Note the Nehushtan in the palm tree in the secession banner of South Carolina where many Huguenots came to settle.
Follow the Silk Weavers
By Vicky Moon
My Rapalje Ancestors were Crypto Jews.
Posted by: Vicky (ID *****4134) Date: November 26, 2010 at 08:15:27
This is not documented. It’s my theory.
Follow the Silk Weavers
By Vicky Moon
Biblical history tell us:
He made a screen for the doorway of the tent, of blue and purple and scarlet materiel, and fine twisted linen, the work of a weaver.
1 Chronicles 4:21
The sons of Shelah the son of Judah: Er the father of Lecah, and Laadah the father of Mareshah, and the families of the house of them that wrought fine linen, of the house of Ashbea.
Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary
Laadah . the father . of the house of them that wrought fine linen-Here, again, is another incidental evidence that in very early times certain trades were followed by particular families among the Hebrews, apparently in hereditary succession. Their knowledge of the art of linen manufacture had been, most probably, acquired in Egypt, where the duty of bringing up families to the occupations of their forefathers was a compulsory obligation, whereas in Israel, as in many parts of Asia to this day, it was optional, though common.
Some suggest that the name ‘Huguenot’ is derived from that of a legendary king named Hugon or HUGO. The Protestants at Tours assembled at night near the gate of King Hugo whom the people regarded as a spirit. A monk in a sermon said that the Protestants should be called Huguenots since like the spirit-king Hugo they only went out at night. They were called ‘Huguenots’ and the name became popular from 1560 onwards. Hugo is another form of the Hebrew name “Haggi”. Haggi who was one of the sons of Gad (Genesis 46:16). Others say the name Huguenot is derived in part from a French term meaning “gathering”. If this is correct, it has a similar meaning to that of the name Gad (derived from “Gedud”) in Hebrew.
Fabrics used as shrouds and clothing by Bar Kochba rebels who retreated into the cave in the Judahite desert in 135 CE, were identified by Israeli archeologist, Professor Yigael Yadin Professor Yadin requested the Dexter Chemical Corporation to study the colors of the fabrics. “Never before,” stated the astonished Dr. Sidney Edelstein, the principal of Dexter and chairman of the Archives Committee of the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorants, “had such a large varied, old and precisely dated collection of dyed materials been available for analysis.” Dr. Edelstein, together with Dr. David Abrahams, developed a new “positive” technique of separating the elemental dyes from the old fabrics and subjected the dyes to infrared spectrography. They produced several fascinating conclusions about all the colors used. I believe the most significant of their findings that was found was that the lasting intensity of the black colors, matches the blacks of the 17th century Gobelin tapestries of FRANCE. This may be the most important clue we have, in the quest to follow the silk weavers of the old silk road. Gobi Desert, Persia, Mesopotamia, Levant, Byzantine, Japan, India, Persia, Byzantine, Greece, Italy, Sicily and France.
They were baptized Catholic in France under Spanish Catholic rule, followers of John Calvin, then converted to Protestant in France, fled to England to avoid persecution and given the surname Rapalje by the Dutch when they moved from England to the Netherlands. In the “Memorial history of the city of New York“ Volume I, by James Grant Wilson 1892, the ship “New Netherland” and 30 Walloon families were placed on her and it was planned in advance how they were to be distributed into various settlements. A certain Simon Jansen De Rapallo or Rapalje according to the Dutch spelling having first settled on Staten Island removed to Walloon Bay in the spring of 1625.
There is a town of Rapallo, Italy. The name of a town as a surname indicated a probable Jewish heritage in Italy, at that time. Although, this wasn’t exclusive to Jewish people, the De signifies from, thus distinguishing Simon from Rapallo. Rapallo is an important seaport just south of Genoa. In the sixteenth century, Rapallo became one of the ports through which Spanish Jews escaped the attention of the Spanish Inquisitor. It is known, there were Jewish artisans, merchants, dyers and silk weavers. Some also owned homes in the towns and farms. Around the tenth century some tombstone inscriptions were composed of Hebrew. If the name Simon de Rapallo is true, then the Rapalje’s may have had some connection in this area. John Blyth Dobson in his article “The Fraudulent Coligny-Rapalje Descent” said the Rapalje’s were not from Rapallo, Italy, nor were they related to the Coligny’s. Although he explains in detail how they are not related to the Coligny’s he does not explain Simon De Rapallo.
Joris Rapalje was a fabric worker, born in 1604 Valenciennes, France and died in 1662 Brooklyn, New York. Rapelje is the phonetic rendering by the Dutch, and Joris is Dutch for George. I have found numerous other name spellings of Rapalje as well. Rapparier means to match or get the pair to. Appareil means preparation. Joris married Catalina Trico. They were my 11th great grandparents. Joris came from a family of fabric weavers. Some of Joris ancestors fled to England with their families to escape religious persecution. Some returned to Valenciennes where Joris was born.
Catalina Trico also came from a family of fabric weavers. The Trico’s (Tricaud), were from Douay, in Henault, a city of weavers, not far from Valenciennes. Jerome Trigaud, was the father of Catalina. The Tricaud’s invented Trico fabric. The Tricaud’s also moved to England. In the book “The Raparlier Family in France, The Netherlands, and New Netherlands” Recorded by Louis P. DeBoer, Historian 1917, states Valenciennes was an industrial and commercial city. It was almost entirely inhabited by silk and wool weavers, who obtained their rough silk from Southern France and Northern Italy and their wool from England and Scotland.
The southeast of France was once called ‘Gothia’ due to the Goths having ruled and settled there. Amongst the Goths in French ‘Gothia’ there were movements to Judaize. The Goths themselves believed that they were descended from Israel. Jews from the region of Gothia were also called ‘Goth’ and the terms ‘Jew’ and ‘Goth’ were used synonymously. The historian Arthur J. Zuckerman “A Jewish Princedom in Feudal France, 768-900″, 1972, believed that Jews were referred to as ‘Goths’ because they often came from the region of Narbonne which was also known as ‘Gothia’. Jewish Marranos , descended from Sephardic Jews from Spain, who became Huguenots. Jews and Huguenots in France tended to band together.
John Mandeville, 1499 identified the Goths of history with the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel. The Tribe of Reuben had neighbored Gad and was exiled with it. Consequently, a certain overlapping may be noticed between groups identified as part of Gad and those seen to have come from Reuben. Reuben appears to have been the dominating factor in the Frank federations of West European history especially that of France.
Difficult trades were disliked by Egyptians, Greeks and Romans. Such practices of trades as silk weaving were confined to slaves or foreigners. Babylonian Jews learned the art of silk production (sericulture) from the Chinese, where the manufacture of silk originated.
Originally Chinese, central Asian, Jewish, Byzantine and Islamic, the Jews were silk route pioneers between Persia and China in the fifth century BCE. In 586-530 BCE Hellenized Jews left Judea and moved to Greece. Silk was called seres by the Romans and given the name sericulture which means the breeding of silk worms brought into Europe in the 5th century by 2 Monks who smuggled them in bamboo slips. The Arabs introduced sericulture to Palermo, Spain, where the Jews established the silk industry.
Sarcenic (Arabian) conquest influenced arts of Spain, France and Italy. In 700 the Saracens were Byzantine and N. African. In 840 the Jews of Greece were very prosperous in rearing silk works, planting mulberry trees and in silk weaving. The best dyers and weavers were in Thebes, Greece.
According to the European Textile Network Website’s timeline, weaving began in 925 AD when the wool dyers guilds was established in Germany. The rise of this guild system is instrumental in the growth of the textile industry in Flanders, Brabant, France, Italy and Germany. Raw wool was brought up by merchants in boats up rivers from the coast to inland towns in Flanders, paying taxes to different lords on the way. In 961 indoor cloth halls were established in Flanders in the Briges, Ghent and Ypres area. In the 11th century, England became the raw wool supplier for the early wool processing centers in Flanders, and Florence. In 1000, Flemish weavers began manufacturing wool tapestries in Valenciennes and other surrounding towns. The most important cloth-weaving towns, were those of Flanders, where people lived by the textile trade. The Cloth Halls of Valenciennes are mentioned already in 1070. They were not under the jurisdiction of a guild, but were considered as independent artists. In 1284, 200 monasteries are recorded as exporting wool to Flanders.
George of Antioch, the Greek Lenvantine admiral of King Roger of Sicily raided Thebes and Corinth, Greece in 1147, and carried off Jewish silk workers and dyers of purple. King Roger formed a silk industry in Sicily. Jewish artisans who practiced these arts were prizes won by armed force. In 1174, the culture of silkworm started in Italy and France.
Benjamin of Tudela traveled between 1159 and 1172 and kept a diary of his travels. He wrote of the Jewish dyers in Brindisi, silk weavers of Thebes, tanners of Constantinople and glass workers of Aleppo and Tyre. He said there were just as many Jews in Greece as there were in Palestine. The largest Jewish community in Greece was in Thebes, where he found cloth dyeing, weaving and making silk garments. At the time they were known as “Romaniotes.”
After King Roger, Frederick II became king of Sicily in 1198. He too brought in Jews from the Balkans, as well as the isle of Jerba off the coast of North Africa. From 1212-50 he protected the Jews and secured them the monopoly of silk weaving. He was unthankful for their contribution and left for the east, crowning himself King of Jerusalem in 1229. When he returned to Italy and dissatisfied with the revenue of the silk industry, he took complete control of it. Conditions for the Jews deteriorated. In the year 1290 those who did not want to be baptized caused a massive exit of Jews.
In 1307-1370 thousands of craftsman exited Italy to France and Germany. Lyon, and other cities in France harbored refugee silk makers from Italy. In 1480 Italian silk weavers had settled in French cities of Tours and Lyons and there were silk centers in Gages, St. Jean, and Languedoc, a Huguenot area. Some left Italy returned to Greece where they were welcomed. At this time Sicily was devoid of professed Jews. Some stayed in Tuscany and others departed northward to Rapallo and other west coast ports.
Some believe Jews merged into Catholicism in France. Jews were expelled from France in the twelfth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries, in Bordeaux and in southern France, yet some converts remained behind. After 1481, the Sephardic remnant was enlarged by infusion of New Christians, from Spain and Portugal. Virtually all of them were judaizers-marranos. Many Jewish families have found Huguenots, in their ancestry research.
Huguenots were French Protestants who went to the Reformed Church that was established in 1550 by John Calvin. At that time they preferred to be called Reformers not Huguenots. Later on the name Huguenot was said with honor. At that time, the trade routes over land were not safe in France. This caused a sea-trade relationship with Italian city-states of Genoa, Venice and Florence via the Flemish sea ports of Bruges and Antwerp. Lace, created by the two completely different techniques, of Italy and Flanders is similar. There were political and economic ties between Italy and Flanders. Objects resembling lace bobbins have been found in Roman remains, but there are no records of Roman lace making. The craft may have begun in the first half of the 14th century in Flanders.
Back in the sixteenth century there were groups of Christians in Europe who were persecuted by both the Catholic Church and the State Churches. In England they were called Puritans, in France, Huguenots, and in French speaking Belgium and surrounding areas, they were called Walloons. There was great religious fervor in Western Europe in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. The Reformation started in Germany and spread westward to the British Isles, Netherlands, Belgium, and France. Many wanted deliverance from the Catholic and State sponsored Churches.
Abraham D. Lavender, Ph.D. is a member of the Society for Crypto-Judaic Studies, the Association for the Social Scientific Study of Jewry, and the Huguenot Society of South Carolina and author of many books. In “Searching for Crypto-Jews in France: From Spanish Jews to French Huguenots,” He believes Huguenots were actually Jews, because both Jews and Huguenots believed they were the direct descendants of the twelve tribes of ancient Israel. Their cultures the appearance and customs of a Huguenots and a Jew seemed the same. The Protestant churches were called Temples. They wore similar attire, and shared the same first names and surnames. The Jews and the Huguenots lived and worked in the same neighborhoods. Because of religious persecution in Spain, Portugal and France, Jews converted to Christianity and remained Jews behind the scenes.
Becoming Protestants gave them freedom. The Sephardic and Huguenot areas of settlement overlapped. Christianity, was closer to Judaism. Reformists often used old testament names, such as Abraham, Isaac, Daniel, David, Jacob, Samuel, and Salomen. Catholics used names of Saints. Abraham was the only old testament name used by Catholics. There is a connection between naming patterns and ethnic/religious identity. Crypto-Judaism is the secret adherence to Judaism while publicly professing to be of another faith. The Huguenots, of Southern France, referred to themselves as living in “The Desert” which they likened to the Hebrews living in the Desert. The Huguenot shield had a burning bush in the middle, with God’s name written in Hebrew.
Ruth Shecter, an a author and researcher at the Beer Sheva University in Israel says that the Calvinists were basically Hebraic in character and mind-set especially when compared to neighboring peoples and religious groups.
In an interview of Joseph Brandes, a retired history professor in the New Jersey Jewish Standard, the Standard asked him this question. “What are some of the roots of anti-Semitism?” Brandes replied, “One of them is religion. In the early years of Christianity, the first Christians were Jews. Consequently there was a kind of kinship between Jews and Christians, where people who called themselves Jews could also believe in Jesus as a god. And that kind of relationship continued for several centuries — until Christians became worried about the success of the Muslim world. Christianity was also being challenged by people [the Christians] called heretics — that what stakes were for, to burn the heretics. So, more and more, the Christian church focused on cleansing itself of its own heretics, including the French Huguenots.”
There was a known immigrant named Claude Dottegnie from Antwerp to England recorded in 1571 as a silk worker from Italy but had lived in Antwerp for several years before moving to London in 1559. My relatives, Bon Rapareillet, brother of Jean Rapareillet born in 1540, is listed as a merchant from Valenciennes and as a silk weaver when he lived in England 1568-1571. Bon’s name was changed to Browne Aperlie on a list in London, Bon Rapparlier on another list and first name Good on yet another list. Bon means good in English. From 1500-1571, 2% of the immigrant silk workers to London were from Italy. 30% of immigrant silk workers from Walloon provinces. The book “Immigrants and the industries of London, 1500-1700” by Lien Luu has a list with Bon and other’s names. She states that the immigrants from Valenciennes to England excelled in light cloths, linen muslims and laces, not silk. Yet the majority of immigrants from Valenciennes after arriving in England were silk weavers. Tornai just north of Valenciennes was noted for manufacturing light woolens and was one of the most important export centers of cloth and by the mid 16th century Tournai had moved into satins, gold cloths and silk damask. She states that refuges from Valenciennes were a close knit group with family ties.
The Walloon cities of Valenciennes and Tournai were at the forefront in the development of Calvinism in the Netherlands. Perhaps if they were merchants in France and silk weavers in England it was because they knew that industry.
Catalina who was married to Joris Rapalje had a sister Margariet Trico married to first husband Jean de la Fontaine dit Wicart. Her second husband was Isaak Minicts. Catalina’s half sister Marie Flamen married Phillip de la Fontaine, a fabric manufacturer. Their son Philip de la Fontaine II second wife was Cornelia Hartman sister of Hartman Hartmansz II. His father was the Hartman Hartmansz, a surgeon, who was married to Elizabeth Kemp the daughter of Hendrick Aertsz Kemp of Amsterdam. He sold lace and silk goods traveling to Germany, Riga, and Scandinavia. His brother was Rombout Kemp, a seargent in the military. I found an Ambrosia Kemp who was a leather merchant of Spanish leather listed on the same page as the other Kemps were all important buyers of Auctions in the 17th century Amsterdam. They were wealthy people who had extensive art in their possessions as well as diamonds and other valuable jewelry. Artus Kemp was the mother of Henrick Aertsz Kemp.
Also important to note is that some of Phillip de la Fontaine and Marie Flamen’s children had Biblical names of Sara, Daniel, Abraham, Isaac, Phillip, and Sacarie. Sacar is Hebrew in origin and it’s meaning is recompense or wages. Sacar is also the name of two men in the Bible. Sacar was the father of Ahiam, one of the mighty warriors in David’s army.
They knew Rembrandt. Hartman Hartmansz sat for Rembrandt’s painting “The Anatomy Lesson” in 1632. Hartman is holding the manuscript in his hand with the names of the men in the picture. He was 1 of the 7 students in the painting.
Rombout Kemp was a Reformer and a cloth merchant. Rombout in 1635-1653 was a member of the organization for the poor. He liked to read and fathered 12 children. Rombout sat for Rembrandt in his painting “Nightwatch” 1642. He was one of the two sergeants in the painting.
Ambrosia Kemp’s daughter Jannetje Kemps married Elias Van Cuelen who was a Reformer, a merchant, and sat for the artist Dirck Dirksz Sanvoort in the portrait painting of 1643 “Elias van Cuelen.” Not only were they buyers of fine art, they had a special kinship with these famous artists as models.
Erwin Panofsky, the German-Jewish art historian, took a special interest in Rembrandt’s connection to Jews. About a picture thought to be painted from a Jewish model, he commented, “The way Christ gestures with his arm undoubtedly has something Jewish about it.”
Tribal Identifications: Gad
GOTHS IN GERMANY
Many Hugeonots went to Berlin in the State of Prussia in Mecklenburg. This region had once been a Gothic center and from there many migrated to the USA. Between 1850 and 1890 approximately 146,000 (one out of every three) Mecklenburgers emigrated overseas, most going to the United States of America. The reason for leaving was dissatisfaction with the prevailing social order and conditions. The emigrants represented the remnants of the Goths of Israelite origin who were finally separating themselves out from their non-Israelite brethren. The same principle applies to the rest of Europe. In all seven million people left Germany alone. Some few people of Israelite origin may have remained and it is reported that in Berlin more Jews were given shelter than any other German city. Nevertheless the overwhelming majority of Hebrew ancestry had left the country.
The Huguenots from Hugo or Haggi of Gad
The Huguenots are identified as the Calvinist Protestants of France though they probably existed before Calvin. Ruth Shecter, an author and researcher at the Beer Sheva University in Israel says that the Calvinists were basically Hebraic in character and mind-set especially when compared to neighboring peoples and religious groups. The Huguenots were persecuted and many of them fled to other lands. The name Huguenotis derived from that of a legendary king named Hugon or HUGO. The 11th edition of the Encyclopedia Brittanica quotes from Henri Estienne (1566) who said that the Protestants at Tours used to assemble at night near the gate of King Hugo whom the people regarded as a spirit. A monk in a sermon said that the Protestants should be called Huguenots since like the spirit-king Hugo they only went out at night. They were therefore called Huguenots and the name became popular from 1560 onwards. HUGO WAS INDEED THE SOURCE OF THE NAME! Hugo is another form of the name Haggi son of Gad. The chief concentrations of Huguenots today in France are in Vendee in the west (once known as Pictavia), in the region of Paris, and in regions situated along the course of the Rhone River in the southeast. In the past Strasbourg in the east was once important. As mentioned the Huguenots were persecuted and suffered from massacres and expulsions. After 1685 about 400,000 Huguenots emigrated to Prussia, Holland, Britain, Switzerland, and North America. Among the Boer (Dutch-dominated) settlers of South Africa there were many of Huguenot origin.
The legend of King HUGO was known from the southeast area of France. The Huguenots displayed strong Israelite characteristics, appear to have been mainly of one ethnic cast, and came from areas in France where the Goths of Gad had once been present: The southeast of France was once called “Gothia” due to the Goths having ruled and settled there. Amongst the Goths in Gothia there were movements to Judaize. The Goths themselves believed that they were descended from Israel. Jews from the region of Gothia were also called Goth and the terms Jew and Gothwere used synonymously! The historian Arhur J. Zuckerman believed that Jews were referred to as Goths because they often came from the region of Narbonne which was also known as Gothia. One opinion holds that many of the Goths in Southeast France and Spain at some early stage converted to Judaism! A few Jewish Marranos became Hugeonots. The Hugeonots on the whole were a very positive and valuable element in French society. During the Second World War the Hugeonots of France and the Calvinists of Holland probably more than any other group risked their lives to save Jews from extermination by the Germans.
Gad in the British Isles: recently posts to “Brit-Am Now” have advanced proofs placing Gad in Scotland and Ireland:e.g. “Brit-Am Now” 265 item 4. Stephen Coneglan: Scotland is Gad: Steven Coneglan said that:
<<Scripture shows the people of Gad to be a warrior tribe particularly adept at highland combat (1 Chronicles 12: 8). The epithet 'having faces like lions' seems quite well suited to the Highlanders of Scotland…Gad is associated with the Mazzaroth sign of Aries, and the attributes of this sign are warlike.
…Gad kept sheep. They, along with Reuben, were the only tribes that took to their father's pastoral profession… The Scottish have always been renowned sheepkeepers. Indeed, many of them travelled half-way around the world to settle in the South Island of my country, New Zealand, to continue raising sheep in the Otago Ranges. Gad and Reuben are the quintessential sheepkeepers of Scripture, and New Zealand is the quintessential sheepkeeping nation in the world (about 20 sheep to every person!).
The name Gad is, according to Strong's Concordance and Lexicon, pronounced 'gawd'….Gord is so Scottish that the name alone acts as the chief waymark of identification.
There is another fact that brings the matter to the point of being beyond reasonable doubt. Check out Israel's landmark blessing of Gad at Genesis 49: 19. The sense of this blessing is easy to make out. Gad will first be attacked, but he will strike back. Or, if you attack me, I will strike back.
Compare this now with the Scottish motto: 'Nemo me impune lacessit', meaning 'no one attacks me with impunity', or, if you attack me, I will strike back. The motto clinches it for me, although the other evidences are more than sufficient…..
Regards. Stephen Coneglan
[Steven cited additional evidence concerning the Tribal stone and colors but this evidence is not based on the general consensus concerning their applications]
Gad in the British Isles
The article below speaks of Gad in general. We located Gad chiefly in Sweden but offshoots were also present in the British Isles and elsewhere: Concerning the British Isles we had the Getae (of Gad) recorded as amongst the Anglo-Saxon invaders of Britain, theGadeni around Edinburgh in Scotland, the Gaedhal in ancient Scotland and Ireland, the Geddingas amongst the Anglo-Saxons;the Cauci (from Chaggi) in Ireland; the Hastings who were Vandal group amongst the Angles who invaded England and Scotland; We had Gad in Sweden and Swedish rulers in parts of England, and the Scottish being sometimes referred to as 'Ysgoths" which name could mean "Goths of the Isles". Also a small enclave of Goths on the shores of the Black sea were equated with the Scottish.A few more details are given below. On the whole our understanding is that elements of all Israelite Tribes were to be found in the British Isles that nevertheless were dominated by the Tribes of Joseph. Eventually Ephraim was to be predominant in Britain and Manasseh in the USA.
Note the following article is Extracted from "The Tribes": The article could use some editing but the information is there and is both important and interesting and could be greatly expanded upon. I have since received additional informationthat adds to and enhances what is written below but will not substantially change it.
THE TRIBE OF GAD OR GOTH
THE DISPERSION OF GAD
The Tribe of Gad was exiled with Reuben and the half-tribe of Menasseh to Halah, Habor, the River of Gozan, and to Hara (1-Chronicles 5;26). Gad re-appeared as the Guti who were allied to the Saka and Gimiri (Cimiri) in Mesopotamia and the Zagros Mountain region. From this area the Guti split into known groups. One group went west to become the Geti of the Balkans. Ancient writers who lived at the time recognized that the Geti and the Goths were the same people. Another group of Goths was in the east, branching out from Hara in Eastern Iran. In the sphere surrounding the area of Harathe Gadites reappeared as the Pasar-Gadae, in the name Gadrosia, in the Gadanopydres of Carmania; and in the Gu-te (Goths) whose name is sometimes mistakenly transliterated from Chinese records as Yuehchi1. The Gu-te were known to the Western World as Massagetae. The Romans knew that the Massagetae were Goths though the term could also be applied to other peoples of the area. The name Goth itself means GAD and is another way of enunciating it in Hebrew while the Goths actually in some cases referred to themselves by the term "Gad" or something close to it such as "God" or "Godo" or GUDA. GADis recognized as a root occurring in Gothic toponomy ; i.e. the root "GAD" in a place-name is accepted by historians as evidence indicating that that place was probably once connected with the Goths. Gadites were also known in Scotland (as Gadeni) and Ireland as the Gaedhals.
THE GOTHS OF GAD
Goths were to be found amongst the sundry northern tribes who invaded England with the Anglo-Saxons and a Saxon group was known as the GEDDINGAS.
The main body of Gad was that associated with the Goths and with the so-called Nordic peoples. Goths were to settle in many lands but numerically they probably remained concentrated in Scandinavia and Sweden (Gotaland and Gothia) is the only place where today they can be distinguished as a specific people.
The sons of Gad (Genesis 46, Numbers 26) were Ziphion (Hebrew: Tsifion: ), Haggi (Chaggi), Shuni , Ezbon (Etsbon), Eri (Geri), Arodi and Areli . Ziphion (Tsiphion) is recalled in the Thaifalli who were close allies of the Goths. From the east they came westward with the Hun invasion and apparently settled in France6. The name of the second son, Haggi is close to that of Huga7 which name was applied to the Franks in the north.
The Franks consisted mainly of clans from Reuben with supplements from others, especially Menasseh. Nevertheless, the two tribes, Gad and Reuben, had been together on the other side of the Jordan and were also exiled together so that groups from one were to be found in the domain of the other. In an area associated with the Goths in eastern Scythia. Ptolemy's Map of central Scythia has a people north of the Jaxartes River named CACHAGE Scythae and this name too derives from Hagi or Chagi.¨ Likewise, Chagi is found in the CHAUKI (Hocings)8 who were a Frisian nation whose lands were overtaken in about 200 CE by Saxons coming west from Holstein. The Chauci were obliged to leave their lands and become amalgamated mainly with the Franks9 though some were absorbed by the Saxons10. Tacitus11 describes the Chauci as the noblest of German tribes, So constituted as to prefer to protect their vast domain by justice alone…yet they are ready with arms, and if circumstances should require with armies, men, and horses in abundance.There was also a people named Cauci in Celtic Ireland who were related to the Chauci on the Continent. The Batavia who settled in Holland were regarded as part of the Chauci. They form a contingent from Gad amongst the Dutch population. Pliny included the Chauci in the Ingueone group of German tribes together with the Cimbri and Teutoni. The Ingueones relate to Yngvi12. In mythology, Yngvi (of the Ingueone group) was a son of the god Odin and an ancestor of the Swedish kings whose dynasty was known as the Yinglings13. This association connects the Ingueones (Chauci, Teutons, and Cimbri) with the Swedes. The Cimbri were located by Ptolemy in Jutland where their name is recalled in the modern places of Himmerland and Himmersyssel14. [The sounds k, c, ch, and h, interchange in studies of that era, thus Cimmeror Kimmer becomes Himmer]. The name also occurs in Uppland Himbran (Uppsala in Sweden), Hymber in south Norway, and Himbrin and Himmerstein in Trondheim, also Norway. There is also Krimisham in Sweden as well as quite a few place-names containing the root-word "hammer" indicating a possible Cimbrian association. Simon Grunau15 (ca.1530) wrote that the Swedish Isle of Gothland was formerly known as Cymbria and that Goths had resettled it, in about 500 BCE, after being forced out of Italy which they had previously invaded. He also said that the name Bruthenia was given once to Northern Prussia as a result of Gothic settlement. Brutheniais probably a version of Britha name that means covenant and that accompanied the Cimmerians to Britain. The Cimbrians were traditionally descended from the Cimmerians (Gimiri) of old. The triumvirate of Saka, Gimiri, and Guti (Goths) had been known since the Assyrian era. In some respects this threesome overlapped the two-and-a-half-Tribes who had settled east of the Jordan, i.e. the Cimmerians partly from Carmi of Reuben, the Amyrgio-Sakae from Machir of half-Menasseh and the Guti from Gad.
The ancient Guti were paralleled in Scandinavia by the Geats or Goths. The name GUTI itself in Scandinavia was used synonymously with Goth16. The Gimiri (Cimmri) became the Cimbri who descended from them and who were spread throughout Scandinavia with a historical connection with Denmark. The Cimbri were close allies of the Teutons. Ptolemy located the Teutons south of the Saxones and north of the (Aggiloi) Anglii. The Teutons were tobe swept up in the Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain. The name Teuton is cognate with Teutarus who according to legend was a Scythian and taught Hercules archery. The term TEUTON is connected to that of Tahan, son of Ephraim, son of Joseph. A similar form TAHAT(cf. Numbers 26; 35, and 1-Chronicles 7; 20) was also known amongst the Tribe of Ephraim. Tahan and Tahat are considered to be related bodies17. The Saxons represent the SAKAE of old meaning the Scyths.
The sons of Gad were Ziphion and Haggi as well as Shuni, Ezbon, Eri, and Arodi, and Areli (Genesis 46;16). Haggi (Chaggi) and Eri (Geri) were represented in tribes of East Scythia who in the west became associated with the Goths and Suebians. Serica in Eastern Siberia was once the domain of the Eastern Suebi. This was prior to a drastic climatic change in that region. Also in Serica there dwelt a number of other groups who later reappeared in the west and who were of Israelite descent. One of these were the GARINAEI18, descendants of ERI (pronounceable as Geri) who reappeared as the GRANI of Sweden who were noticed by Jordanes19. The Greuthingi [also from Erii.e. Geri] were a section of the Goths who intermingled with the Ostrogoths on the Black Sea coast. They are the same people as the GREOTINGI whom Jordanes20 reported as being in Sweden. The Goths were traditionally considered to have come from Sweden. Modern research tends to the view that the initial base of the Goths was in Northern Poland but elite groups from Scandinavia settled amongst them and culturally influenced them.
WERE THE GOTHS IN BRITAIN???
The Gadeni of Scotland may have been derived from Gad. [Alternately they may have been connected to Benjamin, cf.Numbers 1:11] OF BENJAMIN; ABIDAN THE SON OF GIDEONI. ]
The Goths had some type of connection with Scotland and some English authors named them Ysgoths, this name could connote "Goths of the Island". Certain archaeologists believe that finds from the ship Sutton Hoo indicate the presence of a Gothic element amongst the Anglo-Saxons. In 1404 Archbishop Johannes de Gabonifontibus (who had been in England) reported: Two small nations are living along and around the Black Sea; the Thats and a few Goths. The Goths claim to have descended from the Scots and speak like the English22. The Thats were a branch of the original Teutons. The Teutons had been in Northern Germany and Denmark and were absorbed by the Anglo-Saxons. A section of the Thats by the Black Sea shores of Southern Russia practiced Judaism and are known as The Mountain Jews [Most of whom have since moved to Israel].
THE SONS OF GAD
And the sons of Gad; Ziphion, and Haggi, Shuni, and Ezbon, Eri, and Arodi, and Areli (Genesis 46; 16).
The children of Gad after their families; of Zephon, the family of the Zephoni: of Haggi, the family of the Haggi: of Shuni, the family of the Shuni:
Of Ozni, the family of the Ozni: of Eri, the family of the Eri:
Of Arod, the family of the Arodi: of Areli, the family of the Areli.
These are the families of the children of Gad according to those that were numbered of them, forty thousand and five hundred Numbers 26; 15-18).
DAN AND THE SONS OF GAD:
THE SHUNI OF SWEDEN
The DANS (DAN) who finally settled in Denmark formerly sojourned in Sweden23 within which land the Tribe of Gad predominated. Sweden was formed when the kingdom of the Swedish-Goths (Gautland) united with that of the Svea24. The Svea were known to the Latins as Suiones. Tacitus mentions, (Germania 44) The states of the SUIONES right out in the sea. They are powerful not only in arms and men but also in fleets. SUIONES(Svea) is similar to THE Hebrew Shuni the third son, whose name in Biblical times in the north was perhaps pronounceable as SUONI [Sfor SHcf. Judges 12;6 Siboleth instead of Shiboleth; and "u" or "wu" before "o"].
The union of Gad and Dan, who in Biblical times were close neighbors, was repeated in the Gauti and Dauni that, says Ptolemy, were on the Baltic coast.
The Goths were to dominate the region of Scythia, north of the Black Sea, and here river names, such as Don, Danaper (Dnieper), Danaster, and Danube, all bear witness to the presence of Dan. Strabo25 says expressly that the DANUBE was known to have received its name from the Scyths¨ . The Aorsi (from north of the Caucasus) were neighboured by the UDINI26 whose name is said to mean The DONS. Amongst Scythian (and Gothic) clans the name DAN or compounds of it is considered typical27.
DAN AND THE SONS OF GAD: THE ARODI AND ARELI OF NORWAY AND SWEDEN.
The Arodi and Areli of Gad were also once linked with Denmark of Dan. Denmark of the Danes was for a time ruled by the Hread-Goths or Hrodgoths28 who were either the same as, or at least related to, the HARUDI (Hardi). The Harudi from Denmark migrated to Hordaland29 in Norway in the 200s and 300s CE. Also once in Denmark were the ERULI (Harules) who were expelled somewhere between 100-500 CE30 and wandered extensively before finally returning to Scandinavia where some may have received part of their former patrimony in Denmark back while others (possibly the bulk) settled in Swedenê. The Herules are famous as a fierce, energetic, and knowledgeable people31. More than any other group they are considered to have been masters of the semi-secret Runic script. Runes in the early stages were especially associated with Gothic civilization that was reasonably cultured despite hostile and primitive surroundings. RUNIC letters originated in the Middle East and are derived mostly from the ancient HEBREW scriptY. Both the Harudi and Eruli (Harules) are related to sons of Gad, Harudi from the Arodi of Gad, and Eruli from Areli (Numbers 26; 17).
EZBON (ETSBON) ALSO CALLED OZNI
From the above it is apparent that the sons of Gad were represented in tribal groups which were part of, or somehow associated with, the Gothic nation. Most of these groups had representative settlers in Sweden: Ziphion was found in the Thaifali, who were Gothic-allies; Haggi appears in the Chauci and amongst the Hugi Franks and the Hocings of England, and the Yinglings of Sweden; Eri (Geri)u was represented by the Grani and Greotingi of Sweden and the Goths; Shuni (Suoni) by the Suiones of Sweden; Arodi by the Hreadgoths and Harudi; and Areli by the Eruli or Herules. The only son not accounted for so far is Ezbon (Etsbon) (Genesis 46;16) Etsbon of Gad fathered the Hasdingas32 who were a branch of the Vandals, marched together with the Goths33 and shared the same dialect and customs. A branch of the Hasdingas participated in the Anglo-Saxon invasions of Britain where they were known as the Hastings34.
Ezbon was also called Ozni (Numbers 26;16). His name is found in that of Osnabruch which is in West Germany but was once Frankish territory. The name Etsbon is recognizable in the Bastarnae and Hasdingas. The Bastarnae seem to have disappeared somewhere in France. The Bastarnae had been first reported as allied to the Goths and were referred to as GALATIANS. The appellation Galatian comes from the Hebrew Galaadi (i.e. Gilead) which was the name of a grandson of Menasseh whose territory in the Land of Israel had intermerged with the territory of Gad. In another sense GILEAD and Bashanwere names applied to the COMBINED territories east of the Jordan of half-Menasseh, Reuben, and GAD:
AND THE CHILDREN OF REUBEN AND THE CHILDREN OF GAD AND THE HALF TRIBE OF MANASSEH RETURNED, AND DEPARTED FROM THE CHILDREN OF ISRAEL OUT OF SHILOH, WHICH IS IN THE LAND OF CANAAN, TO GO UNTO THE COUNTRY OF GILEAD, TO THE LAND OF THEIR POSSESSION, WHEREOF THEY WERE POSSESSED, ACCORDING TO THE WORD OF THE LORD BY THE HAND OF MOSES (Joshua 22:9).