The Princess Victoria, Princess Royal (Victoria Adelaide Mary Louisa; 21 November 1840 – 5 August 1901) was the eldest child and daughter of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and Prince Albert. She was created Princess Royal of the United Kingdom in 1841. She became German Empress and Queen of Prussia by marriage to German Emperor Frederick III. After her husband’s death, she became widely known as Empress Frederick (or, in German: “Kaiserin Friedrich”).
Victoria with her father, AlbertPrincess Victoria was born on 21 November 1840 at Buckingham Palace, London. Her mother was the reigning British monarch, Queen Victoria, the only daughter of George III’s fourth eldest son, Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn and Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. Her father was Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. She was baptised in the Throne Room of Buckingham Palace on 10 February 1841 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, William Howley. Her godparents were her grand-aunt in law Queen Adelaide, her grand-uncle King Leopold I of Belgium, her paternal grandfather Ernst I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (for whom The Duke of Wellington, Tory Leader in the Lords, stood proxy), her maternal grand-uncle The Duke of Sussex, her maternal grand-aunt The Duchess of Gloucester and her maternal grandmother The Duchess of Kent.
As a daughter of the sovereign, Victoria was automatically a British princess with the style Her Royal Highness, styled HRH The Princess Victoria (and in addition being heiress presumptive to the throne of the United Kingdom before the birth of her younger brother Prince Albert, later Edward VII on 9 November 1841). In 1841, the Queen created Victoria Princess Royal, giving her an honorary title sometimes conferred on the eldest daughter of the sovereign. Victoria was then styled HRH The Princess Royal. To her family she was known simply as Vicky.
The education of Victoria was closely supervised by her parents. She was precocious and intelligent, unlike her brother Albert Edward. She was taught to read and write before the age of five by her governess Lady Lyttelton and to speak French by her French nursery maid. The Princess Royal learned French and German from various governesses, and science, literature, Latin, and history from Sara Ann Hildyard. Prince Albert tutored her in politics and philosophy.
 MarriageSee also: Wedding dress of Princess Victoria, Princess Royal
In 1851, Victoria met her future husband, Prince Frederick William of Prussia (18 October 1831 – 15 June 1888), when he and his parents were invited to London by Queen Victoria and Prince Albert to attend the opening of the Great Exhibition. At the time, Frederick, the son of Prince William of Prussia and Princess Augusta of Saxe-Weimar, was second in line to the Prussian throne (after his father). The couple became engaged in 1855 while Frederick was on a visit to Balmoral; Victoria was just fourteen, while her future husband was a young man of twenty-four.
The Prussian Court and Buckingham Palace publicly announced the engagement on 19 May 1857. Seventeen-year-old Victoria married Frederick, at Queen Victoria’s insistence, at the Chapel Royal, St. James’s Palace, on 25 January 1858. The marriage was both a love match and a dynastic alliance. The Queen and Prince Albert hoped that Victoria’s marriage to the future king of Prussia would cement close ties between London and Berlin, and possibly lead to the emergence of a unified and liberal Germany. At the time of their wedding, Londoners chanted “God save the Prince and Bride! God keep their lands allied!”
 Crown Princess of Prussia
Victoria in 1867, portrait by Franz Xaver WinterhalterIn January 1861, on the death of his childless uncle Frederick William IV of Prussia and the accession of his father as King William I, Prince Frederick became Crown Prince of Prussia, Victoria therefore became Crown Princess. The new Crown Prince and Crown Princess, however, were politically isolated; their liberal and Anglophile views clashed with the authoritarian rule of the Prussian minister-president, Otto von Bismarck. Unfortunately, despite their efforts to educate their son, Wilhelm, in British attitudes of democracy, he favoured his German tutors in aspiring to autocratic rule and thus became alienated from his parents, suspecting them of putting Britain’s interests first.
During the three Wars of German Unification – the 1864 Prussian-Danish War, the 1866 Austro-Prussian War, and the 1870–71 Franco-Prussian War – Victoria and Frederick strongly identified with the cause of Prussia and the North German Confederation. Their sympathies created a rift among Queen Victoria’s extended family, since Victoria’s younger brother, the Prince of Wales, was married to Princess Alexandra of Denmark, the elder daughter of Christian IX of Denmark, who was also reigning duke of the disputed territories of Schleswig and Holstein. At Versailles on 18 January 1871, the victorious princes of the North German Confederation proclaimed a German Empire with King William I of Prussia as the hereditary German Emperor (Deutscher Kaiser) with the style Imperial and Royal Majesty (Kaiserliche und Königliche Majestät); Frederick and Victoria became German Crown Prince and German Crown Princess with the style Imperial and Royal Highness (Kaiserliche und Königliche Hoheit).
Upon hearing that his cousin George Vhad changed the name of the British royal house to Windsor, Wilhelm remarked that he planned to see Shakespeare’s play The Merry Wives of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
On 2 December 1919, Wilhelm wrote to Field Marshal August von Mackensen, denouncing his abdication as the “deepest, most disgusting shame ever perpetrated by a person in history, the Germans have done to themselves”, “egged on and misled by the tribe of Judah … Let no German ever forget this, nor rest until these parasites have been destroyed and exterminated from German soil!”He advocated a “regular international all-worlds pogrom à la Russe” as “the best cure” and further believed that Jewswere a “nuisance that humanity must get rid of some way or other. I believe the best would be gas!”
In the wake of the German victory over Polandin September 1939, Wilhelm’s adjutant, General von Dommes, wrote on his behalf to Hitler, stating that the House of Hohenzollern “remained loyal” and noted that nine Prussian Princes (one son and eight grandchildren) were stationed at the front, concluding “because of the special circumstances that require residence in a neutral foreign country, His Majesty must personally decline to make the aforementioned comment. The Emperor has therefore charged me with making a communication.” Wilhelm stayed in regular contact with Hitler through General von Dommes, who represented the family in Germany. Wilhelm greatly admired the success which Hitler was able to achieve in the opening months of the Second World War, and personally sent a congratulatory telegram on the fall of Paris stating “Congratulations, you have won using mytroops.” In a letter to his daughter Victoria Louise, the Duchess of Brunswick, he wrote triumphantly, “Thus is the pernicious entente cordial of Uncle Edward VII brought to nought.” Nevertheless, after the Nazi conquest of the Netherlands in 1940, the aging Wilhelm retired completely from public life. In May 1940, when Hitler invaded Holland, Wilhelm declined an offer from Churchill for asylum in the UK, preferring to die at Huis Doorn.
During his last year at Doorn, Wilhelm believed that Germany was the land of monarchy and therefore of Christ and that England was the land of Liberalism and therefore of Satan and the Anti-Christ. He argued that the English ruling classes were “Freemasonsthoroughly infected by Juda”. Wilhelm asserted that the “British people must be liberated from Antichrist Juda. We must drive Juda out of England just as he has been chased out of the Continent.”He believed the Freemasons and Jews had caused the two world wars, aiming at a world Jewish empire with British and American gold, but that “Juda’s plan has been smashed to pieces and they themselves swept out of the European Continent!” Continental Europe was now, Wilhelm wrote, “consolidating and closing itself off from British influences after the elimination of the British and the Jews!” The end result would be a “U.S. of Europe!”In a letter to his sister Princess Margaret in 1940, Wilhelm wrote: “The hand of God is creating a new world & working miracles … We are becoming the U.S. of Europe under German leadership, a united European Continent.” He added: “The Jews [are] being thrust out of their nefarious positions in all countries, whom they have driven to hostility for centuries.”Also in 1940 came what would have been his mother’s 100th birthday, of which he ironically wrote to a friend “Today the 100th birthday of my mother! No notice is taken of it at home! No ‘Memorial Service’ or… committee to remember her marvellous work for the…welfare of our German people… Nobody of the new generation knows anything about her.”
In 1933 August Wilhelm was given a position within the Prussian state, and became a member of the German Reichstag. However, after the establishment of a dictatorship, the National Socialists no longer needed the former prince, who himself had secretly hoped “that Hitler would one day hoist him or his son Alexander up to the vacant throne of the Kaiser”. Thus in spring 1934 he was denied direct access to Hitler and by the summer after the Röhm affair, he found himself in the wilderness politically. This did not, however, reduce his adoration of Hitler. On 31 June 1939 he was made an Obergruppenführer, the second highest rank in the SA, but after making derogatory remarks about Joseph Goebbels in private, he was denounced in 1942. From then on, he was completely sidelined and was also banned from making public speeches.
At the beginning of February 1945, in the company of the former Crown Princess Cecilie, August Wilhelm fled the approaching Red Army, going from Potsdam to Kronberg to take refuge with his aunt Princess Margaret of Prussia, a sister of his father.
 Post World War II
At the end of the Second World War, on 8 May 1945, August Wilhelm was arrested by United States soldiers and imprisoned on the premises of the Flak-Kaserne Ludwigsburg. “At the denazification trial [Spruchkammerverfahren] of 1948, to the question whether he meanwhile had at least repudiated National Socialism, he asked uncomprehendingly: ‘I beg your pardon?'” He was thus categorized as “incriminated” by the denazification court of the internment camp of Ludwigsburg, and was sentenced to two and a half years’ hard labour. Due to his confinement since 1945 in an internment camp, he was considered to have served his sentence.
Immediately after his release, however, new proceedings were instituted against him. There was an arrest warrant against him from a court in Potsdam in the Soviet zone. He was never arrested, as soon after he became seriously ill and died at a hospital in Stuttgartat the age of 63. August Wilhelm was buried in Langenburg in the cemetery of the princes of Hohenlohe-Langenburg. During his lifetime, he had produced a son:
Prince Alexander FerdinandAlbrecht Achilles Wilhelm Joseph Viktor Carl Feodor of Prussia(26 December 1912 – 12 June 1985). He, in turn, married and had two children.
Prince Alexander Ferdinand of Prussia(Alexander Ferdinand Albrecht Achilles Wilhelm Joseph Viktor Karl Feodor; 26 December 1912 – 12 June 1985) was the only son of Prince August Wilhelm of Prussia and his wife Princess Alexandra Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg.
Nazi party and military career
As of November 1939, Prince Alexander Ferdinand was a first lieutenant in the Air Force Signal Corps, stationed in Wiesbaden.
Like his father, who became a prominent supporter of the Nazi party, Alexander Ferdinand also became an early supporter. Prince August had secret hopes that Chancellor Adolf Hitler”would one day hoist him or his son Alexander up to the vacant throne of the Kaiser”. The support father and son gave to the emerging party caused strong disagreements among the Hohenzollerns, with Wilhelm II urging them both to leave the Nazi party.
In 1933 Alexander Ferdinand quit the SA and became a private in the German regular army. In 1934, Berlinreports leaked out that the prince quit the SA because Hitler had chosen 21-year old Alexander Ferdinand to succeed him as “head man in Germany when he [Hitler] no longer can carry the torch”. The report went on to say however that Joseph Goebbelswas expected to oppose the prince’s nomination.
As many German princes, becoming the targets of Hitler’s mistrust, were removed from their commands in the military, Prince Alexander Ferdinand was the only Hohenzollern allowed to remain at his post.
Stephan Alexander Dieter Friedrich Prinz von Preußen was born on 30 September 1939 at Dresden, Sachsen, Germany.1 He married, firstly, Heide Schmidt, daughter of Dr. Ernst Arthur Julius Schmidt and Gertrud Elisabeth Auguste Gundlach, on 28 February 1964 at Wiesbaden, Hessen, Germany.1 He and Heide Schmidt were divorced in 1976. He married, secondly, Hannelore-Maria Kerscher, daughter of Leo Kerscher and Martha Sufcak, on 19 June 1981 at Kochel-am-See, Bayern, Germany.1
He was a member of the House of Hohenzollern. He is the son of Alexander Ferdinand Prinz von Preußen and Armgard Weygand.1
Child of Stephan Alexander Dieter Friedrich Prinz von Preußen and Heide Schmidt
Stephanie Viktoria Luise Irmgard Gertrud Prinzessin von Preußen1 b. 21 Sep 1966