of the cemetery. (It had previously been in the nearby Dorotheenstadt church, which was destroyed in World War II.) The bust of the industrialist August Borsig was created by Christian Daniel Rauch.

The cemetery was enlarged several times between 1814 and 1826.[5] In the 1830s the parishes separately acquired land for expansion elsewhere: Dorotheenstadt in Gesundbrunnen, Friedrichswerder in Kreuzberg.[6][7] By the end of the 1860s, the original cemetery was full, and after 1869 burials were only permitted in already purchased plots. In 1889 some of the land was sold in connection with a road improvement project, and some important graves had to be relocated.[8] However, after the introduction of cremation the space pressure was no longer so great, and new plots were allowed beginning in 1921. The two parishes were combined in 1945 and administer their 3 cemeteries together.[9]

The cemetery has suffered in hard times: precious metals and iron (cast iron was a popular material for grave monuments in Prussia and they were produced at a royal foundry in Berlin) have been stolen from graves, in the 1930s some stones were sold to masons for reuse, and lack of money has hampered adequate upkeep. In World War II, the surrounding area was heavily damaged and the cemetery was also damaged. In the 1960s clearance of the site to create a park was proposed.

[edit] Landmark protection and restorationProtection of the cemetery as a cultural landmark began in 1935 with an initial survey; it was listed in 1983. Between 2000 and 2006, 38 graves were restored, including those of Christian Daniel Rauch, Johann Heinrich Strack and Karl Friedrich Schinkel. The restoration of Strack’s grave alone, requiring the importation of Italian marble, cost €250,000. The largest mausoleum, that of Schinkel’s pupil, the architect Friedrich Hitzig, was to be restored in 2007; it features frescos that are now almost unique in Berlin and that were in a critical state. Future restoration work is expected to cost €6 million.

[edit] Collective monuments[edit] Resistance fightersThe cemetery contains a monument to resistance fighters killed by the Nazi regime: a tall cross rises above a stone block bearing the names of Klaus Bonhoeffer, Hans John, Richard Kuenzer, Carl Adolf Marks, Wilhelm zur Nieden, Friedrich Justus Perels, Rüdiger Schleicher and Hans Ludwig Sierks, who were involved in the 20 July 1944 assassination plot against Adolf Hitler and were executed by the SS in a nearby park on the night of 22/23 April. The monument also commemorates Dietrich Bonhoeffer and Hans von Dohnanyi, who were killed in concentration camps, and Justus Delbrück, who survived the war but died soon after in Russian captivity.

Next to the memorial, a marker points to a mass grave of 64 people killed near the cemetery in the last days of the war, many of them unknowns.

About Royal Rosamond Press

I am an artist, a writer, and a theologian.
This entry was posted in Uncategorized. Bookmark the permalink.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.