Zita and her family were smuggled to America with the help of
Aristides de Sousa Mendes, whose kin owned the “Jews land” in South Carolina my kindred purchased. The Mendes are Sephardic Jews kin to King David. The Habsburgs held the title ‘King of Bohemia and Hungary, and fought a war with Louis Kosseth who was a good friend of Jessie Benton.
Kossuth was a Freemason, as was Alphonse Mucha whose huge canvases were also smuggled out Nazi Germany that had claimed Austria and the Czech Republic. Drew’s great grandfather, Colonel Thomas Hart Benton, the nephew of the Senator of the same name, saved Albert Pike’s library during the Civil War.
“Among his many other accomplishments, Mucha was also the restorer of Czech Freemasonry.”
I will now research if Kossuth and Mucha knew each other. The Hungarian Freemasons made up Jessie’s and John’s bodyguard.
The Habsburgs were great Patrons of the Art. The Fremont’s held a salon at Black Point where Mark Twain sent the night. Here is a Masonic artistic Legacy that has come down to my niece, Drew Benton, the daughter of the Getty Museum muralist, and cousin of the artist Thomas Hart Benton, the mentor of Jackson Pollack.
So much for Rosemary calling her four children “Bohunks” and chortling.
“He who laughs last – laughs best!”
Did you know Marie Antoniette was a Habsburg? I own a Habsburg lip. I now understand what the Seer meant, when she saw people coming into my being and “take! Take! Take!” I powerless to stop them for reasons unknown. Well, it appears much of my family history is a Masonic Secret – many partake of – but me, until, recently!
Mucha’s canvases look likes scenes out of Star Wars, they as big as a movie screen! Now, what does my kindred Carrie Fisher got, in regards to the screenplay about Christine Rosamond Benton – and her Artistic Legacy!
All’s well, that ends well!
Otto von Habsburg (20 November 1912 – 4 July 2011), also known by his royal name as Archduke Otto of Austria, was the last Crown Prince of Austria-Hungary from 1916 until the dissolution of the empire in 1918, a realm which comprised modern-day Austria, Hungary, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, and parts of Italy, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Ukraine. He remained the Crown Prince of Hungary until also the deposition of the Habsburgs in Hungary in 1921. He subsequently became the pretender to the former thrones, Head of the Imperial House of Habsburg, and Sovereign of the Order of the Golden Fleece in 1922. He resigned as Sovereign of the Golden Fleece in 2000 and as head of the Imperial House in 2007.
The eldest son of Charles I, the last Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, and his wife, Zita of Bourbon-Parma, Otto was born as third in line to the thrones, as His Imperial and Royal Highness Archduke and Prince Imperial Otto of Austria, Prince Royal of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia. With his father’s accession to the thrones in 1916, he was himself likely to become the Emperor. As his father never abdicated, Otto was considered by himself, his family and Austro-Hungarian legitimists to be the rightful Emperor-King from 1922. Had the dual monarchy still existed, had his father still died young, and had he still lived to the age of 98, he might have had an 89-year reign, the longest verifiable by date.
Otto was active on the Austrian and European political stage from the 1930s, both by promoting the cause of Habsburg restoration and as an early proponent of European integration—being thoroughly disgusted with nationalism—and a fierce opponent of Nazism and communism. He has been described as one of the leaders of the Austrian anti-Nazi resistance. After the 1938 Anschluss, monarchists were severely persecuted in Austria, and—sentenced to death by the Nazis—Otto fled to the United States, with a visa issued by Aristides de Sousa Mendes.
Aristides de Sousa Mendes do Amaral e Abranches, GCC, OL (July 19, 1885 – April 3, 1954; Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐɾiʃˈtidɨʒ dɨ ˈsowzɐ ˈmẽdɨʃ]) was a Portuguese diplomat. He ignored and defied the orders of his own government for the safety of war refugees fleeing from invading German military forces in the early years of World War II. Between June 16 and June 23, 1940, he frantically issued Portuguese visas free of charge, to over 30,000 refugees seeking to escape the Nazi terror, 12,000 of whom were Jews.
Working feverishly with Rabbi Kruger, the two remaining Sousa Mendes sons and their mother, and a few refugees, the consul formed an assembly line that processed visas all through that day and well into the night. They made whatever changes were necessary to the usual procedure: the consul signing with just his surname, not registering the visas or collecting fees, and stamping visas on pieces of paper. The sense of urgency was heightened even more when Marshal Philippe Pétain announced that day that France would sign a peace agreement with Germany. The assembly line kept working all through the following day. A delegate of the House of Habsburg, after having to wait his turn in the seemingly endless line, left with 19 visas for the imperial family of the Archduke, who later returned in person to obtain an additional stack of visas for Austrian refugees.
On into June 19, the assembly line marched on through stacks and stacks of visas, even as the city was bombed by German planes. At this point, Sousa Mendes rushed to the consulate at Bayonne, near the Spanish border where his visas were being honored for the crowds rushing out of the country. Finding that consulate overwhelmed, he took over responsibility from his subordinate there, Consul Machado, and set up a second assembly line to process thousands more exit documents. (Machado reported this behavior to Portugal’s ambassador to Spain, Pedro Teotónio Pereira, whose maternal grandfather was German, who favored Germany and worried that accepting those unacceptable to Hitler would ruin Portugal’s relationship with Franco; Teotónio Pereira promptly set out for the French border.)
31 Mar 2011 Leave a Comment
by Purple Mind in Uncategorized
In this post I am going to talk about one of the most representative painter and designer for the Slavic people, Alphonse Mucha. The essay is organized as it follows: in section 2 I am going to talk about Alphonse Mucha’s life and history; in sections 3 and 4 I will be approaching the subject of his style and what made him a representative figure for the Art Nouveau movement and about how his work has influenced the history of the Slavic people and section 5 contains a conclusion and some final remarks.
Alphonse Maria Mucha (born July 24, 1860- died July 14, 1939) was a Czech artist and “one of the leading figures in Art Nouveau” (Hutchinson Dictionary of the Arts, no date). Mucha studied art in Prague, Munich and Paris where he also worked as a graphic designer, creating posters for the actress Sarah Berndhardt, his first, and most famous being Gismonda (image 1), he also started designing textiles, furniture, ceramic plaques and jewellery. His most famous work though, remains The Epic Slav (image 2), a set of 20 paintings illustrating the history of the Slav people, set that took almost twenty years to finish. He donated his Slav Epic paintings to the city of Prague before he died, in 1939.
Mucha was a very gifted artist that “tried so hard to bring art into the lives of people- his greatest passion- by designing first class posters, advertisements, labels for soap, toothpaste and butter, mosaic panels for municipal swimming pools, crockery, textiles, jewellery (…) and every conceivable kind of illustrative work” (Paul Johnson, 2003), this is one of the most obvious arguments to include him in the Art Nouveau movement which, by definition sais that “an artist should work on everything from architecture to furniture design so that art would become a part of everyday life. By making beauty and harmony a part of everyday life, artists make people’s lives better” (Art Nouveaum, no date) . this is what Mucha wanted to do with the help of his wonderful designs and with the help of the colours he uses, that give the viewer a warm feeling of summer, Mucha manages to give his artwork an unique, harmonic feeling “his fascination with the sensual aspects of female beauty- luxuriantly flowing strands of hair, heavy- lidded eyes, and full-lipped mouths- as well as his presentation of the female image as ornamental reveal the influence of the English Pre-Raphelite aesthetic on Mucha” (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2010) and, his work can be also compared with Lautrec’s, both having a passion for representing women in their illustrations. But, unlike Lautrec who simplifies the human body form, reducing it to simple shapes, Mucha’s artwork presents “idealized images of young women with long flowing hair, with a patterned flower border” (Hutchinson Dictionary of the Arts, 2008).
What separates Mucha from the rest of the Art Nouveau artists, in my opinion, is his passion for the Slavic culture and the hard work he put into creating the most representative paintings for the Slavic culture, The Epic Slavic which “has twenty paintings, ten on Czech subject, ten on broader Slavic Themes” (Derek Sayer, 1998). Although, the masterpiece had some bad reactions coming from the political side “the public of Mucha’s homeland received the Epic with mixed emotions, one can even say with disfavour from the most part” (Jiri Mucha, 1967), we can’t remain speechless in front of such a beautiful and expressive manifestation of art and nationalism, and, in my opinion, Mucha managed, with his talent and vision to give another meaning to the word “nationalism”. The irony that surrounds these amazing paintings is that is such a nationalist country as the Czech Republic, there was a big lack of interest in exhibiting his paintings, a great gift for the city of Prague.
Among his many other accomplishments, Mucha was also the restorer of Czech Freemasonry.
Louis Kossuth, the Hungarian patriot and Mason, was ever the stalwart champion of the spiritual, moral, social, and political ideals which serve as the core of the democratic ideal.
One of the joys of living in or near Washington, D.C., is the opportunity to meet people from all nations of the world. Over the years, friends from a wide variety of countries have helped me understand mankind’s universal pursuit of personal liberty and national freedom. Everywhere and always, man has sought to liberate himself from the yoke of spiritual, political, and economic tyranny. Almost invariably in Western culture, this impetus has been advanced by Freemasonry.
Only recently, for instance, a good friend of mine, knowing my lifelong dedication to Freemasonry, excitedly showed me a book she had discovered while visiting her homeland, Hungary. To her amazement, many of the great men who had labored to free her country from Austrian, Russian, and other political dominations had been Freemasons. The most prominent of these was Lajos (Louis) Kossuth (1802-1894). His life is an eloquent, dramatic testimony to Freemasonry and its influence for good on the world scene in the 19th century.
As early as 1837, Bro. Kossuth, then age 35, was imprisoned by the Austrian government on political charges. During his three years in prison, he taught himself English, and, upon his release, he became the editor of a prominent Hungarian daily newspaper, Pesti Hirlap. The publication became a forum for his liberal views and a major influence on the public, leading to significant constitutional changes as a result of the bloodless revolution in Hungary in March 1848. Kossuth was made minister of finance in the first Hungarian government which was responsible to an elected Parliament.
When the Habsburg “camarilla” repealed the new laws and sent an army to crush Hungary, Kossuth raised a defense force which defeated and expelled the invaders by May 1849. The Hungarian Parliament dethroned the Habsburg dynasty in 1849 and elected Kossuth Governor of the country. All that prompted the Russian Czar, the leading member of the “Unholy Alliance,” to dispatch 300,000 soldiers to help his imperial brother, Francis Joseph. That intervention settled the fate of an independent Hungary. On August 11, 1849, Kossuth fled first to Turkey, where he was under government supervision for a year, and then to England.
The fame of his cause circled the globe, and the United States pressed for his release, even sending the U.S.S. Mississippi to bring him to London. Greeted there as a hero of liberty, Kossuth campaigned for Hungarian freedom at every opportunity. His military bearing and oratorical ability won audiences to his cause, and in 1851, he journeyed to America, which he saw as the birthplace of modern liberty. Reflective of the popularity he enjoyed, Kossuth was greeted as “Freedom’s Angel” by the famous American writer Ralph Waldo Emerson who welcomed him to Concord, Massachusetts. Horace Greeley, the famed journalist, called Kossuth a leader “of the first rank,” and the poet John Greenleaf Whittier hailed him as “the noblest guest the Old World’s wrong has given to the New World of the West.”1 Little wonder that a monumental statue of Kossuth, according to its inscription, was “Erected by a Liberty Loving Race of Americans of Magyar Origin to Louis Kossuth, the Great Champion of Liberty” on Riverside Drive in New York City.2
Kossuth was the first foreigner after Lafayette to be invited to address both Houses of Congress in January 1851. Speaking everywhere to large audiences, Kossuth traveled throughout the United States and was naturally drawn to Freemasonry. In 1851, he wrote an extraordinary letter to Brother Ferdinand Bodmann, Worshipful Master of Lodge No. 133, Cincinnati, Ohio. He wrote:
To the Worshipful Master, Wardens and Brethren of Cincinnati Lodge No. 133 of Free and Accepted Masons. The petition of the subscriber respectfully showeth that having long entertained a favorable opinion of your ancient institutions, he is desirous of being admitted as member thereof if found worthy. Being an exile for liberty’s sake, he has now no fixed place of residence, is now staying in Cincinnati; his age is 49 ½ years, his occupation is to restore his native land, Hungary, to its national independence, and to achieve by community of action with other nations, civil and religious liberty in Europe.”3
When I first heard their story of how Colonel Thomas Hart Benton, Grand Master of Masons in Iowa, had saved Albert Pike’s Masonic library from destruction during the Civil War, I was nearly certain that I had discovered a “Masonic myth.” However, after extensive research and much help from many people, I was amazed, and extremely happy, to learn that, far from being a myth, this was a true instance of the power of the “mystic tie.”
It is due to history and to the memory of a dear friend and Brother that an incident, of no little importance, touching our great Library, the gift to the Supreme Council of General Pike, be placed upon our records, that honor may be given to whom honor is due.
“I had the facts, first by letter, and then, upon his ‘return from the war,’ from the lips of Colonel Thomas Hart Benton, Jr., at the time Grand Master of Masons in Iowa (my superior officer). Thomas H. Benton, Jr. (“nephew of his uncle” of that name), ex-State Senator, Superintendent of Public Instruction, and Grand Master 1860-’63, entered the Union Army as Colonel of the 29th Iowa Infantry and was later promoted to the rank of brevet brigadier-general, and in command of a division encamped for a time at Little Rock, Arkansas.
“It was at this period, when the passions of the Union soldiers werearoused against General Pike, who was at the head of the Indians in the Confederate (Rebel, as they said) Army, that the soldiers of his division determined to burn the house and everything, including the valuable library of General Pike, wherever found. The Grand Master, Colonel Benton, hearing of this, rushed to its rescue, and to guard against, any further attempt at its destruction, made the General’s house his headquarters and placed a guard over his library.
“But for this noble deed of Iowa’s Grand Master, my bosom friend for half a century, this Supreme Council would today be without, instead of possessing, one of the most rare and valuable libraries in the land.
“General Benton was too modest to publish this, save to his intimatefriends. Of him we may say, in General Pike’s own words, “He has lived – the fruits of his labors live after him;” and you, my Brothers, are enjoying them, as it was this service that made it possible for General Pike in later years to place his library in our House of the Temple and dispose of it, as he did, for his honor and our good.”
There is, however, one mistake in the statement which BrotherRosenbaum criticizes, and that is in calling Thomas H. Benton thecommanding general. At that time our Thomas H. Benton was a colonel, commanding the second brigade of a the third division, under General Steele. (See page 471, part 1, Volume 29, Series 1 of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies.) Also, the Thomas H. Benton referred to as colonel at the time the Federal troops took possession at Little Rock, was at that time Grand Master of Iowa and was serving his second year. He was in the army at the time of the Grand Lodge communication in 1863 and his deputy acted for him in presiding over the Grand Lodge.
Thomas H. Benton was a nephew of the Senator Thomas H. Benton, to whom Brother Rosenbaum refers.
Every Grand President and President throughout the universe is bound to summon and convene his Knot on the 17th of March in each year, that being the anniversary festival of St. Patrick, the patron of the Order, except it fall on a Sunday, in which case the meeting shall be convened for the following day.
No Friendly Brother may quarrel with or affront another Brother
In 1987 in a Bank vault in Eugene Oregon, a very large painting (4×8
ft.) titled ‘The Last Audience of the Habsburgs’ was found. It is now
in the University of Oregon Museum that is 300 yards from where I
live. This painting was smuggled out of Austria rolled up in a
Persian carpet. It is unfinished. The young children of this Royal
family, who made most of Europe’s history, are like faded ghosts,
some mere outlines, begun, but never finished. Here lie the
empire “upon which the sun never sets.” for it appears I am their
kin, the Rougemont name at the trunk of their tree, at its middle,
and crowning its zenith.
Kings of HungaryThe kingship of Hungary remained in the Habsburg family for centuries; but as the kingship was not strictly inherited (Hungary was an elective monarchy until 1687) and was sometimes used as a training ground for young Habsburgs, the dates of rule do not always match those of the primary Habsburg possessions. Therefore, the kings of Hungary are listed separately.
 Albertine line: Kings of HungaryAlbert, king of Hungary 1437–1439
Ladislaus V Posthumus, King of Hungary 1444–1457
 Austrian Habsburgs: Kings of HungaryFerdinand I, king of Hungary 1526–1564
Maximilian I, king of Hungary 1563–1576
Rudolf I, king of Hungary 1572–1608
Matthias II, king of Hungary 1608–1619
Ferdinand II, king of Hungary 1618–1637
Ferdinand III, king of Hungary 1625–1657
Ferdinand IV, king of Hungary 1647–1654
Leopold I, king of Hungary 1655–1705
Joseph I, king of Hungary 1687–1711
Charles III, king of Hungary 1711–1740
 House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Kings of Hungary
Coat of arms of the House of Habsburg-LorraineMaria Theresa, queen of Hungary 1741–1780
Joseph II, king of Hungary 1780–1790
Leopold II, king of Hungary 1790–1792
Francis, king of Hungary 1792–1835
Ferdinand V, king of Hungary and Bohemia 1835–1848
Francis Joseph I, king of Hungary 1867–1916
Charles IV, king of Hungary 1916–1918
 Kings of BohemiaThe kingship of Bohemia was from 1306 a position elected by its nobles. As a result, it was not an automatically inherited position. Until rule of the Ferdinand I Habsburgs didn’t gain hereditary accession to the throne and were shifted by other dynasties. Hence, the kings of Bohemia and their ruling dates are listed separately.
 Main lineRudolph I, king of Bohemia 1306–1307
 Albertine line: Kings of BohemiaAlbert, king of Bohemia 1437–1439
Ladislaus Posthumus, king of Bohemia 1453–1457
 Austrian Habsburgs: Kings of BohemiaFerdinand I, king of Bohemia 1526–1564
Maximilian I, king of Bohemia 1563–1576
Rudolph II, king of Bohemia 1572–1611
Matthias, king of Bohemia 1611–1618
Ferdinand II, king of Bohemia 1621–1637
Ferdinand III, king of Bohemia 1625–1657
Ferdinand IV, king of Bohemia 1647–1654
Leopold I, king of Bohemia 1655–1705
Joseph I, king of Bohemia 1687–1711
Charles VI, king of Bohemia 1711–1740
Maria Theresa, queen of Bohemia 1743–1780
 House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Kings of BohemiaFrom the accession of Maria Theresa, the kingship of Bohemia became united with the Austrian possessions.
Joseph II, king of Bohemia 1780–1790
Leopold II, king of Bohemia 1790–1792
Francis, king of Bohemia 1792–1835
Ferdinand V, king of Bohemia 1835–1848
Francis Joseph I, king of Bohemia 1848–1916
Charles III, king of Bohemia 1916–1918
 Queens Consort of FranceFrom the 16th through the 18th centuries, the greatest non-Habsburg power in Europe was usually France. As a result, in usually futile attempts to either unite Europe under the Habsburg family or to prevent French enmity, Habsburg daughters were wed to successive kings of France.
 Pre-division HabsburgsEleanor of Austria, Infanta of Spain (1498–1558), wife of King Francis I of France.
 Austrian HabsburgsElisabeth of Austria (1554–1592), wife of King Charles IX of France
 Spanish HabsburgsAnne of Austria, infanta of Spain, (1601–1666), wife of King Louis XIII
Maria Theresa of Spain (1638–1683), wife of King Louis XIV
 Habsburg-LorraineMarie Antoinette (1755–1793), wife of King Louis XVI
Marie Louise (1791–1847), second wife of Emperor Napoleon I.