Conservatism & Glorious Revolution

What William of Orange did was challenge the Divine Right of Kings to rule, and empower a Parliament of the People. This gave a voice to folks – who were mostly religious – and believed their little lives were swayed in a divine manner. When little people run King Jesus for public office in proxy – everything goes to hell in hand basket.

In Britain, being a member of the Peerage is important, because if you are a Lord or Lady you are expected to serve the Crown and Church – as well as the Empire. This goes for your children – and unborn grandchildren! This is why they, and myself, put so much importance on genealogies, because ones Royal Service is rewarded in so many ways. Loyalty to the Sovereign – is divine! Everyone wants to be rewarded for their loyalty! This is where it goes south, because this reward is not ordained. So, the entitled began to vote on who is not worthy, hoping in a process of eliminantion – they will prevail!

The Glorious Revolution planted the seed of Conservatism. If the Prestons and the Pattons were British subjects, then – powerful people would take note. They, and folks in their Family Tree, would get the nod, be tapped for special privilages. Has the Queen taken a peek at the children of Dame Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor? Am I one of The Chosen?

Jon Presco

English conservatism

English conservatism, which was called Toryism, emerged during the Restoration (1660–1688). It supported a hierarchical society with a monarch who ruled by divine right. However the Glorious Revolution (1688), which established constitutional government, led to a reformulation of Toryism which now considered sovereignty vested in the three estates of Crown, Lords, and Commons.[7]

According to conservative historians, Richard Hooker was the founding father of conservatism, the Marquess of Halifax is commended for his pragmatism, David Hume is commended for his conservative mistrust of rationalism in politics, and Edmund Burke is considered the leading early theorist. They have, however, been accused of selectivity in choosing writers who present a moderate and defensible view of conservatism. For example, Hooker lived before the emergence of conservatism, Halifax did not belong to any party, Hume was not involved in politics, and Burke was a Whig. In the 19th century, Conservatives rejected Burke because of his defense of Catholic emancipation, and found inspiration in Bolingbroke instead. John Reeves, who wrote a Tory response to the French Revolution, is ignored.[8] Conservatives also objected to Burke’s support of the American Revolution, which the Tory Samuel Johnson, for example, attacked in “Taxation No Tyranny”.

Conservatism developed in Restoration England from royalism. Royalists supported absolute monarchy, arguing that the sovereign governed by divine right. They opposed the theory that sovereignty derived from the people, the authority of parliament and freedom of religion. Robert Filmer’s Patriarcha: or the Natural Power of Kings, which had been written before the English Civil War, became accepted as the statement of their doctrine. Following the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the conservatives, known as Tories, accepted that the three estates of Crown, Lords, and Commons held sovereignty jointly.[9] However Toryism became marginalized during the long period of Whig ascendency.[10] The party, which was renamed the Conservative Party in the 1830s, returned as a major political force after becoming home to both paternalistic aristocrats and free market capitalists in an uneasy alliance.[11]

Edmund Burke was the private secretary to the Marquis of Rockingham and official pamphleteer to the Rockingham branch of the Whig Party.[12] Together with the Tories, they were the conservatives in the late 18th century United Kingdom.[13] Burke’s views were a mixture of liberal and conservative, with the crucial caveat that the meaning of these terms in this time period was markedly different from popular conceptions of the present day. He supported the American Revolution but abhorred the violence of the French Revolution. He accepted the liberal ideals of private property and the economics of Adam Smith, but thought that economics should be kept subordinate to the conservative social ethic, that capitalism should be subordinate to the medieval social tradition and that the business class should be subordinate to aristocracy.[14] He insisted on standards of honor derived from the medieval aristocratic tradition, and saw the aristocracy as the nation’s natural leaders.[15] That meant limits on the powers of the Crown, since he found the institutions of Parliament to be better informed than commissions appointed by the executive.[16] He favored an established church, but allowed for a degree of religious toleration.[17] Burke justified the social order on the basis of tradition: tradition represented the wisdom of the species and he valued community and social harmony over social reforms.[18]

Edmund Burke (1729–1797)In the 19th century, conflict between wealthy businessmen and the aristocracy split the British conservative movement, with the aristocracy calling for a return to medieval ideas while the business classes called for laissez-faire capitalism.[19]

Although conservatives opposed attempts to allow greater representation of the middle class in parliament, in 1834 they conceded that electoral reform could not be reversed and promised to support further reforms so long as they did not erode the institutions of church and state. These new principles were presented in the Tamworth Manifesto which is considered by historians to be the basic statement of the beliefs of the new Conservative Party.[20]

Some conservatives lamented the passing of a pastoral world where the ethos of noblesse oblige had promoted respect from the lower classes. They saw the Anglican Church and the aristocracy as balances against commercial wealth.[21] They worked toward legislation for improved working conditions and urban housing.[22] This viewpoint would later be called Tory Democracy.[23] However since Burke there has always been tension between traditional aristocratic conservatism and the wealthy business class.[24]

By the late 19th century, the traditional business supporters of the UK Liberal Party had joined the Conservatives, making them the party of business and commerce.[25]

In the United States, conservatism developed after the Second World War when Russell Kirk and other writers identified an American conservative tradition based on the ideas of Edmund Burke. However many writers do not accept American conservatism as genuine and consider it to be a variety of liberalism.[26]

Joseph de Maistre (1753-1821)[edit] Continental conservatismSee also: Latin Conservatism
This section requires expansion.

Another form of conservatism developed in France in parallel to conservatism in Britain. It was influenced by Counter-Enlightenment works by men such as Joseph de Maistre and Louis de Bonald. Latin conservatism was less pragmatic and more reactionary than the conservatism of Burke.[citation needed] Many Continental or Traditionalist conservatives do not support separation of Church and state, with most supporting state recognition of and cooperation with the Catholic Church, such as had existed in France before the Revolution.

Eventually conservatives added patriotism and nationalism to the list of traditional values they support. German conservatives were the first to embrace nationalism, which was previously associated with liberalism and the Revolution in France.[27]

Today, movements that use the name “conservative” have a wide variety of views.

[edit] Variants[edit] Liberal conservatismLiberal conservatism is a variant of conservatism that combines conservative values and policies with classical liberal stances.[28] As these latter two terms have had different meanings over time and across countries, liberal conservatism also has a wide variety of meanings. Historically, the term often referred to the combination of economic liberalism, which champions laissez-faire markets, with the classical conservatism concern for established tradition, respect for authority and religious values. It contrasted itself with classical liberalism, which supported freedom for the individual in both the economic and social spheres.

Over time, the general conservative ideology in many countries adopted economic liberal arguments, and the term liberal conservatism was replaced with conservatism. This is also the case in countries where liberal economic ideas have been the tradition, such as the United States, and are thus considered conservative. In other countries where liberal conservative movements have entered the political mainstream, such as Italy and Spain, the terms liberal and conservative may be synonymous. The liberal conservative tradition in the United States combines the economic individualism of the classical liberals with a Burkean form of conservatism (which has also become part of the American conservative tradition, such as in the writings of Russell Kirk).

A secondary meaning for the term liberal conservatism that has developed in Europe is a combination of more modern conservative (less traditionalist) views with those of social liberalism. This has developed as an opposition to the more collectivist views of socialism. Often this involves stressing what are now conservative views of free-market economics and belief in individual responsibility, with social liberal views on defence of civil rights, environmentalism and support for a limited welfare state. This philosophy is that of Swedish Prime Minister Fredrik Reinfeldt. In continental Europe, this is sometimes also translated into English as social conservatism.

[edit] Conservative liberalismConservative liberalism is a variant of liberalism that combines liberal values and policies with conservative stances, or, more simply, the right wing of the liberal movement.[29][30][31] The roots of conservative liberalism are found at the beginning of the history of liberalism. Until the two World Wars, in most European countries the political class was formed by conservative liberals, from Germany to Italy. The events such as World War I occurring after 1917 brought the more radical version of classical liberalism to a more conservative (i.e. more moderate) type of liberalism.[32]

[edit] Libertarian conservatismMain article: Libertarian conservatism
Libertarian conservatism describes certain political ideologies within the United States and Canada which combine libertarian economic issues with aspects of conservatism. Its five main branches are Constitutionalism, paleolibertarianism, neolibertarianism, small government conservatism and Christian libertarianism. They generally differ from paleoconservatives, in that they are in favor of more personal and economic freedom.

Agorists such as Samuel Edward Konkin III labeled libertarian conservatism right-libertarianism.[33][34]

In contrast to paleoconservatives, libertarian conservatives support strict laissez-faire policies such as free trade, opposition to any national bank and opposition to business regulations. They are vehemently opposed to environmental regulations, corporate welfare, subsidies, and other areas of economic intervention. Many of them have views in accord to Ludwig von Mises.[citation needed] However, many of them oppose abortion, as they see it as a positive liberty and violates the non-aggression principle because abortion is aggression towards the fetus.[35]

[edit] Fiscal conservatismFiscal conservatism is the economic philosophy of prudence in government spending and debt.[36] Edmund Burke, in his ‘Reflections on the Revolution in France’, argued that a government does not have the right to run up large debts and then throw the burden on the taxpayer:

…[I]t is to the property of the citizen, and not to the demands of the creditor of the state, that the first and original faith of civil society is pledged. The claim of the citizen is prior in time, paramount in title, superior in equity. The fortunes of individuals, whether possessed by acquisition or by descent or in virtue of a participation in the goods of some community, were no part of the creditor’s security, expressed or implied…[T]he public, whether represented by a monarch or by a senate, can pledge nothing but the public estate; and it can have no public estate except in what it derives from a just and proportioned imposition upon the citizens at large.

[edit] Green conservatismGreen conservatism is a term used to refer to conservatives who have incorporated green concerns into their ideology.[37] One of the first uses of the term green conservatism was by former United States Republican House Speaker Newt Gingrich, in a debate on environmental issues with John Kerry.[38][39] Around this time, the green conservative movement was sometimes referred to as the crunchy con movement, a term popularized by National Review magazine and the writings of Rod Dreher.[40] The group Republicans for Environmental Protection seeks to strengthen the Republican Party’s stance on environmental issues, and supports efforts to conserve natural resources and protect human and environmental health.

The Conservative Party in the United Kingdom under David Cameron has embraced a green agenda:[citation needed], including a tax on workplace car parking spaces, a halt to airport growth, a tax on ‘gas-guzzling’ 4x4s and restrictions on car advertising. The measures were suggested by The Quality of Life Policy Group, which was set up by Cameron to help fight climate change[citation needed].

[edit] Cultural and social conservatismMain articles: Cultural conservatism and social conservatism
Cultural conservatives support the preservation of the heritage of one nation, or of a shared culture that is not defined by national boundaries.[41] The shared culture may be as divergent as Western culture or Chinese culture. In the United States, the term cultural conservative may imply a conservative position in the culture war. Cultural conservatives hold fast to traditional ways of thinking even in the face of monumental change. They believe strongly in traditional values and traditional politics, and often have an urgent sense of nationalism.

Social conservatism is distinct from cultural conservatism, although there are some overlaps. Social conservatives believe that the government has a role in encouraging or enforcing what they consider traditional values or behaviors. A social conservative wants to preserve traditional morality and social mores, often through civil law or regulation. Social change is generally regarded as suspect.

A second meaning of the term social conservatism developed in the Nordic countries and continental Europe. There it refers to liberal conservatives supporting modern European welfare states.

Social conservatives (in the first meaning of the word) in many countries generally favor the pro-life position in the abortion controversy and oppose embryonic stem cell research (particularly if publicly funded); oppose both eugenics and human enhancement (transhumanism) while supporting bioconservatism;[42] support a traditional definition of marriage as being one man and one woman; view the nuclear family model as society’s foundational unit; oppose expansion of civil marriage and child adoption rights to couples in same-sex relationships; promote public morality and traditional family values; oppose atheism,[43] especially militant atheism, secularism and the separation of church and state;[44][45][46] support the prohibition of drugs, prostitution, premarital sex, non-marital sex and euthanasia; and support the censorship of pornography and what they consider to be obscenity or indecency.

Some conservatives also support harsh, eye for an eye-based punishment such as the death penalty and long prison terms over punishments that focus on rehabilitation.[47] However, a significant minority of conservatives, including Ron Paul, oppose the death penalty, and some conservative Catholics and members of the peace churches [48] oppose the death penalty because of their beliefs in Christian forgiveness and the sanctity of life.

[edit] Religious conservatismSee also: Religious right (disambiguation), Christian Right, and Fundamentalist Islam
Religious conservatives principally seek to apply the teachings of particular religions to politics, sometimes by merely proclaiming the value of those teachings, at other times by having those teachings influence laws.[49]

About Royal Rosamond Press

I am an artist, a writer, and a theologian.
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